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Chapter 1 The Basics of Understanding Nutrition. True or False? 1. It is possible to have an appetite without being hungry. 2. Most people obtain information.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 The Basics of Understanding Nutrition. True or False? 1. It is possible to have an appetite without being hungry. 2. Most people obtain information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 The Basics of Understanding Nutrition

2 True or False? 1. It is possible to have an appetite without being hungry. 2. Most people obtain information about nutrition from health professionals. 3. The way people choose to live and eat can affect their health and quality of life as they age. 4. Vitamins and minerals supply calories 5. You can order a low-fat, balanced meal at a fast-food outlet. Ask Yourself:

3 True or False? 6. Healthful diets cost more than relatively unhealthful diets. 7. When a person suffers from malnutrition, it means he or she is taking in too few nutrients. 8. A nutritionist is a professional who is certified to advise people on nutrition. 9. The notion of eating insects repels people around the world. 10. The more current a dietary claim, the more you can trust its accuracy and reliability. Ask Yourself:

4 The Field of Nutrition Nutrition The study of foods, their nutrients and other chemical components, their actions and interactions in the body, and their influence on health and disease. About Nutrition: Newcomer on the scientific block Scientific discoveries of nutrients have mainly occurred in past one hundred years Billions of dollars spent each year to investigate the many aspects of nutrition

5 The Field of Nutrition Understanding the impact food has on our bodies by examining research in chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, genetics, immunology Nutrition-related fields include psychology, anthropology, epidemiology, geography, agriculture, ethics, economics, sociology, and philosophy

6 Translating Nutrition Health fraud: Conscious deceit practiced for profit, such as the promotion of a false or an unproven product or therapy. Quackery: Fraud. A quack is a person who practices health fraud. Quack = to boast loudly Some stores sell pills & potions touted as fat melters, energy boosters, & muscle builders.


8 The Nutrients in Foods Nutrients: Substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, maintenance, and repair. Essential nutrients: Nutrients that must be obtained from food because the body cannot make them for itself. Nonessential nutrients: Nutrients that the body needs, but is able to make in sufficient quantities when needed; do not need to be obtained from food. 6 classes of nutrients: 1.Carbohydrate 2.Fat 3.Protein 4.Vitamins 5.Minerals 6.Water

9 The Nutrients in Foods The energy-yielding nutrients: Carbohydrate Fat Protein Energy: the capacity to do work, such as moving or heating something. Calorie: the unit used to measure energy. Alcohol is not a nutrient but it does contain calories.

10 Caloric Values of Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat, and Alcohol

11 Vitamins, Minerals, and Water Vitamins Organic, or carbon-containing, essential nutrients vital to life and needed in minute amounts. vita = life amine = containing nitrogen Minerals: Inorganic compounds, some of which are essential nutrients. Water: Provides the medium for life processes.


13 Calorie Values Calorie value of carbohydrate, fat, & protein If you know the number of grams of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in a food, you can calculate the number of calories in it. For example, a deluxe fast food hamburger contains about 45 g of carbohydrate, 27 g of protein, and 39 g of fat Remember this number…

14 Percentage of Total Energy Intake The percentage of your total energy intake from carbohydrate, fat, and protein can then be determined by dividing the number of calories from each energy nutrient by the total calories, and then multiplying your answer by 100 to get the percentage

15 Nutrition and Health Promotion Past History: Malnutrition: Any condition caused by an excess, deficiency, or imbalance of calories or nutrients. Diseases of Deficiency: Caused by taking in too little of one nutrient or another. Diseases of deficiency have virtually been eliminated in the U.S. due to an abundant food supply and fortification.

16 Nutrition and Health Promotion Present Problems: Overnutrition Calorie or nutrient over-consumption severe enough to cause disease or increased risk of disease; a form of malnutrition. Degenerative disease Chronic disease characterized by deterioration of body organs as a result of misuse and neglect; poor eating habits, smoking, lack of exercise, and other lifestyle habits often contribute to degenerative diseases, including heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes.


18 Not all diseases are equally influenced by diet.

19 Lifestyle Elements Associated with Longevity 1.Avoiding excess alcohol 2.Not smoking 3.Maintaining a healthy weight 4.Exercising regularly 5.Sleeping 7 to 8 hours a night 6.Eating breakfast 7.Eating nutritious, regular meals



22 Okinawan twin sisters at age 106 Okinawans enjoy one of the longest life spans on earth. 1.Enough is Enough 2.Moderation and a Healthful Lifestyle Are Key Cultural Values 3.Psychological and Spiritual Health Matters. Eat Well Be Well

23 A National Agenda for Improving Health & Nutrition Health Promotion: Helping people achieve their maximum potential for good health 1.Getting people to eat healthful diets 2.Be physically active 3.Get regular rest 4.Develop leisure-time hobbies for relaxation 5.Strengthen social networks with family and friends 6.Achieve a balance among family, work, and play


25 The Longevity Game – page 14 Start at the top line—age 78, the average life expectancy for adults in the United States today. For each of the 11 lifestyle areas add or subtract years as instructed. If an area doesn’t apply, go on to the next one. If you are not sure of the exact number to add or subtract, make a guess. START WITH78 1. Exercise 2. Relaxation 3. Driving 4. Blood Pressure 5. 65 and working 6. Family History 7. Smoking 8. Drinking 9. Gender 10. Weight 11. Age 12. Seatbelts Your Final Score:

26 Numerous factors influence choices: Hunger, appetite, and food habits Nutrition knowledge, health beliefs/concerns, and practices Availability, convenience, and economy Advertising and the media Early experiences, social interactions, and cultural traditions Personal preference, taste, and psychological needs Values, such as political views, environmental concerns, and religious beliefs Understanding Our Food Choices

27 Hunger The physiological need for food. Appetite The psychological desire to eat, which is often but not always accompanied by hunger.

