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KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCTION KING SAUD UNIVERSITY \ CAMS DEPARTMENT\ HE JOHALI_MoHE2nd2015 CHS385 METHODOLY OF HEALTH EDUCATION.

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Presentation on theme: "KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCTION KING SAUD UNIVERSITY \ CAMS DEPARTMENT\ HE JOHALI_MoHE2nd2015 CHS385 METHODOLY OF HEALTH EDUCATION."— Presentation transcript:

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2 KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCTION KING SAUD UNIVERSITY \ CAMS DEPARTMENT\ HE JOHALI_MoHE2nd2015 CHS385 METHODOLY OF HEALTH EDUCATION Remember by “ Promote and Help Others To …….. ? JOHALI_MoHE2nd2015 CHS385 METHODOLY OF HEALTH EDUCATION Remember by “ Promote and Help Others To …….. ? CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE EISA ALI JOHALI عيسى بن علي الجوحلي بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم From book –black board 10% HE Smart & e-board The ZD Holistic HEM Johali 3 rd Step To ZD Holistic HEP BSCCTPS 6 Self Scientists E-Learning

3 EISA ALI JOHALI عيسى بن علي الجوحلي A Lecturer Bachelor A. M. Sc. Heath Education, KSU 1407 /1987 Bachelor A. M. Sc. Heath Education, KSU 1407 /1987 Short Fellowship Planning Health Professions Education, UIC, USA 199Short Fellowship Planning Health Professions Education, UIC, USA 199 MA (Ed.) Philosophies and Sciences of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum in Nursing, UK 1995MA (Ed.) Philosophies and Sciences of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum in Nursing, UK 1995 PhD Health Sciences By Accrediting Prior Experiences, Hill University Sept. 2012PhD Health Sciences By Accrediting Prior Experiences, Hill University Sept Author of Two Published Books & 3 Projected WL Messengers ……… _Talal MoHE2015 https://twitter.com/TheNature2011https://twitter.com/TheNature2011 Dr. Eisa Johali https://twitter.com/TheNature2011 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

4 As I can’t think, learn and decide instead of you, my role is to help, facilitate, support, motivate and promote you to be ready and willing to have and practice meaningful lifelong for today and day after. The above statement is the summary of my teaching philosophy. Based on my postgraduate education and its following experiential earning "Student Centered" is my favorite approach. However, we have no choice; we have to follow our higher national educational system and its procedures with slightly modification to achieve the above vision. As an introduction to my teaching philosophy in my teaching and learning plan, lecture, assignments instructions and student assessment feedback, I use the most related Islamic teachings and Arabic Proverbs that can motivate and promote my students be active, independent thinker, honest and creative hard workers to satisfy themselves, their relatives and patients. The most motivating statements SUCH AS: وَمَنْ يَتَّقِ اللهَ يَجْعَلْ لَهُ مَخْرَجًا * وَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لاَ يَحْتَسِبُ  [الطلاق/2، 3] إِنْ تَتَّقُوا اللهَ يَجْعَلْ لَكُمْ فُرْقَانًا  [الأنفال/29]. وقول رسوله الكريم نبينا ”محمد“ عليه أفضل الصلاة والسلام، عن أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه: ( لا يؤمن أحدكم حتى يحب لأخيه ما يحب لنفسه) أخرجه البخاري وقوله صلى الله علية وسلم (كان الله في عون العبد ما كان العبد في عون أخيه) رواه مسلم وأبو داود والترمذي These Islamic Calls are our evidences to assure Quality of our “HEMO-MOHE Course; our teaching-learning, practice and life”. Meanwhile, do not forget the most common Arab Proverb: “Nothing Itching Your Skin like Your Nail” All the Learners will success; Except the one Who DO NOT Welling to Success” – mainly absent and who don’t care Thus, “Be Ready and Willing to Success You Will Success ” As I have taught you in CHS 282 & CHS 382, I hope that you will be ‘learners who have to think, discover, reflect and be independent creative note taker and health educator, not just traditional ‘teacher dependent student’ who may not care to listen, hear, memorize..and eventually sure forget. Lecturer Philosophy CHS385 3 Johali2ndMoHE2015

5 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE20154 CHS385 Promotion – Vision- Mission From CHS282 – CHS382, you have probe HE, philosophy, theories…..learn how to write meaningful heath education objectives. In this course we have retrieve what we have learn, review, innovate, compare, distinguish and practice to decide the best methodologies that can assure quality of meaningful health education activities over all ages. Overall Mission of MoHE2015 موهي So; Why - What Are The Best MoHE موهي that We Have To Look For - How to Decide ?

6 CHS 385 Course Description \ Objectives & Plan CHS385 5 Johali2ndMoHE2015 Course (code and NO): (CHS 385) Course title: Methodology of health education Credit hours:4 (2+2)Level:7 Contact hours:8 Prerequisit e: CHS 382 Course description: The course provide an overview of various techniques designed to enable students to develop and practice the skills necessary for effective delivery of health promotion and education programs to various groups in a variety of settings such as: School; Community; Work-sites and medical care settings. It includes: designing and delivering health education messages, counseling, group work, lecture, presentation, meetings, demonstration and participatory& experiential learning, problem solving/ decision making, community based health education, social marketing, health campaign, peer education/ working with volunteers, behavioral modification, life skills, role play, games, puppets. Maternity and Child Care.

7 CHS 385 Course Description & L Objectives CHS385 6 Johali2ndMoHE2015 Learning Objectives \ Outcomes (reorganized) :  Show proficiency in diagnosis of readiness to learn and learning barriers.  Compare between characteristics of learners: Child- Adults -Aged people.  Describe basic principles of community health education, participation & organization  Develop and practice the skills necessary for effective delivery of health promotion and education programs at various levels of interventions (Level of HE Tenant Model ) intra--inter, group…………international  Identify, distinguish, compare various methods, approaches and intervention activities used in health education & promotion  Select and fit suitable educational method & intervention to various level and groups in a variety of settings such as medical care settings, community, school, work-sites.  Critically analyze, and evaluate the most common methods & interventions of the current health promotion practice in KSA. Learning Objectives \ Outcomes (reorganized) :  Show proficiency in diagnosis of readiness to learn and learning barriers.  Compare between characteristics of learners: Child- Adults -Aged people.  Describe basic principles of community health education, participation & organization  Develop and practice the skills necessary for effective delivery of health promotion and education programs at various levels of interventions (Level of HE Tenant Model ) intra--inter, group…………international  Identify, distinguish, compare various methods, approaches and intervention activities used in health education & promotion  Select and fit suitable educational method & intervention to various level and groups in a variety of settings such as medical care settings, community, school, work-sites.  Critically analyze, and evaluate the most common methods & interventions of the current health promotion practice in KSA.

