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Radiation Cystitis - Role of Minimally invasive Procedures JHGR 15/9/2007 UCH Chau Hin Lysander.

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Presentation on theme: "Radiation Cystitis - Role of Minimally invasive Procedures JHGR 15/9/2007 UCH Chau Hin Lysander."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiation Cystitis - Role of Minimally invasive Procedures JHGR 15/9/2007 UCH Chau Hin Lysander

2 Case Scenario 65/F65/F HT, DM with renal impairmentHT, DM with renal impairment Ca cervix with THSBO + RTCa cervix with THSBO + RT History of intestinal obstruction with small bowel resection doneHistory of intestinal obstruction with small bowel resection done Presented with RT cystitis with recurrent admission due to haematuriaPresented with RT cystitis with recurrent admission due to haematuria

3 Incidence of intractable haematuria Reported as 6.5% in a series of 1784 patients with carcinoma of the cervix treated with both intracavitary and external beam radiotherapy Median interval to developing haematuria after completing therapy was 35.5 months. Levenback C, Gynecologic Oncol 1994; 55: 206–10 3-5% for prostate cancer with RT Choong SKS, BJU Int 2000; 86: 951–9

4 Pathogenesis Chronic phase of the radiation-induced submucosal damage: –Necrosis of the vascular endothelium –Vessel wall thickening –Obliterative endarteritis Hypoxia, hypovascularity and ischaemia. Neovascularization which are fragile and prone to bleed Stewart FA, Br J Cancer 1986; 7 (Suppl): 280–91

5 Initial Management Resusicitation +/- blood transfusion Clot evacuation and continuous bladder irrigation Diathermy coagulation –Excellent immediate results –High recurrence rate –More ischaemia => more neovascularization

6 Definitive Management Cystectomy and urinary diversion –Major operation for benign condition –Major impact to patient’s QOL –Co-morbidities limitation Any things we can do before that?

7 Treatment options Intravesical alum irrigation Hyperbaric oxygen for radiation cystitis Embolization Sodium pentosanpolysulphate Endoscopic laser/argon beam coagulation Intravesical formalin Hydrostatic pressure ……… Choong SKS, BJU Int 2000; 86: 951–9

8 Intravesical alum irrigation First introduced by Floyd Csir to Ostroff and Chenault in 1982 Ostroff EB, J Urol 1982; 128: 929–30 Alum (either aluminium ammonium sulphate or aluminium potassium sulphate) Reduced capillary permeability, contraction of intercellular space, vasoconstriction, hardening of the capillary endothelium and a reduction in oedema, inflammation and exudate Arrizabalaga M, Br J Urol 1987; 60: 223–6

9 Using a 1% alum solution; 50 g of alum is dissolved in 5 L sterile water and used to irrigate the bladder at 250–300 mL/h

10 Bleeding stopped within 4 days and well tolerated Kennedy C, Br J Urol 1984; 56: 673–5

11 Hyperbaric oxygen therapy First described in the 1980s Bevers RFM, Lancet 1995; 346: 803–5 The rationale of hyperbaric oxygen treatment is to reverse the vascular radiation-induced pathophysiology through increased oxygen tension Noordzij JW, Int Urogynecol J 1993; 4: 160–7 Kindwall EP, Clin Plast Surg 1993; 20: 589–92

12 Prospective study 40 patients with biopsy-confirmed radiation cystitis and severe haematuria Results: –30 (75%) had no haematuria for at least 3 months after hyperbaric oxygen therapy –7 (17%) had occasional slight haematuria –3 (7.5%) did not respond to the treatment –The recurrence rate was 0.12%/year –The bladder was preserved (cystectomy avoided) in 36 patients (90%) Bevers RFM, Lancet 1995; 346: 803–5 Short term results

13 Long term results 11 patients treated with 28–64 HBO treatments Mean follow up of 5.1 years. 8/11 patients were asymptomatic with mean follow-up of 2.5 years Del Pizzo, J Urol 1998; 160: 731–3

14 Cystoscopy after hyperbaric oxygen therapy showed a decrease in haemorrhagic sites and telangiectasias Rijkmans BG, Eur Urol 1989; 16: 354–6

15 “Potential side-effects caused by barometric pressure changes or toxicity may be associated with hyperbaric oxygen treatment, but serious complications such as CNS toxicity and decompression sickness are clinically rare in such low-pressure and brief oxygen-inhalation treatments” Neheman A, BJU International. 96(1)(pp 107-109), 2005

16 Embolization Therapeutic embolization for the control of bladder haemorrhage was first reported in 1974 by Hald and Mygiand Hald T, J Urol 1974; 112: 60–3 Therapeutic embolization has been achieved by completely occluding the internal iliac artery with blood clot, Tachotop™, Gelfoam™, Histoacryl™ or isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate

17 Complications Gluteal pain (the commonest) Gangrene of the bladder Neurological defect affecting one or both lower limbs

18 Selective Embolization To embolize the superior and inferior vesical arteries with Gelfoam on one side, after catheterizing from the ipsilateral femoral artery Kobayashi T, Radiology 1980; 136: 345–8 At 12-months follow-up, cystoscopy demonstrated the disappearance of all teleangectatic dilatations, with perfect resolution of the clinical pattern. (Case report) De Berardinis E, International Journal of Urology. 12(5):503-5, 2005 May.

19 Superior vesical artery Inferior vesical artery Pre-embolization: increased vascularity in the pelvic area

20 Post-embolization

21 Oral sodium pentosanpolysulphate Exact mechanism unknown SPP replaces surface glycosaminoglycans and reverses the damage to the surface 51/60 patients Duration of treatment 180 days Mean interval between completing treatment and developing haematuria was 4.5years Sandhu S.S., BJU International. 94(6)(pp 845-847),

22 Endoscopic laser coagulation LA Neodymium:YAG laser 39 patients received one session 2 patients received two sessions Results: –No complication –Recurrence of bleeding not seen at a mean follow-up period of 14 months Ravi R, Lasers Surg Med 1994; 14: 83–7

23 Argon-beam coagulator

24 7 patients with radiation cystitis 6 received one session Successfully treated with mean follow up of 15 months Wines MP, BJU International. 98(3):610-2, 2006 Sep


26 Discussion Denton AS reviewed all non-surgical interventions for late radiation cystitis in patients who have received radical radiotherapy to the pelvis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (3):CD001773, 2002.


28 Among 79 studies…… 2 RCTs but excluded as they addressed the treatment or prevention of acute radiation cystitis 2 studies were controlled but not randomised 3 prospective case series and 59 retrospective case series only mentioned briefly in the results section. No detailed analysis. Not randomised or controlled. The remainder were reviews

29 Studies were graded according to the criteria used by the NHS executive for quality of research Most are level IIC and level IIIC evidence

30 Conclusions There may be difficulties in identifying enough cases to participate in a randomised controlled trial Although the results were impressive, it is of a low level of evidence to influence current trends in clinical practice Selection of treatment options should be based on availability, toxicity and surgeon’s preferrence

31 The End Thank You

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