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Autism Specialists Shawnee Mission School District

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1 Autism Specialists Shawnee Mission School District
Top 5 Strategies for Supporting Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders Across School Environments Autism Specialists Shawnee Mission School District Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

2 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Housekeeping Strategies – list your top five Soap Box rules- 30 seconds on the soap box Stay on topic (look ahead and find your soapbox area) Only present soapbox items during slide transitions Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

3 The Top Five Strategies
Visual Supports Work Systems Communication Positive Behavior Supports Environmental Structures Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

4 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Prompting Prompts are hints or cues meant to increase desired behaviors or to decrease undesirable behaviors. Prompts are like crutches – a type of artificial support that you don’t want or need forever. Fading must occur quickly and is accomplished by gradually reducing the strength of the prompt. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

5 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Prompting Most to least prompting is used when teaching a new skill. Least to Most prompting is used when a skill has already been learned. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

6 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Levels of Prompting Point – teacher points to achieve desired result Gesture – teacher makes a motion to prompt for the desired result (teaching cup – the teacher makes a “drink” gesture) Model – (full or partial) – teacher models desired result (teaching “clap” – teacher claps) Partial – requires physical guidance to achieve desired result (a nudge at the elbow) Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

7 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Levels of Prompting Full - gives full physical assistance to achieve desired result (hand over hand assistance) Verbal – (full or partial) – teacher models desired result (teaching cup, teacher says, “What’s this? Say “cup”.) Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

8 The Top Five Strategies
Visual Supports Work Systems Communication Positive Behavior Supports Environmental Structures Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

9 What Are Visual Supports
… those things we see that enhance the communication process. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

10 What Are Visual Supports
Environmental Cues furniture arrangement location of objects signs, signals, labels, menus Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

11 What Are Visual Supports
Traditional Tools for Organization and Giving Information calendars, daily planners schedules, TV guides, movie listings maps written instructions and directions Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

12 Why Use Visual Supports
Some individuals with pervasive developmental disorders experience difficulty attending to, modulating, or understanding auditory stimuli Some individuals with pervasive developmental disorders demonstrate difficulty attending to the communication message while blocking out background noises Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

13 Someone You Know Can Benefit
“He knows what to do, we do it everyday” “He understands everything I say” “He is too high for that” “He won’t use them” “He’s choosing not to do it” The use of visual supports is not determined by the individual’s ability to talk, they are valuable to both verbal and non-verbal students. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

14 Benefits in Implementing Visuals Supports
Provides an understanding of the environment and expectations Increases the opportunities for communicating Elicits initiation of an interaction Increases the ability to self-manage behaviors Provides structure to allow the understanding and acceptance of change Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

15 Benefits in Implementing Visuals Supports
Clarifies verbal information, enhances comprehension Helps establish and maintain attention Presents information in a form that can be quickly and easily interpreted Supports transitions between activities or locations Provides a concrete method of teaching concepts such as time, sequences, and cause/effect Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

16 Determining the Level of Visual Representation
Objects Representational objects Photos Color drawings (including picture icons) Black and white line drawing Words Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

17 Specifically Designed Tools to Meet Specific Needs
Visual Schedules Labels Boundary Setting Choice Boards Task Organizers Activity Completion Signals Social Stories Additional Visual Management Tools SHOW EXAMPLES Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

18 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Data Collection Documentation of how the visual support has impacted the behavior Increase in the replacement or target behavior Decrease of the inappropriate behavior Increase in level of independence Demonstration – visual schedule & data collection sheet V Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

19 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Demonstration Please refer to your examples packet Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

20 The Top Five Strategies
Visual Supports Work Systems Communication Positive Behavior Supports Environmental Structures Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

21 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Work Systems Promote independence for all students Provide a structured format in which instructional control can be established Provide a systematic routine in which the student both generalizes and practices a mastered skill Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

22 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
In addition…. Predictable thereby reducing anxiety Adaptable to any setting –promoting generalization Provide students the opportunity to be around peers thereby increasing the opportunity to develop pragmatic language skills Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

23 Choosing the activities for a Work System
Activities have a clear beginning and ending Activities are mastered (fluent) or near mastery (fluency) Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

24 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Setting up the system All materials necessary for completing the activity and/or meeting objective are available Each activity is clearly labeled by a picture, letter, number, etc. A schedule strip with a matching symbol of the activities is available Activities are lined up in the same order as they appear on the strip A location is picked and clearly labeled for finished work Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

25 Prompting within the Work System
The overwhelming majority of prompting is nonverbal and done from behind the student. Verbal prompts are only used when the student is engaged in the actual activity, never while in the process. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