8 Johali Teaching & Learning Plan – Johali MoHE Johali2ndMoHE2015 CHS385

9 J ohali Reasoning ( Why MoHE the CHS385 ? ) Health Educator Job Description Job Title : Health Education Specialist Scientific Degree : Bachelor Degree AMS. Job requirements : A Competent Graduate Bachelor in his / her Profession’s Specific Knowledge & Skills: Knowledge of health and educational issues, Effective teaching methods and technologies Effective Communication and Counseling Reported to: the Health Education Consultant Master\PhD Job Definition (Summary) : Health Education and Promotion job is a focal point for all allied health professions and health issues. Thus, HE have to work effectively with health teams, with community and organization representatives, they have to facilitate, teach and promote clients to learn how to improve and maintain healthy behaviors. Major Job Duties: As a part of the Health team and under the above “Reported” health personnel; HE will be in charge in the following “Duties and Responsibilities”: Assessing patients, school and community health education needs Managing and organizing health education activities. Participate in providing health education in the local community (Inside Health Services and outside organizations such schools and industries..); Select health education methodology appropriate to the target clients taken in consideration cultural interests and needs. Prepare and participate in designing, evaluation and development of health education materials Supervise and participate in process of designing and implementing health education plans. Give Special Patients Counseling eg; diabetic patient education Improve his/her personal and professional knowledge and skills. CHS3858 Johali2ndMoHE2015 1) How to practice HE (HEJD) 2) Assure Quality MoHE Why not without Methods ?!

10 Introductory Probing & Define Terms CHS3859Johali2ndMoHE2015

11 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE HE METHODOLOGIES – DEFINING & REASONING HE METHODOLOGIES – DEFINING & REASONING Synonyms of Method : Approach ; How ; Strategy; Style; System; Tack - Way; Tactics… Origin of METHOD: Middle English, prescribed treatment, from Latin methodus,from Greek methodos, from meta + hodos way First Known Use: 15th century - A way of doing something - A careful or organized plan that controls the way something is done - A way of doing something - A careful or organized plan that controls the way something is done Method

12 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE HE METHODOLOGIES – DEFINING & REASONING HE METHODOLOGIES – DEFINING & REASONING Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study, or the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles.. Examples of METHOD: - He claims to have developed a new method for growing tomatoes. -Their teaching method tries to adapt lessons to each student. - We need to adopt more modern methods of doing things. Examples of METHOD: - He claims to have developed a new method for growing tomatoes. -Their teaching method tries to adapt lessons to each student. - We need to adopt more modern methods of doing things. Medical – Teaching definitions and uses; - A systematic procedure, technique, or mode of inquiry employed by or proper to a particular discipline or art - A systematic plan followed in presenting material for instruction - A way, technique, or process of or for doing something - A body of skills or techniques

13 People “Learning - Learners” Through Ages People “Learning - Learners” Through Ages How People Learn Through Age Stages CHS38512Johali2ndMoHE2015 Philosophical - Scientific Bases

14 Remember Ages “Maslow & Coleman - Do You ? If You Don’t You Have To Lear Again !!!? CHS385 While Crawford D. (2004) concludes ""The literature supports the idea that adults are very capable of learning well into their seventies which is a good reason to accept ‘Andragogy” the lifelong learning as more than just a pleasant mantra", the Arab and Islamic world have more evidence in their well known Proverb: اطلبوا العلم من المهد إلى اللحد Seek education from the cradle to the grave. Keep learning from when you're born until you die This Proverb indicates that “people can and have to learn over all ages from fetus to death using best methods suite their different abilities and characters”. So it necessary to realize these differences in order to decide the best ' HE approaches, methodologies and strategies appropriate for every ages stages, you can use Maslow and Coleman Models that you have learn early courses, mainly CHS 282 and 382. How People Learn Throughout Age Stages 13Johali2ndMoHE2015

15 Do You Know What You Don’t Know Knowing Brainstorming This move, from "knowing that you don't know" to "knowing that you know" is what most learning and hence teaching is all about. Hosted by Bridgeway Academy, a leading provider of academic programs for K-12 students worldwide, this educational summit will increase public awareness of the full range of educational options available to students, no matter what their learning style. Attendees will have the opportunity to submit questions during the presentation which will be answered by the education experts during a Q&A session. All will leave with an in depth understanding of their educational options as well as an exclusive opportunity to receive a Learning Style Assessment (LSA)—a highly intuitive assessment that allows parents to gain a firm understanding of their child's individual learning style. In addition, attendees will learn about the 3 Cs of education including: Taking back Control: How and when to advocate, and when to say enough is enough Know your Choice Customize for your child Your child's education: What you don't know can hurt you Be Ready To Take Smart Note ‘terms-draw

16 If I don't know I don't know I think I know If I don't know I know I think I don't know Laing R D (1970) Knots Harmondsworth; Penguin (p.55) "He that knows not, and knows not that he knows not is a fool. Shun him He that knows not, and knows that he knows not is a pupil. Teach him. He that knows, and knows not that he knows is asleep Wake him. He that knows, and knows that he knows is a teacher. Follow him." (Arabic proverb) NEIGHBOUR R (1992) The Inner Apprentice London; Kluwer Academic Publishers. p.xvii "We know what we know, we know that there are things we do not know, and we know that there are things we don't know we don't know" Donald Rumsfeld (4 Sept 2002) (Woodward, 2004: 171. Video here.) It is ironic, perhaps, that the initial insight is allegedly Arabic. (Woodward, 2004: 171. Video here In Knowing, the two senses are those of: Awareness of self, (represented by the vertical red line in the diagram below) and Knowledge of the world (the horizontal blue line) Do You Know What You Don’t Know Knowing Brainstorming This move, from "knowing that you don't know" to "knowing that you know" is what most learning and hence teaching is all about.

17 Does aging have an effect on adult learning? Does aging have an effect on adult learning? Click here to play the “I Want to be a Millionaire” (oops wrong game) “Adult Education and Aging Game” IQ in Adults B. Increases about 1% a year until the age of 65. A. Decreases about 1% a year after the age of 30. C. Doesn’t materially change during adulthood D. Starts dropping off significantly after the age of 65. Hide Answer !! CHS38516Johali2ndMoHE2015 Discover Characteristics

18  A group of 50 year olds were given IQ tests that had taken 31 years earlier.  They made higher scores on every part except math reasoning.  Wechsler found test scores increased until 35 then declined very slowly after that. Next Question IQ = Intelligence Quotient (proportion) How People Learn Through Age Stages CHS38517Johali2ndMoHE2015

19 A. Peaks around the age of 20. C. Peaks around the age of 40.D. Peaks around the age of 50 B. Peaks around the age of 30. Physical Strength in Adults Hide Answer !!  In England, Galton set up a booth at a National Fair and tested over 7,000 people for physical strength, his research and later research reveals 30 is the peak.  However, physical strength declines slowly. Research at Harvard found physical strength dropped dramatically between 70 and 75. Next Question How People Learn Through Age Stages CHS38518Johali2ndMoHE2015

20 A. In youth. C. In both youth and adults. D. In neither youth or adults B. In adults. There is a relationship between intelligence and speed of learning In youth there is a correlation between intelligence and speed in learning. In adulthood, this is not true. Intelligence - Hearing The correct answer is A Hide Answer !! How People Learn Through Age Stages CHS38519Johali2ndMoHE2015