28 Understanding Our Food Choices Availability Americans enjoy an abundant food supply Resources to maintain a large agricultural industry and import a wide variety of foods An abundant food supply has been linked to degenerative diseases Degenerative diseases are sometimes referred to as diseases of affluence

29 Understanding Our Food Choices Income, Food Prices, and Convenience Low incomes make it difficult to buy enough food to meet minimum nutritional needs Undernutrition Severe under-consumption of calories or nutrients leading to disease or increased susceptibility to disease; a form of malnutrition. Many people perceive that a healthy diet costs more. Does it cost more than convenience food?

30 Perceived Barriers to Healthful Eating 1.Healthy foods are not always available from fast-food and take-out restaurants 2.It costs more to eat healthy foods 3.Too busy to take the time to eat healthfully 4.Too much conflicting information about which foods are healthy and which foods are not 5.Healthy foods don’t taste as good 6.The people I usually eat with do not eat healthy foods

31 The Savvy Diner 1.Buy local and in season 2.Shop from a list 3.Read ingredients & Nutrition Facts 4.Use “sell by” or “best if used by” dates 5.Shop the perimeter of the grocery store

32 Understanding Our Food Choices Advertising and the Media Television and radio commercials, magazines and newspapers rank among the most influential sources of diet and nutrition information This, in turn affects our food choices Advertising is not always created with the consumer’s best interest in mind Media information can vary in its reliability


34 Understanding Our Food Choices Social & Cultural Factors Social group A group of people, such as a family, who depend on one another and share a set of norms, beliefs, values, and behaviors. Culture Knowledge, beliefs, customs, laws, morals, art, and literature acquired by members of a society and passed along to succeeding generations. Ethnic cuisine The traditional foods eaten by the people of a particular culture.


36 Understanding Our Food Choices Personal Values or Beliefs Making choices based on a larger world view  Environmentally conscious  Boycott certain manufacturers for political reasons  Sustainability A society’s ability to shape its economic and social systems to maintain both natural resources and human life, and it involves building locally based, self- reliant food systems.

37 Understanding Our Food Choices Food Preferences are Personal… Related to positive experiences Aversions to certain foods Tied to psychological needs Yearnings, cravings, addictions and response to stress Reflect our own unique cultural legacies, philosophies and beliefs

38 Nutrition Action 690 calories, 24 g fat, 8 g saturated fat 1,350 calories, 43 g fat, 13 g saturated fat

39  Strategy 1: Don’t supersize.  Strategy 2: Think grilled, not fried.  Strategy 3: Hold the mayo.  Strategy 4: Avoid all-you-can-eat restaurants.  Strategy 5: “Just say no.” Nutrition Action

40  Strategy 6: Balance fast-food meals with other food choices during the day.  Strategy 7: Split your order—share with a friend.  Strategy 8: Bring your lunch.  Strategy 9: Choose grab-and-go foods.  Strategy 10: If all else fails, go for the obvious low-calorie choices. Nutrition Action

41 It is not always easy to recognize accurate nutrition information from misinformation. Some fraudulent claims about nutrition can cause direct harm or build false hope and prevent sound medical treatment It is crucial to know how to protect ourselves from nutrition misinformation. Spotlight: Nutrition Fact or Nutrition Fiction?

42 Legitimate Nutrition Claims ASK: Where was the study published? Should be published in a peer-reviewed journal that uses current experts in that field of study. ASK: How recent is the study? Should be from recent research. ASK: What research methods were used to obtain the data? Should be from one of two types of scientific studies: Epidemiologic - examines populations over time Intervention - examine the effects of a specific treatment or intervention randomized with an experimental group and a control group


44 Why doesn’t the government do something to prevent the media from delivering misleading nutrition information? The First Amendment guarantees freedom of the press whether sound, unsound or even dangerous Publishing misinformation cannot be punished by law unless it can be proven in court that the information has caused bodily harm

45 Is the Internet a reliable source of nutrition and health information? Use the CARS checklist! Ask if it is: Credible Check their credentials! Accurate Check if it is current, factual and comprehensive Reasonable Is it fair, balanced and consistent? Support Is there supporting documentation?

46 How can I tell whether a product is bogus? It is not always easy! If it sounds too good to be true it probably is. Red flags are: Medical establishment won’t accept it Uses testimonials and anecdotes Computer scored questionnaires for deficiencies Product will make weight loss easy Secret formula only available from one place Available only through back pages of magazines, over the phone, or by mail-order ads in the form of news stories or infomercials

47 If I do buy a product, say, to help me lose weight, but I still need some advice about dieting, should I check with a nutritionist? BUYER BEWARE: Charlie and Sassafras display their professional credentials. Easy to obtain through diploma mills or irresponsible correspondence schools.

48 How can I check a nutritionist’s credentials? Call the institution the person claims has awarded the degree. Check the existence or reputation of an institution of higher learning Accredited Institutions of Postsecondary Education A directory published by the American Council on Education Be suspicious if not accredited or cannot prove accreditation by The Council on Education Find out if they are a Registered Dietitian (RD)

49 What is the difference between a RD and a Nutritionist? Registered Dietitian (RD) Fulfilled coursework by the American Dietetic Association (ADA) Completed on the job training (internship) Passed national registration exam Maintains Continuing Education Credits Nutritionist Claims to be capable of advising people about diets Can be an RD Can be a person with little to no scientific training

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