26 Prompting within the Work System
Only nonverbal prompts are used when the student is involved with the process of the work system. The process includes the following Picking from the schedule Matching the schedule symbol to the activity symbol Placing the activity on the table Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

27 Prompting within the Work System
Putting the completed activity in the finished area Choosing the next activity from the schedule Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

28 Prompting within the Work System
When the term “prompt” is used in describing the work system, it is assumed that the prompt will be whatever level of nonverbal is needed – i.e. hand over hand, point, gesture, etc. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

29 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Be’ware When you continue to use high levels of prompting throughout teaching, it will appear that the child is learning when in fact… THEY ARE ACTUALLY PROMPT DEPENDENT Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

30 Teaching the student to use the system
The student is seated at his desk. The schedule is to the side of the student The adult stands behind the student. Using prompts, the adult directs the student to pick up the first symbol from the schedule. Standing behind the student, the adult guides the student towards the work system Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

31 Teaching the student to use the system
Standing behind the student, the adult guides the student towards the activity with the corresponding symbol. The student places the symbol on the matching activity, picks up the activity and carries it back to the table. Once the student is seated, the adult prompts him to take the activity out of its work holder. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

32 Teaching the student to use the system
At this point, the adult may use some verbals if the student needs assistance, encouragement or reinforcement as it relates to the task…..not the process of the work system The adult may stand behind the student while he works, or the adult may sit beside or across from him Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

33 Teaching the student to use the system
Once the student has completed the activity, prompt him to put it back in the work holder (from behind; nonverbal) Prompt the student to place the activity in the finished box. Prompt the student back to the schedule. Repeat the above sequence until the student has completed all activities Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

34 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
One More Thing Remember that any time you make a change in a student’s program such as moving the task from the speech room to the classroom, or changing the interaction from student to adult to student to peer, it may be necessary to move briefly to a higher prompt level and to a higher rate of reinforcement. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

35 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Considerations Data collection sheet Who will collect the data How often will the data be collected Where will the data be stored Criteria for program change Who will determine the reinforcement Who will provide the reinforcement Types of schedules; types of work holders Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

36 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Demonstration Please refer to your examples packet Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

37 The Top Five Strategies
Visual Supports Work Systems Communication Positive Behavior Supports Environmental Structures Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

38 Communication and Autism Two most common errors
Assuming communicative competence (2) Mistaking problems in communication for problems in behavior Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

39 Visually Cued Instruction and Communication
Use of visual tools to teach: (1) Social communication (2) Comprehension (3) Initiation Marriner, Nola. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

40 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Social Communication The functional use of language in social contexts Social communication includes the whys and hows and do’s and don’ts for: Gaining attention Taking turns Interrupting Shifting topics Nonverbal rules (eye contact, distance, gestures, facial expressions) Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

41 Visually cued instruction and social communication
Direct/explicit instruction; repeated practice Social stories, cartooning, strategy cards Model Role play Social forums Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

42 Social Story Personal Space
People have an area around their body called “personal space.” Every person has personal space I have personal space. My Mom has personal space. My teachers have personal space. My friends have personal space. Personal space is like an invisible bubble. Personal space goes out from the arm to fingertips. People should stay out of a person’s personal space. I should stay out of my teacher’s personal space. I should stay at least an arm’s length from my teacher. I should stay out of my friend’s personal space. I should stay at least an arm’s length from my friend. I will try to stay of someone else’s personal space. Everyone will be happy if I stay out of their personal space. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

43 Process of attaching meaning to an acoustic signal
Comprehension Process of attaching meaning to an acoustic signal speech sound word discrimination word knowledge short./long term memory attention span environmental interference Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

44 Symptoms that there might be a comprehension problem
Unresponsive Inappropriate responses Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

45 Visually cued instruction and comprehension
(1) Adult points to symbol (2) Student places hand over adult’s hand (3) Adult verbalizes (4) Student listens Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

46 Visually cued instruction and comprehension
Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

47 Visually cued instruction and comprehension
Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

48 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Initiation Initiation of communication is: Purposeful Spontaneous Unprompted!!!! Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

49 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Visually cued instruction and initiation of communication (Symbol Exchange) Interactive communication method Requires an exchange of a symbol between the student and a communication partner Individuals learn to communicate in order to obtain highly motivating objects or events Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

50 Symbol Exchange and Prompting
No verbal prompting……ever! Use physical prompting from a most to least hierarchy to ensure successful communication Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