21 The Correct Answer is A Peak Performance in Hearing Occurs Before Age 15   Gradual decline until 65, then more rapid.   Older people   Hear less and   Hear slower The ability to hear peaks before A. Age 15B. Age 30 C. Age 45D. Age 60 Hearing How People Learn Through Age Stages Hide Answer !! CHS38520Johali2ndMoHE2015

22 COMMON SENSE PRACTICE FOR MINIMIZING HEARING LOSS   Sit people where they can see everyone’s face.   Use small groups.   Teacher should stand still.   Teacher should speak, clearly, distinctly, and loudly   Use more than one sense while teaching.   Observe faces of students.   Eliminate outside noises.   Ask people to speak out if they can’t hear.   Repeat questions and answers. As people age: - Men lose ability to hear high sounds. - Women lose ability to hear low sounds. This is one of the reasons why women talk more with women and men talk more with men in the older years Hearing CHS38521Johali2ndMoHE2015

23 A. Between 13 and 18 C. Between 40 and 55 D. After 55 B. Between 18 and 40 The most acute decline in vision occurs The Correct answer is C.  Vision  Continuous gain  Gradual decline  Sharp decline  55 On Gradual decline VisionVision  Older Eyes Suffer  Vision loss in dim light  Narrowing field of vision  Slow adaptation to dark  Cataracts  Defective color vision SO…………….. Common Sense Practices For Minimizing Losses Associated With Age - Vision  Illumination  More Direct Light  Don’t Face Direct Light  Eliminate glare  White or Chalk Boards  Keep Clean  Use Large Writing  Media  Use Sharp Color Contrast  Enlarged Type or Print  Avoid Abbreviations  Seating  Seat People Close to Board 22CHS385Johali2ndMoHE2015

24 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT  Begins with birth  Ends with death Classifying 7 Stages  Infancy- birth to 1 year  Early childhood years  Late childhood years  Adolescence years  Early adulthood years  Middle adulthood years  Late adulthood - 65 and up  Infancy- birth to 1 year  Early childhood years  Late childhood years  Adolescence years  Early adulthood years  Middle adulthood years  Late adulthood - 65 and up 4 TYPES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 4 TYPES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 9Physical: Body growth 9Mental: development of mind 9Emotional:feelings 9Social: interactions & relationship Plus; CHS Maslow & Coleman ? Johali2ndMoHE2015

25 Children Adults 12-65Aging 65 + Rely on others to decide what is important to be learned. Decide for themselves what is important to be learned. Keep Reading; Writing …. Accept the information being presented at face value. Need to validate the information based on their beliefs and values. Expect what they are learning to be useful in their long-term future. Expect what they are learning to be immediately useful. Have little or no experience upon which to draw, are relatively "blank slates." Have substantial experience upon which to draw. May have fixed viewpoints. Little ability to serve as a knowledgeable resource to teacher or fellow classmates. Significant ability to serve as a knowledgeable resource to the trainer and fellow learners. Maintain & Adjustment Child and Adult Learning Characteristics How People Learn Via Age Stages Adults attend classes often with a Mixed set of motives - educational, social, recreational - and sometimes out of an overdeveloped puritanical sense of duty. Both ‘child-adult’ are sometimes “fatigued \ exhaustion” when they attend classes, old age more.

26 Johali2ndMoHE2015 What People Remember 10 % of what is read 20 % of what is heard 30 % of what is seen 50 % of what they see & hear 70 % what they say as they do a task 90% of what they teach okok After review taxonomy of LO Interest Patients \ Learners Characters https://www.osha.gov/dte/.../training_techniques2.ppt CHS38525

27 Learning Theories Q: How do people learn? A: Nobody really knows !! but there are huge theories, can be classified these 6 theories (your left) - summarized in THREE Figure Model ( your right ) : Behaviorism Cognitivism Social Learning Theory Social Constructivism Multiple Intelligences Brain-Based Learning Behaviorism Cognitivism Social Learning Theory Social Constructivism Multiple Intelligences Brain-Based Learning CHS38526Johali2ndMoHE2015

28 Learning Theories CHS38527Johali2ndMoHE2015

29 Learning Theories CHS38528Johali2ndMoHE2015

30 Learning Theories CHS38529Johali2ndMoHE2015

31 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE HEP Philosophies - Theories -Approaches - Model - Strategies and Methods

32 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE HEP Philosophies - Theories -Approaches - Model - Strategies and Methods

33 CHS38532 HEP Philosophies - Theories -Approaches - Model - Strategies and Methods Deductive reasoning (top-down logic – Informal) contrasts with ” Inductive reasoning (bottom-up logic - Formal) in the following way: In deductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules that hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse, narrowing the range under consideration until only the conclusion is left. In inductive reasoning, the conclusion is reached by generalizing or extrapolating from initial information. As a result, induction can be used even in an open domain, one where there is epistemic uncertainty. Note, however, that the inductive reasoning mentioned here is not the same as induction used in mathematical proofs – mathematical induction is actually a form of deductive reasoning.” Inductive reasoningreductivelyclosed domain of discourseopen domainepistemic uncertaintyinductionmathematical induction Johali2ndMoHE2015

34 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE SOCIETALEMPOWERMENT PERSON-CLIENT EDUCATIONALBEHAVIOURMEDICAL Aim is to effect on the physical, social and economic environment, in order to make it more conducive to good health Self-empowerment of the client is seen as central Aim is to give information and ensure knowledge and understanding of health issues and to enable well-informed decisions to be made Aim is to change people’s individual attitudes and behaviour so that they adopt a healthy lifestyle Aim is freedom from medically- defined disease and disability such as infectious diseases Focus is on changing society not on changing the behavior of individuals Help them to identify what they want to know about and take action on and make their own decisions and choices according to their own interest and values Information about health is presented and people are helped to explore their values and attitudes and make their own decisions teaching people how to stop smoking, encouraging people to take exercise, eat the right food, look after their teeth etc Involves medical intervention to prevent or ameliorate ill- health Value democratic right to change society and will be committed to putting health on the political agenda - HE role act as facilitator in helping people to identify their own concerns and gain the knowledge and skills they require to make things happen - Clients are valued as equal who have knowledge, skills and abilities to contribute, and who have an absolute right to control their own health destinies Help in carrying out those decisions and adopting new health practices may also be offered -value the educational process and respect the right of the individual to choose their own health behaviour - Responsibility to raise with clients the health issues which they think will be in their client’s best interests A healthy lifestyle is in the interest of their clients and that they are responsible to encourage as many people as possible to adopt a healthy lifestyle Values preventive medical procedures and the medical profession’s responsibility to ensure that patients comply with recommended procedures Different Between Theories Approaches Model Strategies and Methods HEP “Philosophy - Theory – Model - Approach – Methods – Strategies” Plan “P – T – M – A – M – S” PLAN Further -

35 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE How We Can Become More Intelligent Learners and Teachers & HE !! ?

