NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTER FOR CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION 2007 STUDY FOUND THAT
CTE STUDENTS SCORE HIGHER ON STANDARDIZED TESTS, ARE MORE LIKELY TO COMPLETE DUAL-CREDIT COURSES, ARE MORE PREPARED TO TRANSITION TO COLLEGE & CAREERS ARE MORE INFORMED ABOUT COLLEGE ARE MORE LIKELY TO HAVE LIFE GOALS
RECENT FINDINGS SUMMER 2013 ACTE released the results from its annual, nationwide survey of CTE students and educators, conducted in partnership with the National Research Center for College and University Admissions
ARE MORE LIKELY TO GO TO COLLEGE, TEND TO HAVE A HIGHER GPA WHEN IN COLLEGE, ARE LESS LIKELY TO DROP OUT OF COLLEGE AND, HAVE AN EASIER TIME FINDING INTERNSHIPS AND EMPLOYMENT ACTE REPORT FINDS CTE STUDENTS
AND BUILD INTERDISCIPLINARY SKILLS THAT ALL STUDENTS CAN USE
INTERVIEWING SKILLS INFORMATION LITERACY MARKETING INTERPERSONAL SKILLS PROBLEM SOLVING TEAM WORK FINANCIAL PLANNING PROJECT MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION & TIME MANAGEMENT LIFE LONG LEARNING ORAL & WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONS ACCOUNTING TECHNOLOGICAL SKILLS PLANNING PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION ECONOMIC UNDERSTANDING
AFTER ALL BUSINESS IS THE NUMBER 1 COLLEGE MAJOR IN THE NATION AFTER ALL BUSINESS IS THE NUMBER 1 COLLEGE MAJOR IN THE NATION FOR BOTH MEN AND WOMEN (PRINCETON REVIEW, 2010) (PRINCETON REVIEW, 2010)
WHAT ARE SOME SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES THAT SCHOOLS ARE DOING IN MD TO PROMOTE BMF PROGRAMS? RUNNING TOURS FOR 8 TH GRADERS RUNNING TOURS FOR 8 TH GRADERS HOSTING OPEN HOUSES FOR PARENTS AND POTENTIAL STUDENTS HOSTING OPEN HOUSES FOR PARENTS AND POTENTIAL STUDENTS ORGANIZING ASSEMBLIES ORGANIZING ASSEMBLIES HANGING POSTERS AND PREPARING BROCHURES HANGING POSTERS AND PREPARING BROCHURES REDESIGNATING SOME COURSES AS HONORS REDESIGNATING SOME COURSES AS HONORS SENDING MAILERS OUT TO INCOMING FRESHMEN AND FAMILIES SENDING MAILERS OUT TO INCOMING FRESHMEN AND FAMILIES COORDINATING SHOWCASE EVENTS COORDINATING SHOWCASE EVENTS HARNESSING THE POWER OF PUBLIC RELATIONS (NEWSLETTERS, WEB, PRESS RELEASES, ETC). HARNESSING THE POWER OF PUBLIC RELATIONS (NEWSLETTERS, WEB, PRESS RELEASES, ETC). INVITING UNIVERSITIES TO FOUNDATIONS COURSES TO SPEAK INVITING UNIVERSITIES TO FOUNDATIONS COURSES TO SPEAK AGGRESSIVE CTSO INVOLVEMENT AGGRESSIVE CTSO INVOLVEMENT SELLING PROGRAM BENEFITS TO GUIDANCE COUNSELORS, SELLING PROGRAM BENEFITS TO GUIDANCE COUNSELORS, ONSITE DUAL ENROLLMENT, ETC… ONSITE DUAL ENROLLMENT, ETC…
CREDIT-BASED TRANSITION PROGRAMS. Allowing high school students to take college courses or earn college credit through national exams while in high school. Traditionally geared to high-achieving students, in recent years, the value in to middle performing or even lower- performing students has been recognized (Baily and Karp, 2003).
