Information Communication and Technology Class By: Mr. Latibeaudiere March, 2011
Introduction Introduction This chapter talk about computer systems and how information is processed in those machine.
Input,processing,output The three basic stages before any task can be complete witch are input, processing and output. What is a program. The most commonly used input devices and output and what means GIGO ‘garbage in garbage out’
Data information What means data. the types of data which are numeric, text, dates, graphics and sound.
Concepts A computer is an information processing machine. Computer process data to produce information. The most common mist take made by people when they talk about computers is to believe that are intelligent ‘thinking machine’. Everything that a computer on its being told exactly what to do and how to do it by a human.
Parts of the computers Hardware is the name given to any part of a computer that you can actually touch. An individual piece of hardware is called a device.
Input devices Central processing Unit (CPU) Output devices Backing storage devices Fig. 1.2: the part of the computer
The central processing The central processing unit (CPU) s the part of the computer where the searching and sorting of data, calculating and decision- making goes on. The CPU is describe as the ‘brain’ of the computer, but this isn`t really true because computers aren`t able to think for themselves. The CPU contains the main memory, the control unit and the arithmetic and the logic unit (ALU). The main memory holds the program instruction and the data.
Central processing unit Main memory PROCESSOR ALU CONTROL UNIT Input And Output devices Data flow Control flow instruction flow
m The set of instruction that humans give computers are called programs and software. Software that caries out a particular type of task for a user is often called application software. Word processor, spreadsheets, databases, programs to control or fly aero planes to calculate a company payroll or keep track of how many cans of baked beans are left in a supermarket are all example of applications software.
There many reasons for using and some of this are: Computer can work much faster than humans can. Computers never get tired or need a rest; Computers can do jobs that it would be dangerous for a humans to do; Computers can store large amounts of information in a very small space; Computer can find information very quickly; Computers never lose or misplace information.
Input, processing and output Input, processing and output Whenever a computer is used it must work its way through three basic stages before any task can be completed. This are input, processing and output. A program is a set of step by step instructions which tell the computer exactly what to do with input in order to produce the require output.
Input Input The stage of computing is concerned with getting the data needed by the program into the computer.the most commonly used input devices are the mouse and the keyboard.
Processing Processing The program contains instructions about what to do with the input. What the computer produce at the end of this stage, the output, will only be ass good as the instructions given in the program. In other words if garbage has been put into the program; garbage is what will come out of the computer. This is know as GIGO; or garbage in garbage out.
Output Output The output stage of computing is concerned with “giving out” processed data as information in a form that is useful to the user.the most commonly output devices are the screen and the printer.
Data and information Data and information Data s any collection of numbers; character or other symbol that has been coded into a format that can be input to a computer and processed.data has no meaning or context. There many types of data the many types of data can be input into a computer and processed are numeric; text; dates; graphics and sound.
Numeric Numeric Numeric data types are spilt into two different sort. First is a whole number that has no decimal point in it. Second is real. A real number is one with a decimal point in it
Text Text Text data includes any character on the keyboard. Text is also called string
dates Dates are often created as a kind of data on their own and stored in[pside the computer in a very special way that makes them easier to process.
Graphics Diagrams, picture and scanned images store on a computer in special graphics files.
Sound Any sound can be recorded in digital form for use by a computer.
Always remember A computer processes data to turn it useful information.
Questions Questions 1. Describe what happens at each of the stage of computing listen below. 1. Describe what happens at each of the stage of computing listen below. (a) input: (a) input: (b) processing: (b) processing: (c) output: (c) output:
2. Answer the following 2. Answer the following (a) what is meant by the term data? (a) what is meant by the term data? (b) Give an example of 2 different data types..(b) Give an example of 2 different data types. (c)What s meant by the term information. (c)What s meant by the term information. (d)Give one example of information. (d)Give one example of information.
. 3. Put the computer memory size listened below into increasing order of size with the smallest first and the bigger last. 3. Put the computer memory size listened below into increasing order of size with the smallest first and the bigger last. 10mb 100 m 5gb 50mb 500 m 10mb 100 m 5gb 50mb 500 m
. 4. Mr. Brown is divorced with two children. She recently returned to full-time education and is in the third year of a science degree. She has taken out student loans of L5000. She regularly 4. Mr. Brown is divorced with two children. She recently returned to full-time education and is in the third year of a science degree. She has taken out student loans of L5000. She regularly plays squash at the local sport center. She does not have any credit cards. She rents a council house from her local authority. plays squash at the local sport center. She does not have any credit cards. She rents a council house from her local authority. (a)Using only the information given above; write down five facts about Mr. Browns which are likely to be stored in a computer database. (a)Using only the information given above; write down five facts about Mr. Browns which are likely to be stored in a computer database. (b) Explain briefly the different between information and data.