51 Five Phases of Symbol Exchange
(1) Physically prompted exchange (2) Increasing Spontaneity, Search and Locate and Persistence behaviors (3) Discrimination between symbols (4) Sentence Structure (5) Additional communication functions and vocabulary Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

52 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Symbol Exchange Phase 1 Objective - upon seeing a “highly preferred” item, the student will pick up a representation of the item, reach toward a communicative partner, and release it in the communicative partner’s hand Outcome: Student approaches people to initiate communication Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

53 Symbol Exchange Phase I Training
No verbal prompts Use no more than 1 preferred item presented 1 at a time Provide 30 opportunities throughout the day 2 trainers are necessary Communicative Partner Physical Prompter Child Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

54 Visually cued instruction and Symbol Exchange
Trial Pick Up Reach Release 1 P P 2 3 4 5 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

55 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
PLEASE Do not stop using symbol exchange because the student begins to speak Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

56 The Top Five Strategies
Visual Supports Work Systems Communication Positive Behavior Supports Environmental Structures Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

57 Positive Behavioral Support
Positive behavioral support (PBS) is a way of thinking about behavior. It broadens intervention from only one approach--reducing challenging behavior-- to multiple approaches: changing systems, altering environments, teaching skills, and appreciating positive behavior. Ruef and Poston, 1998 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

58 Positive Behavioral Supports
Broad term that describes a comprehensive, research based, proactive approach to behavior support aimed at producing comprehensive change for students with challenging behavior. Ruef, Higgins, Glaeser, and Patnode, 1998 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

59 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Strategies Alter the classroom environment Increase predictability and scheduling Increase choice making Make curricular accommodations Appreciate positive behaviors Teach replacement skills Ruef, Higgins, Glaeser, and Patnode, 1998 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

60 Development of the PBS Plan
Establish a team Determine function of behavior Remember all behavior serves an important function for the individual. All behavior is communication. to get something they want or need request items, activities, or attention to avoid something they do not want protest, escape/avoidance to meet sensory needs Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

61 Functional Assessment
Functional Assessment: a means of assessing the functions of the problem behavior. Gathering Information interview direct observation data collection creating situations Carr et al., 1995 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

62 Behavior Change Procedure
Select an alternative behavior of which the person is capable Develop a management plan Implement the plan Review, analyze and possibly alter interventions List all the behaviors of concern Prioritize the behavior Select a target behavior Determine the history of the behavior Determine the antecedent and consequences Determine causal factors Behavior, Autism and Communication Disorders, Fundamentals of Autism, (1995), p.28 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

63 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Defining a Behavior Physical characteristics (what it looks like, sounds like, etc.) Cycle (when does it start and stop) Course ( are there precursors, does it start gradually or suddenly) Strength ( how often, how long, how severe) Adapted from Willis, T., La Vigna, G., and Donnellan, A., (1991). Behavior assessment guide. Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis, Los Angeles, CA. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

64 Is the Problem a Problem
Is it dangerous to the person doing it Is it dangerous to others Is it dangerous to the environment Is it seriously disruptive Does it make the person appear in a negative way to others Does it interfere with independence Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

65 An Ounce of Prevention is Worth a Pound of Cure
Make sure rules and consequences are known Have high expectations Apply reinforcers and consequences consistently Make changes in environment, teaching methods, curriculum and staff before behavior problems start Break the chain of inappropriate behavior that may lead to a display Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

66 An Ounce of Prevention is Worth a Pound of Cure
Engage students in meaningful, age appropriate, and functional tasks Teach choice making and honor choices Plan ahead…..Idle time invites problems Structure the environment and time Behavior, Autism and Communication Associates, Fundamentals of Autism, (1995). P. 29. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

67 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
PBS Summation Identify the purpose of challenging behavior Teach appropriate alternative responses that serve the same function as the challenging behavior Consistently reward positive behaviors Minimize rewards for challenging behaviors Minimize the physiological, environmental, and curricular factors that trigger challenging behaviors Ruef, Higgins, Glaeser, and Patdone Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

68 How to Make Kids Worse Over Time
Withdraws or Changes Request/ “Negotiates” Large Threats Small Threats/Warnings Verbal Prompts Request in Question Form ADULT Tantrums/Aggression Stops” Meltdown Argue Delay Ignore STUDENT Students lean why mess with ignoring when tantrum gets to negotiation Negative reinforcement model - avoid or escape Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist Melisa Genaux, M.Ed. Jordan School District, 2007

69 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Adult Behavior Asking Nagging Arguing Threats Nagging – giving the direction more than 2x without consequence Arguing - it takes 2 Threats – doesn’t mean anything, has heard it for so long that it is no longer effective “If you keep what you've always done – you’ll ” “If you want to change other behavior – you change what you are doing” Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist Melisa Genaux, M.Ed. Jordan School District, 2007