36 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Twelve Characteristics of Intelligent Behavior: 2.Persistence: Persevering when the solution to a problem is not readily apparent. 3.Decrease Impulsivity: Think before speaking or doing. 4.Listen: Listen to others with empathy and understanding. 5.Flexibility in Thinking: Consider other options--there's never one right way to do everything. 6.Metacognition: Try to be aware of your own thinking. 7.Check for Accuracy and Precision: Revise, revise, revise. 8.Questioning and Problem Posing: Be critical in your questioning. 9.Use Past Knowledge: Draw on what you know and apply it to new situations. 10.Precise Language and Thought: Use more descriptive language to communicate more precisely. 11.Use All the Senses: Utilize as many sensory pathways as possible--visual, tactile, kinesthetic, auditory, olfactory, and gustatory. 12.Creativity: Use your ingenuity, originality, and insightful--we are all creative beings. 13.Be Curious: Work on your sense of wonderment and inquisitiveness--learn to enjoy problem solving and develop a sense of efficacy as a thinker. How We Can Become More Intelligent Learners and Teachers & HE !! ?

37 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Have faith that all learners can think Help learners see thinking as a goal Present challenging problem solving opportunities Create a safe, risk-taking environment Give learners time to learn Provide a rich responsive environment for learning Pay attention to learners' developmental readiness and sequence Be the kind of learner you would have them be learn How We Can Become More Intelligent Learners and Teachers & HE !! ? What We Can Do as Teachers\HE to Promote Intelligent Behavior: FINALLY REMEMER To Know That You Don’t Know A Lot – Be Aware – Ready & Willing

38 Further for learning CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE Knowledge; education; erudition; scholarship; culture; wisdom; study; be taught; be trained; become skilled at; gain knowledge of; find out; hear; discover; realize; ascertain; gather; understand…… MILO DIALOGUE Leadership DevelopmentLeadership DevelopmentT he MILO Process Knowing and Not Knowing

39 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE MOTIVATION Just Remember Did You Learn Motivation ? Where – What ….!! WHY Motives and Barriers To Learning Motives and Barriers To Learning

40 WHY Teaching – Learning   To provide an introduction to the “Spirit of M”   To learn about “M principles to use with individuals on behavior change   To assess motivation for readiness to change   To provide a foundation to build skills M = Motivators who – how Motivation Success = People the Students & Patients CHS Johali2ndMoHE2015 Spirit of Team Assure Success

41 Three Components of M Spirit Collaboration Evocation Autonomy Working in partnership Draw out ideas and solutions from individuals Decision making left to the person CHS38540Johali2ndMoHE2015

42 MOTIVATION Just Remember Did You Learn Motivation ? Where – What ….!! Directive, person centered counseling style that aims to help people explore and resolve their ambivalence تناقض ; تأرجح ; تردد “ about behavior change. Directive, person centered counseling style that aims to help people explore and resolve their ambivalence تناقض ; تأرجح ; تردد “ about behavior change. “Michael Wiles and Cross Country Education, Inc. 2005” MI = Motivational Interviewing What is Ambivalence?  I want to, but I don’t want to  Ambivalence is key issue to resolve for change to occur CHS38541Johali2ndMoHE2015 Mi is a counseling style rather than a set of techniques. It is not a method for tricking people in to doing things they do not want to do. It is a style for eliciting from the person their own motivations for change. It is a way of interacting with people to assess their readiness to change and to help them move through different stages of change. MI focuses on creating a comfortable atmosphere without pressure or coercion to change. It is called interviewing because it involves careful listening and strategic questioning rather than teaching to help people overcome their ambivalence to change. Any change that will happen will come from within the client and not imposed upon them by some outside force. It is the role of the client to be able to articulate and resolve his or her own ambivalence to change. Ambivalence is the I want to but I don’t want to state of mind – feeling 2 ways about something. Direct persuasion is rarely effective at resolving ambivalence.

43 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Motivation Factors Motivation Vision COMPLIANCECOOPERATION COMMITMENT The Plodder The Enthusiast Little EnthusiasmHigh enthusiasm Little MotivationHigh Motivation Which would you prefer on your project team and why? Which would you prefer on your project team and why? Motivation – the extremes?

44 Douglas McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y 1.Most people will try to do as little work as possible. 2.For most people, work is not as natural as play or recreation. 3.Most employees must be closely supervised in order to get them to perform up to expectations 4.Most employees actually prefer to be told exactly what to do rather than having to figure it out for themselves 5.Most employees do not care much about the organization's goals. 6.Most employees would prefer increased job security to increased responsibility. 7.Most people will not use their own initiative or do things that they have not been specifically assigned to do. 8.Employees generally do not have much to contribute when asked to participate in making decisions or solving problems 9.It is just basic human nature--people just naturally dislike work. 10.Most employees will not exercise self-control and self-motivation--managers must do this for them SAAUDSD points = strong Theory Y beliefs points = moderate Theory Y beliefs points = mixed Theory Y and Theory X beliefs points = moderate Theory X beliefs points = strong Theory X beliefs CHS38543Johali2ndMoHE2015

45 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Motives and Barriers To Learning Motives and Barriers To Learning

46 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Motives and Barriers for Learning GIVE YOUR REASONS….First ?!! then see Video make smart note Boshier, Morstain and Smart: Houle wasn't good enough for these guys--they had to go out and come up with an even longer list of why adults participate in learning (there's a lot of "list comparison" that goes on in educational research, isn't there?). They came up with six factors for participation: 1.Social Relationships: make friends and meet others. 2.External Expectations: complying with the wishes of someone else with authority. 3.Social Welfare: desire to serve others and/or community. 4.Professional Advancement: desire for job enhancement or professional advancement. 5.Escape/Stimulation: to alleviate boredom and/or to escape home or work routine. 6.Cognitive Interest: learning for the sake of learning itself. Why don't we participate in learning ? ؟ Barriers to Learning Presentation

47 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE This critical learning question have been studied by many researchers. The following researchers have worked out ways of grouping specific barriers into categories: Johnstone and Rivera; Found two categories: External or situation barriers and; Internal or dispositional barriers Cross: Three categories; Situational barriers (depending person's situation at a given time), Institutional barriers (all practices and procedures that discourage adults from participation--like filling out those application forms for graduate school), Dispositional barriers (person's attitude about self and learning( Darkenwald and Merriam: Add another category to Cross' list; Informational barriers (person is not aware of educational activities available). Above taken from: Merriam, S. & Caffarella, R. (1991). Learning in Adulthood. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, All of the above-mentioned studies look at participation from a psychological perspective, "If one looks at the social structure rather than individual needs and interests, one discovers some very different explanations as to why adults do or do not participate in adult learning activities" (1991, p. 94). Why don't We Participate in learning ? ؟

48 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Geographic Conditions: There is a great divide between urban, suburban, and rural settings. Rural areas tend to have fewer resources for education. In many industrialized countries, however, inner cities may be worse off than some rural areas. Migrant and homeless people are also at a great disadvantage for receiving access to education. Most of us can come up with many reasons for not participating in educational activities, but as educators, we may be so used to participating in learning ourselves that it becomes difficult to "think outside the box" sometimes. Merriam and Brockett (1997) devote a whole chapter (the info below is from pp ) to the issue of access to adult education and list four major conditions that limit access: LEARNING CONDITIONS & BARRIARS Demographic Factors: Age and sex influence who participates and who doesn't. Young and middle-aged adults participate more than older adults--of course, younger adults often continue learning for their jobs. But older adults tend to have less education in general than younger people, and level of education is a good predictor of who will continue to participate in educational activities. The role of age could change significantly in the future, however, in countries such as the U.S., where life expectancy continues to rise.

