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26 The Reformation Christianity during the Middle Ages –Pope was God’s representative on earth –Control and influence over people’s lives –Hoc Est Corpus Meum Renaissance—the Church was nearly 1,400 years old, very wealthy and powerful. The papacy had become corrupt: –Sacraments—ceremonies that give spiritual grace –Indulgences—pardon from sins –Simony

27 Early Challenges Babylonian Captivity Great Schism –Council of Constance Conciliar Movement –Assemblies –Marsiglio of Padua “Defensor Pacis” –John Wyclif: pope has no authority; Lollards Jan Hus –Czech Priest who verbally attacked the wealth and power of the church. –Burned at the stake in 1415 –Became a martyr for those who wanted to reform the church

28 And that was just the beginning…. 1514—Pope Leo X—Indulgences and St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome Johann Tetzel Erasmus “In Praise of Folly

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30 Martin Luther October 31, 1517 The 95 Theses –Sola Scriptura –Sola Fide Excommunication –1520, Pope Leo issues a Papal bull ordering Luther to recant

31 Martin Luther Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation

32 Why’d the Renaissance lead to the Reformation? People gained access to books, reading and writing People grew tired of the power and worldliness of the Church The Church became less important as people sought to understand God on their own

33 Four Views during the Reformation “Against the Roman Church lying teachers are rising, introducing ruinous sects, and drawing upon themselves speedy doom. They boast and lie against the truth.” —Pope Leo X condemning Luther, 1520 “Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons.” —From the 95 Theses, Martin Luther

34 Four Views during the Reformation “As soon as gold in the basin rings, right then the soul to heaven springs.” —John Tetzel on indulgences “The fact that indulgences have so long stood safe and with impunity, and wantoned with so much fury and tyranny, may be regarded as a proof into how deep a night of ignorance mankind were for some ages plunged.” —From Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin


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