70 Precision Direction Format
Directions given in statement form 2x only Start with stating name Verbal cue that a consequence is coming Wait time Pre-planned consequence Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist Melisa Genaux, M.Ed. Jordan School District, 2007

71 Precision Directions ‘Compliance’
“Name, direction please.” WAIT 3-5 seconds (typical student) 7-10 seconds (student with delay) Compliance Reinforce “You are following directions” Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist Melisa Genaux, M.Ed. Jordan School District, 2007

72 Precision Directions ‘Non Compliance’
“Name, direction please.” WAIT 3-5 seconds (typical student) 7-10 seconds (student with delay) Non Compliance “Name, you need to direction.” Pre-planned Consequence Label the behavior – “That’s not following directions.” Label the consequence – “That’s _____.” (time out, loss of token, etc) Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist Melisa Genaux, M.Ed. Jordan School District, 2007

73 Pre-Planned Consequences
“When consequences are arranged in a hierarchy consisting of small steps, and are designed to be inconvenient for the student by affecting his or her agenda, they are much more likely to be effective in reducing the rate of inappropriate behavior. After students learn the consequence system, most will stop the misbehavior after the second step.” Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist Melisa Genaux, M.Ed. Jordan School District, 2007

74 Addressing Problem Behaviors
Increase Compliance in 3 Ways: Use Precision Directions Reinforce Compliance Consequence Hierarchy (think small and inconvenient) Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist Melisa Genaux, M.Ed. Jordan School District, 2007

75 Address Target Behaviors in 3 Ways
Reinforce the absence of the misbehavior (“quiet mouth”; hands to self”; “staying on topic”; etc) Reinforce the replacement behavior (teach the student what to do instead and reinforce; what is the function?) Reductive Procedures (pre-planned consequences for misbehavior) Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist Melisa Genaux, M.Ed. Jordan School District, 2007

76 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Demonstration How to give precision directions Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

77 The Top Five Strategies
Visual Supports Work Systems Communication Positive Behavior Supports Environmental Structures Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

78 Environmental Structures
Physical Structure Scheduling Task Demands Love,S. (2004). Professional Seminar: Behavior management for individuals with autism. Asheville TEACCH Center. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

79 Physical Structure for Individuals
Clearly defined space for individuals to keep belongings Sufficiently sized work space clear of distracters Appropriately sized and sturdy furniture Individual work areas clearly defined and differentiated from group work areas Individual work areas clearly defined and differentiated from other areas within the classroom Work materials organized and easily accessible Love,S. (2004). Professional Seminar: Behavior management for individuals with autism. Asheville TEACCH Center. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

80 Physical Structure for the Classroom
Furniture should be spaced sufficiently for movement Location of work area in least distractible setting Use furniture or other means to define separate spaces within the classroom (tape on floor, bookcases, etc) Keep windows, doors, and other tempting materials less accessible Set up work and leisure areas to allow for adult supervision Leisure / free time area clearly defined and separate from work area Identify areas in the room with simple label In summary Think: “Does the layout of furniture and materials assist in the development of behaviors and skills which we want the individuals to have?” Love,S. (2004). Professional Seminar: Behavior management for individuals with autism. Asheville TEACCH Center. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

81 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Scheduling Clearly outline and post schedule to allow staff and students to understand expectations Allow for shorter work periods in certain areas both physical and task to prevent undue stress and acting out Schedule activities to meet the individual’s educational and physical needs Balance independent, group, and leisure activities according to the individual's abilities Schedule transitions to assist in the prevention of conflict or behavior problems Clearly indicate for the student what to do and where to go in transitions between locations, activities, and/or people In summary Think: “I am making the world predictable and reinforcing for the individual, and can he or she anticipate events or changes in daily events?” Love,S. (2004). Professional Seminar: Behavior management for individuals with autism. Asheville TEACCH Center. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist

82 Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist
Task Demands Keep tasks organized for easy modification to make either easier or more difficult Vary presentation of tasks, so a more preferred task is offered first to ease the individual into work time Independent tasks should include only mastered tasks and activities that are easier than those which are currently being taught Monitor reinforcers and activities for satiation In summary Think: “Am I adjusting my expectations for the individual to avoid behavior problems?” Love,S. (2004). Professional Seminar: Behavior management for individuals with autism. Asheville TEACCH Center. Shawnee Mission School District Autism Specialist


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