49 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE LEARNING CONDITIONS & BARRIARS Socioeconomic Conditions and Education: Those who have relatively affluent backgrounds, tend to remain that way and also tend to participate more in education. Those from less wealthy families participate less partly because they have less money to do so, but also because they don't fit into the system of education (i.e. they don't speak the same language, share the same norms, etc.) which is built and maintained by wealthier people. Formal education is also the kind of education that "counts the most," but it also costs the most and has the most prerequisites--less well- off people may be engaging in a variety of learning activities, but these activities don't count since they don't earn the learners an "official" piece of paper. Cultural Determinants: Minority groups all over the world tend to participate less than majority groups. This can be due to majority groups explicitly prohibiting the participation of minority people. It can also be that belonging to certain non-majority groups can impact one's attitudes towards education. As a member of a particular social group, you may not feel that you can trust certain forms of education and may feel uncomfortable participating in them. Additionally, immigrant populations tend not to participate in educational activities as much as native- born populations. (Now Try To Think Can You Draw The Above Barriers in an Attractive Model ? )

50 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Learning conditions and barriers Models

51 - HOW TO DECIDE HOW TO CHOOSE OR INNVATE Johali MoHE Sciences CHS38550Johali2ndMoHE2015

52 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE In planning health promotion interventions; There is an increasing interest in systematic descriptions or taxonomies of health promotion interventions, the theoretical methods they contain, and the determinants that are targeted for change (Stavri & Michie, 2012). However, most of these taxonomies focus on individual behavior change and only a few also include behavior change of environmental agents (Bartholomew, et al., 2011; Khan et al., 2009) at the interpersonal, organizational, community and policy levels. Moreover, translating methods into applications demands a sufficient understanding of the theory behind the method, especially the theoretical parameters under which the theoretical process is effective or not (Schaalma & Kok, 2009) HE LEVEL \TYPES \ FIELD the Johali CHS382 Tenant ….: The new synergy support our tenant WHO \ WHOM OUR CPMMUNITY \ PEOPLE \ ORGANIZATIONS

53 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Adapted HuCOMP PH1-FuHE – M0oHE LEVELS 1.Self interact to interpret reality & create messages. At this basic level, the central communicative processes of encoding & decoding are performed to help us coordinate our meanings and messages at 2. 2.Interaction, negotiation and relations between two individuals, its effectiveness based on level 1, this level is the most important to health communication and, thus, it is important to gain at least the “Seven Top Health Communication Skills (Pagano & Ragan, 1992, 29). 3.Interaction of three or more individuals to adapt & achieve common tasks, its effectiveness based on 1. & 2. e.g; medical team. 4.Encompasses 1, 2, & 3, it is important to develop effective formal channels and informal networks e.g; hospitals & health centres. 5.Intra & Inter Social/Cultural joints all the above, it can be within more than two different groups, communities in one organization, nation or nations. 6.This is the highest level of communications, e.g; national and international mass media & satellites. National–International INTRA&INTER Social & Cultural Organizational Group INTERPERSONAL INTRAPERSONAL Johali Tenant METHODS FOR EVERY LEVEL Johali Tenant METHODS FOR EVERY LEVEL

54 53 Johali Summary Philosophies & Theories of Education DO YOU REMEMBER - WHERE – HOW USE TO DECIDE Johali2ndMoHE2015 CHS385

55 Johali2ndMoHE MoHE Define & Reasoning Why & How to choose the appropriate ?

56 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE BEHAVIORAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES BEO Based MoHE

57 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE THEORY OF BEHAVIORAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES Learn to behave BLOOM s’ TAXONOMY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES the Domains Simple / Dependent / Passive COGNITIVE Know – Knowledge AFFECTIVE Think – Value – Response - Judge PSYCHOMOTOR/ACTION Intellectual Skills Behaviors (Doing): Reflect – Adapt - Modify - Decide – Move Complex / Independent / Active

58 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE THEORY OF BEHAVIORAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES- Learn to behave The BLOOM s’ TAXONOMY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES the Verbs Simple / Dependent / Passive Behavioral Objective AreaClass Action/PsychoAffectCognitive Reflect/MoveReceiveRememberKnowledgeKnowledge CommunicateRespondReasonComprehension ActValue/apprise Plan to solve Int. Ability Application Adapt Organize/characte r FormatAnalysis DevelopCreate/InterpretUnderstand Int. Skills Synthesis Decide Ext Judge Inter Judge Evaluation Complex / Independent / Active / Deep understanding

59 Teaching -Learning Objectives   Independent of other actions   Contain a specific action verb   Have a beginning and ending   Observable and measurable Key Characters (ICHO) Must contain the condition(s) under which performance is to occur Do NOT Use (KLU) To Know To Learn To Understand CHS385 58Johali2ndMoHE2015 Why (cloudy ; dreamlike)

60 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE COMMON METHODOLOGIES - APPROCHES

61 SELF-EMPOWERMENT COLLECTIVE METHODS  Andraogy - Participatory learning  Critical Thinking CT to Problem Solving PS – DM  Counselling: Client-centred & Group Counselling  Individual & Social Assertiveness Training  Educational drama CHS38560Johali2ndMoHE2015

62 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE Andragogy Community\ People\ Students\Patient Cantered Learning

63 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE According to the article Malcolm Knowles an American practitioner and theorist of adult education, defined andragogy as “the art and science of helping adults learn”. Knowles identified the six principles of adult learning as: Adults are internally motivated and self-directed Adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences Adults are goal oriented Adults are relevancy oriented Adults are practical Adult learners like to be respected Johalili2013 Knowles, M. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy 2 nd ed. New York: Association Press

64 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Aim is to work with clients in order to help them to identify what they want to know about and take action on and make their own decisions and choices according to their own interest and values Health promoter’s role is to act as a facilitator in helping people to identify their own concerns and gain the knowledge and skills they require to make things happen Self-empowerment of the client is seen as central to this amazing approach Clients are valued as equal who have knowledge, skills and abilities to contribute, and who have an absolute right to control their own health destinies THE CLIENT-CENTRED APPROACH (The Real EMPOWERMENT)

65 Client Participation  The degree of participation in the HE process directly influences the amount of learning.  When the HE works with clients in a learning context, one of the first question to discuss is “What does the client wants to learn?”  The amount of learning is directly preoperational to the learner's involvement – the more involvement the more quality of learning” For example, a group of senior citizens “old ages” attended a class on nutrition and aging, yet made few changes in eating patterns. It was not until the members became actively involved in the class, encouraged by the HE to present problems and solutions for food purchasing and preparation on limited budget, that any significant behavioral changes occurred. Participatory Learning is a new non formal Adult learning, your role just a facilitator to promote, help and support Participatory Learning CHS38564Johali2ndMoHE2015