BENEFITS OF COLLEGE BASED TRANSITIONING PROGRAMS Baily and Karp (2003): Prepare students for the academic rigors of college Improve motivation through high expectations Lower the cost of postsecondary education Make college feel more attainable to students Increase student retention
CLEP POLICY REVIEW We have examined the CLEP acceptance policy at MD Community Colleges as well as University System of MD Schools. We did not examine private institutions; however, this is an area worthy of investigation. We looked at the 4 Main Business CLEP exams and investigated: whether the exam was accepted, the required score in order to earn credit, number of credits that could be earned, and the course equivalent
CLEP AT COMMUNITY COLLEGES COMMUNITY COLLEGECLEP EXAM FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING CLEP EXAM PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT CLEP EXAM PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING ANNE ARUNDAL COMMUNITY COLLEGE BPA 211 (3) SCORE: 50 BPA 142 (3) SCORE: 50 BPA 125 (3) SCORE: 50 BALTIMORE CITY COMMUNITY COLLEGE ACCT211 (3) SCORE: 50 ADMINISTERED ON SITE COURSE EQUIVALENT AND SCORE NOT LISTED MKTG 223 (3): Marketing SCORE: 50 COMMUNITY COLLEGE OF BALTIMORE COUNTY ACCT 101 (3) SCORE: 50 MNGT 105 (3) SCORE: 50 MNGT 150 SCORE: 50 CARROLL COMMUNITY COLLEGE ACCT-101(3) SCORE: 50 NOT LISTEDMKTG-201 (3) SCORE: 50 CECIL COLLEGE BUS 101 (3) SCORE: 50 BUS 131 (3) SCORE: 50 BUS 212 (3) SCORE: 50 CHESAPEAKE COLLEGE ACC 103 (3) SCORE: 50 BUS 213 (3) SCORE: 50 BUS 230 (3) SCORE: 50 COLLEGE OF SOUTHERN MARYLAND ACC 2010 & 2020 (6) SCORE: 50BAD 1210 (3) SCORE: 50 BAD 2610 (3) SCORE: 50 FREDERICK COMMUNITY COLLEGE ACC 100, 101 (6) SCORE: 50 BU 227 (3) SCORE: 50 BU225 (3) SCORE: 50 GARRETT COMMUNITY COLLEGE ACC210 (3) SCORE: 50 BUS170 (3) SCORE: 50 BUS201 (3) SCORE: 50 HAGERSTOWN COMMUNITY COLLEGE ACC 101 (3) SCORE: 50 MGT 103 (3) SCORE: 50 MGT 104 (3) SCORE: 50 HARFORD COMMUNITY COLLEGE ACT 101 (3) SCORE: 50 BA 109 (3) SCORE: 50 BA 203 (3) SCORE: 50 HOWARD COMMUNITY COLLEGE ACCT 111 (3) SCORE: 50 BMGT 145 (3) SCORE: 50 BMGT 130 (3) SCORE: 50 MONTGOMERY COLLEGE NOT ACCEPTEDMG 101 (3) SCORE: 50 MG 103 (3) SCORE: 50 PRINCE GEORGES COMMUNITY COLLEGE ACCT 1010 & ACCT 1020 (8) SCORE: 47 BMT 1600 (3) SCORE: 47 BKG 1360 (3) SCORE: 50 WORWIC COMMUNITY COLLEGE ACT 101 (3) SCORE: 50 BMT 151 (3) SCORE: 50 BMT 102 (3) SCORE: 50
UNIVERSITY FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENTPRINCIPLES OF MARKETING UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK BMGT 220-(3) SCORE 65 NOT ACCEPTED SALISBURY UNIVERSITY ACCT 201-(3) SCORE 60 MGMT 320- (3) SCORE 50 MKTG 330-(3) SCORE 50 TOWSON UNIVERSITY ACCT 201 (3) And ACCT 202 (3) 6 credits total possible SCORE: 50 MNGT 361 (3) SCORE 50 MKGT 341 (3) SCORE 50 FROSTBERG STATE UNIVERSITY ACCT 211 (3) SCORE: 50 MGMT 351 (3) SCORE 50 MKTG 361 (3) SCORE 50 UNIVERSITY OF BALTIMORE ACCT 201-(3) SCORE 50 BUSINESS MAJOR ELECTIVE (3) SCORE 51 GENERAL ELECTIVE (3) SCORE: 50 OR MKTG 301 junior status at the time of the exam is and prior approval by the Dean UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND UNIVERSITY COLLEGE ACCT 220 (3) SCORE: 50 BMGT 364: (3) SCORE 50 MKTG 310-(3) SCORE 50 UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND BALTIMORE COLLEGE ECON 121 (3): SCORE 53 ECAD 210 (3) SCORE: 50 NOT ACCEPTED UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND EASTERN SHORE ACCT 201 (3): SCORE 60 UPPER LEVEL BUSINESS MAJOR ELECTIVE (3) SCORE 50 UMES IS CURRENTLY IN THE PROCESSES OF REVISING THEIR CLEP POLICY. BOWIE STATE UNIVERSITY BUAD 201, 202 (6) SCORE 45 NOT ACCEPTED COPPIN STATE UNIVERSITY ACCT 201 & ACCT 202 (6): SCORE 50 MGMT 300 (3): SCORE 50 MKTG 310 (3): SCORE 50 MORGAN STATE UNIVERSITY NOT ACCEPTED MGMT 324 (3): SCORE 50 MKTG 331 (3): SCORE 50 ST MARY’S COLLEGE OF MARYLAND (LIBERAL ARTS NO BUS SCHOOL) NOT ACCEPTED
STRATEGIES THAT WILL HELP YOU PREPARE STUDENTS FOR THE CLEP
STRATEGIES At the beginning of the year discuss with students the Major Concepts on the CLEP Exam your students will be taking Lets consider the CLEP Management Exam The following information can be found in the State curriculum and is also available from the CLEP company.