66 Participatory Learning The purpose of this exercise is to see ourselves as learners before discussing how to help learners learn. ======== This exercise reminds us that: Everybody has his or her own learning habits ? -Some people learn fast with books ? - Others learn better from friends or TV Or Programs; Internet…..etc.? -May enjoy learning through group work and your friends (True ?) -You may prefer learning through real demonstrations, when you compare your experience with others.. -You find that different people have different learning habits- Each of our learners is different ( True ?) We have to keep this in mind and develop flexible teaching-learning methods. There is no single best way, Are we facilitators ?, Do we need to find the best ones for our own centre ? What – How Do We Learn – Group Exercise ? Chambers, R. (1993) Treading more carefully: participatory rural appraisal – past, present and future. New Ground 13, Hart R (1996) Children’s Participation: The Theory and practice of Involving Young Citizens In Community Development and Environmental Care, UNICEF CHS Johali2ndMoHE2015

67 Participatory Learning Why; What – How Do We Learn – Group Exercise & Games ? What environment can we create for better learning? Exercise 1 Please draw a sketch of your literacy class setting – doorway (s), windows, desks, chairs, blackboard, etc. We can think about a good environment in two ways: One is the physical environment – facilitates including the building that houses the learning centre and facilities in the classroom. We can ask the following questions: “ ë Do learners have places to sit?; Is there enough light?; s the place warm or cool enough?; Is water available?; Is the learning place interesting to look at, with some photos and charts on the wall?; ë Is there too much noise from outside?; ë Are there toilets? Second, we need to consider the psychological environment. In other words, adult learners need to feel comfortable in their minds when they learn. The following statements may be common to many of us: “ ë I feel relaxed in class, not threatened by anything; ë The facilitator and the other learners listen to me; ë Other people respect my ideas.; ë I can express my opinions freely…. In order to make the situation relaxed and friendly, we may play some games. We call them çice breakersé or çenergizers.é CHS Johali2ndMoHE2015

68 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Brain Storming Critical Thinking - Problem Based Learning & Problem Solving & Decision Making (CTPSDM) Brain Storming Critical Thinking - Problem Based Learning & Problem Solving & Decision Making (CTPSDM) What is brainstorming? Brainstorming is used to generate a large number of creative ideas when problem solving and achieving objectives. It can even be used for decision making. Brainstorming was first introduced a book named Applied Imagination written in the late 1930’s by Alex Osborn. Steps for a brainstorming session: ë Identify the issue(s) with the learners. ë Write the issue(s) on the board and explain. ë Ask learners to think about the issue(s) for a few minutes. ë Invite quick ideas on the issue(s) without elaboration. ë Ask learners not to interrupt or argue. ë Assign someone to write down ideas on the board. ë Stop brainstorming at some point and ask learners to clarify each idea. ë Put ideas into categories and prioritize. ë Discuss and underline the ideas agreed upon.

69 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE P1: the 8 Coins? Move two coins to make each coin touch three coins P2 the 7 Matchsticks : Move Three Matchsticks to Make 5 Critical Thinking - Problem Solving & Decision Making (CTPSDM) Six Thinking Hats

70 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Critical Thinking - Problem Solving & Decision Making (CTPSDM) P is the gap between the current and the desired situations/ it is an obstacle /barrier to achieve objective PS is the act of finding the most appropriate solutions/answers D the choice of one from a set of initially possible alternatives. DM is a problem-solving process where you are required to make a choice on one solution based on many solutions gathered from the information you have acquired (http://www.sunrisepage.com/manage/decision.htm)http://www.sunrisepage.com/manage/decision.htm DM is the study of identifying and choosing alternatives on the values and preferences of the decision maker.

71 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Critical Thinking - Problem Solving & Decision Making (CTPSDM) Problem-Solving Skills in Education and Life think/methods.htm think/methods.htm 5 Whys Root Cause Analysis Problem Solving Tool--Video Training ethods.htm#problem-solving-education ethods.htm#problem-solving-education +

72 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015 Demonstration & Return demonstration The demonstration method often is used for teaching psychomotor skills and is best accompanied by explanation and discussion, With time set aside for return demonstration by the client or caregiver the HE, It gives clients a clear sensory image of how to perform the skill. Because a demonstration should be within easy visual and auditory range of learners, it is best demonstrate in front of small groups or a single client. The demonstration method often is used for teaching psychomotor skills and is best accompanied by explanation and discussion, With time set aside for return demonstration by the client or caregiver the HE, It gives clients a clear sensory image of how to perform the skill. Because a demonstration should be within easy visual and auditory range of learners, it is best demonstrate in front of small groups or a single client. Use the same kind of equipment that clients will use, show exactly how the skill should be performed, and provide learners with ample opportunity to practice until the skill is perfected. https://www.google.com.sa/search?q=demonstration+method&espvhttps://www.google.com.sa/search?q=demonstration+method&espv= https://www.google.com.sa/search?q=demonstration+method&espvhttps://www.google.com.sa/search?q=demonstration+method&espv= 71

73 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE Demonstration & Return demonstration

74 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE Demonstration & Return demonstration https://www.google.com.sa/search?q=demonstration+method&espv=

75 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Steps to follow for a role play: ë Choose the subject matter and outline a basic plot. ë Select the actors. Do a small role play first. Later it can evolve into a long drama in the form of a series, in which the same characters reappear, more join in, and more issues are covered. ë Prepare flash cards of proverbs or sayings that the actors can use at any time. ë Encourage the actors to make up their own spontaneous dialogue to suit the story line and plot. ë Arrange some time after the role play to discuss the experience Role Play At times, having clients assume and act out roles maximize learning. For example, A parenting group,, found it helpful to place themselves in the role of their children; their feelings about various ways to respond became more apparent. - Reversing roles can effectively teach spouses in conflict about better ways to communicate. - To prevent role-playing from a becoming a game with little learning, plan the proposed drama with clear objectives in mind. ROLEPLAYActing of roles by group participants. Can be useful where communication difficulties exist between individuals in a setting, e.g. families, professional practice, etc.