Subject Matter The subject matter of the Principles of Management examination is drawn from the following topics. The percentages next to the main topics indicate the approximate percentage of exam questions on that topic. 15–25% Organization and Human Resources Personnel administration Human relations and motivation Training and development Performance appraisal Organizational development Legal concerns Workforce diversity Recruiting and selecting Compensation and benefits Collective bargaining 10–20% Operational Aspects of Management Operations planning and control Work scheduling Quality management (e.g., TQM) Information processing and management Strategic planning and analysis Productivity 10–20% International Management and Contemporary Issues Value dimensions Regional economic integration Trading alliances Global environment Social responsibilities of business Ethics Systems Environment Government regulation Management theories and theorists E-business 45–55% Functional Aspects of Management Planning Organizing Leading Controlling Authority Decision making Organization charts Leadership Organizational structure Budgeting Problem solving Group dynamics and team functions Conflict resolution Communication Change Organizational theory Historical aspects
THE CLEP EXAM IS A MULTI-CHOICE TEST Multiple-choice Questions (MCQs) are a subset of what are referred to as "objective questions". Objective questions are questions which have a correct answer (usually only one). The term "objective" here means there is complete objectivity in marking the test. They are used to test factual material and the understanding of concepts by measuring a students ability to recall facts and other information. If you exam the CLEP carefully most questions deal with recall, a smaller number deal with comprehension, and only a tiny number will require students to apply knowledge (and even then in a very limited capacity) Multiple choice questions by definition fall under the lower level of Bloom’ s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS (MCQS) Multiple-choice Questions are normally composed of four parts: STEM - question or incomplete statement OPTIONS - suggested answers or completions DISTRACTERS - incorrect responses KEY - correct response
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS TO A LARGE EXTENT LOOKS AT A TEST- TAKERS ABILITY TO DEFINE CONCEPTS WITH A MINIMAL AMOUNT OF APPLICATION. As such, you want to build your students vocabulary. Solutions Create a glossary of terms. Have weekly vocabulary words (treat them the way SAT terms are treated) Introduce a CLEP question of the day
There are lots of ways to create your glossary of terms Use your knowledge, the CLEP Review Book, The Glossary in your text book, Knowledge of the test etcetera. There are some great flashcard websites that already have free downloadable CLEP exam flashcards/glossary terms available http://www.flashcardmachine.com/ http://www.proprofs.com/flashcards A sample list of glossary terms (see www.BusinessEducationMSDE.com) that has been prepared that offers 250 concepts/terms that a student should know in order to pass the CLEP Principles of Management exam.
Management The process of achieving organizational objectives through the use of people and other resources (capital, land and equipment) Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) Published "Principles of Scientific Management" Father of Scientific Management, Believed organizations should analyze tasks and develop a better way to perform them. Organizational Development Theory 4 stages of growth 1. Creativity 2. Direction 3.Delegation 4. Growth Decision-making process steps 1. Define the problem 2. Identify limiting factors 3. Develop potential alternatives 4. Implement the decision 5. Establish an evaluation and control system Intrinsic Reward (Reinforcement) Motivating events which occur as a natural part of the learning experience that are meaningful to the individual rather than being materialistic. Examples: Personal Development as a reward for the experience of doing work, being recognized with a plaque for your hard work, a teacher feels good when his/her students pass the CLEP Delphi Technique A technique in which the members of a group are intentionally separated and given the same problem. They return their solutions to the leader, the solutions are pooled, and the group members rate the ideas. Operational Goal A specific goal with quantifiable results. Example: "produce 10,000 units each day" Payback analysis Tool for determining when an object (a business expense) will pay for itself Activity ratio An activity ratio measures how efficiently a company operates. Profitability ratio A profitability ratio demonstrates a company's ability to generate profits. Debt ratio A debt ratio measures a company's ability to pay its debts Marketing ratio A marketing ratio measures market shares, sales quotas and profitability. SAMPLE GLOSSARY PAGE WITH DEFINITIONS
At 10 or so Intervals Throughout the Term Assign 25 of the Glossary Terms to Be Defined By the Students, Correct and Grade this work. Review the concepts again after you hand the work back to the students Use examples and/or visuals as applicable. Think about Cognitive Flexibility Learning activities must provide multiple representations of content.