76 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE Do We Like – Can We Do – How we can we make learning enjoyable ?! SIMUALTION - GAMES Ice BreakersIce Breakers in SIMULATION Useful for influencing attitudes in individuals with varying abilities. Generally in school setting, but of relevance to other groups. GAMES instructional methods requiring the learner to participate in a competitive activity with preset rules to achieve an educational objective Advantages Active learner Perceived as “fun” by many learners Useful for all three domains of learning Limitations Too competitive for some learners Advantages Active learners Practice “reality” in a safe setting Useful for cognitive and psychomotor domains of learning Limitations Labor intensive Costs of equipment

77 Summary Points... WWe've come a long way in a few years TThe research agenda is still being set, and barely is being met but momentum to do so is building WWe can't just research, or build, we must do and respect both needs equally. WWe can have an effect but the strength, size, and pervasiveness are questions DDefining the usage space, do's, don'ts, strengths..,etc. FFor what we gain... can we actually measure? Why Games Games are growing media form There is little doubt that people are increasingly allocating time from other media to games Games may offer better forms of educational experiences (at times) Researchers are trying to figure this out and early returns are promising The technologies & talents housed in the games industry have proven capabilities beyond games Exploit technologies and techniques honed by millions if not billions of dollars https://www.facebook.com/anthony.d.champagne CHS38576Johali2ndMoHE2015

78 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE Do We Like – Can We Do – How we can we make learning enjoyable ?! Ice BreakersIce Breakers in True or False: (suitable after two or three months; skill: reading) Write several statements on large pieces of paper, making them either true or false. For example: snakes eat mice, birds eat worms, not seeds; sunrise in the morning, sunset in the east; fresh water is salty... Show these statements to the class very quickly (speed reading) and ask the participants to decide T (True) or F (False). Communication Circles: (suitable for later stages; skill: writing): Ask all the participants to write down their names on small pieces of paper. Put all the pieces together and ask participants to pick out one name at random. If they pick out their own name, then they should swap the paper with someone else. For the following two or three weeks every participant writes short letters ormessages to the participant whose name they picked out. The facilitator acts as a message- bearer, distributing this secret mail among the members of the circle. At the end of the period, the participants say whom they have been writing to, and then letters are displayed on the wall to compare. learning GAMES

79 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE Do We Like – Can We Do – How we can we make learning enjoyable ?! learning GAMES Cotton Blowing:- We can use this game to build teamwork, to encourage planning, and to stimulate learners to be analytical.

80 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE Counselling is one of the educational methods most frequently used in health education to help individuals and families. During counselling, a person with a need (the client) and a person who provides support and encouragement (the counsellor) meet and discuss in such a way that the client gains confidence in his or her ability to find solutions to their problems. Counseling and Group Work in Health Education Groups can often do things that individuals could not do by themselves. They may be able to support their members in the practice of improving their health behaviour. School health education is any combination of learning experiences initiated by you as a Health Extension Practitioner in the preschool and school setting (Figure 11.1). Your work will be targeted to develop the behavioural skills required to cope with the challenges to health at school.

81 GROUP DISCUSSION Steps for a group discussion: 1. State the reasons for and the goals of the discussion beforehand. 2. Talk in an informal way and ask about the concerns learners have so that they can help choose a topic (family planning is one example). 3. Select a moderator to start the discussion. 4. Encourage group members to present the pros and cons of the topic. 4. Everyone should have a chance to speak and share ideas. 5. Gather information and analyze. Have someone take notes on the blackboard. We have to know that group discussion is not just people chatting. It is useful to set up ground rules for group discussion such as these: ë We listen to each other. ë We respect other peoples ideas. ë We do not hurt or insult each other. ë We speak briefly, clearly and precisely. Gladding defined a group as “a collection of two or more individuals who meet in face-to-face interaction, interdependently, with the awareness that each belongs to the group and for the purpose of achieving mutually agreed-on goals.” Group Work & Counseling CHS38580Johali2ndMoHE2015

82 Group Counseling Process 1.First session in CBDD: 1. Clarify ground rules and guidelines. 2. Build cohesiveness and trust. 3. Discuss confidentiality. 4. Discuss active listening for each other. 2. Remaining sessions in 8 Steps SELEESR: 1.Summary of the initial meeting. 2.Establish therapeutic atmosphere. 3.Leader models facilitative behaviors. 4.Establish a relationship. 5.Address members’ concerns/problems. 6.Explore previous solutions, look at alternatives. 7.Set goals, try new behaviors, assign homework 8.Report and evaluate results CHS38581

83 Group Leader Characteristics (Corey) Johali2ndMoHE2015  Presence – genuine care in “being there” for clients  Personal power – self confidence and awareness of one’s power  Courage – ability to take risks and be vulnerable  Willingness to confront oneself – being honest and self aware  Sincerity and authenticity – sincere interest in the well-being of others and behaving without pretense  Sense of identity – knowing one’s values, strengths, and limitations  Belief and enthusiasm for the group process  Inventiveness and creativity – open to new ideas and experience Group Counseling Process CHS38582 Group counseling can help children in formative years acquire social skills, improve racial relationships, and shape a positive attitude towards school. Group counseling can support preadolescents in dealing with family, peer pressure, and anger management. Group counseling can help high school students with making choices, stress, aggression, and eating disorders. Group counseling can help students with self-esteem, self-determination, body awareness, and self-concept (ex. unity model). Implications for Different Ages

84 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Lecture & Presentation HE have to present information to a large group. The lecture method, a formal kind of presentation, may be the most efficient way to communicate general health information. However, lectures tend to create a passive learning environment for the audience unless strategies are devised to involve the learners. To capture their attention, slides, overhead projections, computer-generated slide presentations, or videotapes can supplement the lecture. Allowing time for question and dissection after lecture also actively involves the learners. This method is best used with adults, but even they have a limited attention span, and a break at least midway through a presentation of 1 hour will be appreciated. Distributing printed material that highlights and summarizes the content shared, or supplements it, also reinforce important points. You CHS382 Exciting

85 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Lecture & Presentation You CHS382 Top Exciting - Why

86 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE BEHAVIOUR CHANGE - MODIFICATION - Often used in intra-personal, cultural, social, national communication educational levels, and include techniques intended to help those in the target population experience a change in behavior systematic procedure for changing a behavior and process based on stimulus response theory - Emphasis placed on a specific behavior that one might want to increase or decrease - Particular attention given to changing the events that are antecedent or subsequent to the behavior that is to be modified - Learning and unlearning of specific habits. -Stimulus-response learning. -Generally behavior specific, e.g. quit smoking phobia desensitization.

87 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE M & T MAJOR METHODS METHODOLOGIES JOHALI QUALITY MODEL -SUMMARY OF THE MOST COMMOM MoHEs METHODOLOGIES

88 87 CHS Johali2ndMoHE2015 METHODOLOGY – THE MOST COMMOM CAP BASEDE

89 HEMLT StrategiesPrevalent category Diagnostic Criterion Behavi or modific ation Modelin g Peer- group discussi on Simulat ions and games Inquiry Learnin g Progra mmed Learnin g \ ETV Mass medi a Individ ual instruct ion Lectur e Audio visual aids √√√√√√√√CognitiveDesired Educational Outcomes √√√Affect √√Psycho. √√√SimpleHI Complexity √√√Complex √√SimpleHB Complexity √√Complex √√√ShortHB Duration √√√√Long √√InfrequentHB Frequency √√√Frequent RareHB Extent √Widespread √√AdditiveHB Nature √√Substantive CHS38588 Johali2ndMoHE2015