DON’T MAKE THE TEST A STRANGER Do not wait until the last unit to be in the test prep process. Think about how the SAT is handled and treat it the same with constant concept review and weekly vocabulary words. Introduce a CLEP question of the day each time you meet. Group the daily questions into CLEP questions of the week. Give mini-practice tests throughout the term to eliminate test anxiety Make sure you go over them once they are completed question by question. At the end of the first and second quarters give a mini practice CLEP exam that you prepare to coincide with concepts covered thus far At the end of the 3 rd term give a full practice CLEP Make it fun and important! Stay positive- this test is passable.
EMPLOY THE STRIKE OUT APPROACH DURING THE PREPARATION PROCESS Involves eliminating incorrect options and making an educated guess among the options which remain. Students who eliminated one or more incorrect options, must provide a written explanation of why each of those options was incorrect When students select an option as correct they also have to write an explaination as to why they selected that particular option These approach will not only make the students better test takers but also help the teacher and the student better understand what the student knows about the material
DON’T FORGET TO REMIND STUDENTS THAT On items that require you to read a short passage and answer questions about it, read the questions first. Briefly reflect on what the questions are asking you. Read the passage, and return to the questions.
Preparing for tests involves explaining their purpose, examining the genre and format of multiple-choice tests, teaching the formal language of tests and test-taking strategies, and providing opportunities for students to take practice tests; and these lessons should be represented throughout the instructional program, as well as in a focused manner at the end.
When you reach the end of the term it is time to deliver a CLEP Review Unit Example unit broken down into 6 lessons
6 LESSON CLEP REVIEW UNIT Lesson 1 Procedures- About the CLEP Exam, Review of Major Concepts on the CLEP Exam, Teach them about the purpose of multiple choice tests, examining the genre and format of multiple-choice tests, teach the language to expect and present test taking strategies Distribute Glossary Worksheet-let students begin in class and assign as homework, Decrease the number of concepts to a manageable number, Require Students to Complete by Hand (kinesthetic), Format it differently than any previous worksheets (abstraction of concepts as is done on test), Present Resources to Help Them Complete Glossary including their own previously completed vocabulary/glossary sheets
Lesson 2 Procedures- Students Take Practice CLEP Exam Require student to employ the strike out approach Question Review of Practice CLEP using strike out approach List is made of concepts that were problematic for the group Discussion of problematic concepts and/or misunderstood questions
Lesson 3 Procedures- Jeopardy Game Have students compete in a Jeopardy tournament. Develop a bracket system. Offer prizes such as free lunch, extra credit points, candy, etcetera There are a number of great free tools for creating an electronic jeopardy game. Simple ones can be made in PowerPoint; however, there are services that offer a much more interactive experience. Jeopardy Labs is a free service you can use to create your own online Jeopardy game. Jeopardy Labs provides a blank template on which to build your game. When completed your game is given its one unique url. Post that url on your blog, wiki, or website and anyone can then play your game
Lesson 4 Procedures- Students Submit Completed Glossary Distribute glossary answer key Have students grade each other’s work Students Take 2 nd Practice CLEP Exam (using strike out approach) Question Review of Practice CLEP
Lesson 5 Procedures- Classroom Quiz Bowl: Small Teams of students compete in a traditional quiz bowl trivia tournament using a combination of question types If class is large, when not participating assign students different roles asking questions, judging/checking responses, score keeping, etcetera. Have students rotate these roles and keep everyone participating. Make sure to include problematic topics This is a fun way to interact with concepts that will hopefully increase understanding and help create meaningful connections
Lesson 6 Procedures- Students Take 3 nd Practice CLEP Exam Question Review of Practice CLEP List is made of concepts that were problematic for the group Current list compared against previous list (students can see how much better the class is doing) Discussion of problematic concepts (what are the remaining misconceptions?)
SUGGESTION, SET UP ONSITE CLEP TESTING CENTER. Allows exam to be taken in a less intimidating and more familiar setting. Cuts down the cost of the exam because you will not have to pay the mark up commonly charged by test centers