90 HEMLT Strategies Prevalent category Diagnos tic Criterio n Behavio r modifica tion Modelin g Peer- group discussio n Simulati ons and games Inquiry Learnin g Program ed Learnin g \ TV Mass media Individu al instructi on Lectur e Audiovi sual aids √√√ Infants and preschool children Age √√√√√√√√ Primary school children √√√√√√√√√ Secondar y school √√√√√ Adults √√ WeakBelieve s HBM √√√ Moderate √ Strong √ High intermedi ate Socioec onomic statue Recommended HEM Strategies To Age; Believe & Socioeconomic Status CHS38589Johali2ndMoHE2015

91 ExamplesDisadvantagesAdvantagesTechniques With high – school students, cases of drug dependency can be viewed and used as basis for discussion Need careful selection and previewing Need meaningful introduction and follow – up discussion costly Electricity required All information in film may not be appropriate No self – pacing Need proficient with equipment Resemble ‘look like’ reality Available to large audiences Effective illumination of attitudes and values, can demonstrate skills Visual and auditory senses stimulated 9.Filme, video, television Tape initial session of a group in which health attitudes are discussed. Play back in later session to assess any changes Quality recordings may be difficult to obtain Person using must be proficient with equipment Auditory sense stimulated Self – pacing Available to large audiences Small recorders can be inexpensive, Can be used for a variety of reasons 10. Tape recordings Inviting an adolescent diabetic who is coping well to speak to a group of new juvenile diabetics about how he feels in relation to his condition May not be easily available May be expensive May not be appropriate Present reality May provide a point of comparison May command respect because of knowledge 11. Expert contributors 90 TECHNOLOGIES 3 CHS38590Johali2ndMoHE2015

92 CONCEPTDEFINITIONMETHODS OF TX. PRE- CONTEMPLATION Unaware of the problem, hasn’t thought about change Engagement skills, develop trust, assertive outreach, accept client where they are at, provide concrete care CONTEMPLATION Thinking about change, in the near future (usually w/in the next 6mos) Instill hope, positive reinforcement for harm reduction, discuss consequences, raise ambivalence, motivational interviewing PREPARATION Making a plan to change plans, setting gradual goals (w/in 1 mo) Assist in developing concrete action, problem solve w/ obstacles, build skills, encourage small steps, tx planning ACTION Specific changes to life style has been made w/in past 6 mos Combat feelings of loss and emphasize long term benefits, enhance coping skills, teach how to use self help, tx. Planning, develop healthy living skills, teach to avoid high risk situations MAINTENANCE Continuation of desirable actions, or repeating periodic recommended step's Assist in coping, reminders, finding alternatives, relapse prevention RELAPSEPART OF THE PROCESS Determine the triggers and plan for future prevention METHODS OF STAGES OF CHANGE CHS38591Johali2ndMoHE2015

93 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Johali MoHE Social Marketing (SM) Johali MoHE Social Marketing (SM)

94 SOCIAL MARKETING defined as: The application of marketing concepts and techniques to the marketing of various socially beneficial ideas and causes instead or products and services in the commercial sense. (Fox & Kotler 1980) We have to use carefully for facilitating modifying health behaviors Product : the physical product and its symbolic meaning Price : The Value of the product Place : Where the product is available Promotion (Advertize) :advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and publicity SM 4 Ps CHS38593Johali2ndMoHE Establishing management and operating procedures 2.Selecting the products to be marketed 3.Identifying the consumer population 4.Deciding on brand names and packaging 5.Setting an appropriate price 6.Recruiting sales outlets 7.Arranging and maintaining a distribution system 8.Carrying out promotion SM 8 Steps

95 SM Strengths 1.A valuable change tool 2.Useful in persuasion 3.Useful in creating awareness and interest 4.Helpful by reinforcing through repetition of message WEAKNESSES & LIMITATION 1.Heavy reliance on mass media (effects of selective processes) 2.Makes the audience passive 3.Tends to be manipulative 4.May create negative public sentiments for real consume products 5.Creates resistance if opposed to strongly reinforced and deeply entrenched ideas/habits 6.Focus on the “individual” rather than the “community” at large for the proposed change 7.Only appropriate in certain circumstances 8.Ideas from “outside” - not the audience’s own CHS38594Johali2ndMoHE2015

96 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE REFLECT & PRACE

97 Inclusive of children Effective for learning Healthy and protective for children Involved with children, families, and communities Gender-sensitive Child-seeking = Child-centred Content Methods The methods for teaching & learning The content areas of skills- health education Every philosophy – theory – level – fields…..has each own : Characters - Content - Methods - group work & discussion - brainstorming - role play - educational games - debates - practising people skills CHS38596 Johali2ndMoHE2015

98 Knowledge Attitudes Skills (life) What topic? What issue? About what? Towards what? For what? Learning Outcomes Content CHS38597Johali2ndMoHE2015

99 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE LIVE if possible Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) with answers SAQ 11.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 11.1 and 11.2) Explain the difference between counselling and advice, and give examples of each of them. Hide answer Answer Counselling is a helping process where one person explicitly, and purposefully, gives their time to assist clients to explore their own situation, and act upon a solution. It is the process by which we first understand the problem, and then help the client to understand their problem, and then we need to work together with them to find a solution that is appropriate to their situation. It involves helping people to make decisions and giving them the confidence to put their decision into practice. Advice is based on opinions and suggestions about what could be done about a situation or problem. It is an opinion given by experts on what to do and how to do it. In advice, the decision is made by the health worker and the clients are expected to follow the decision. But in counselling, the decisions are made by the clients themselves. Advice is not appropriate in health counselling for two reasons. First, if the advice is right, the person may become dependent on the counsellor for solving all their problems in the future. Second, if the advice turns out to be wrong, the person will become angry and no longer trust the counsellor. Just Example 1 USING POWERPOINT&TO&CREATE SCIENTIFIC POSTERS

100 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Learning objectiveHealth education method Raising awareness and passing on knowledge Lecture with discussion, talks at public meetings or social gatherings, and the distribution of materials such as posters and leaflets Changing attitudes Individual approaches such as counselling or discussion, using visual and audio-visual materials Skill developmentTraining and demonstrations involving practice Selecting Objective Based HE Methods To achieve each of your stated objectives, you need to choose the best educational method, because not all health education methods are appropriate to achieve each of your objectives — some methods are better than others. For example, if one of your learning objectives is to increase knowledge about a particular health subject, you should choose a method which is appropriate for this objective This Table shows health education methods that are appropriate for each learning objective.

101 CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Selecting Objective Based HE Methods When you are choosing the educational method that you will use, you should also consider: The number of people involved. Learner preferences. The appropriateness of the method to the local culture. Availability of your resources. A method that best fits the characteristics (age, sex, religion, etc.) of the target group.

102 FURTHER CHS385Johali2ndMoHE

103 Highest Level Community health education, participation & organization CHS385Johali2ndMoHE

104 The Public Health System Assuring the Conditions for Population Health Employers and Business Academia Governmental Public Health Infrastructure The Media Health care delivery system Community Assuring the Conditions for Population Health Employ ers and Busines s Academ ia Govern mental Public Health Infrastru cture The Media Health care delivery system Comm unity CHS385103Johali2ndMoHE2015

105 The 10 Essential Public Health Services 1.Monitor health status to identify community health problems 2.Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community 3.Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues 4.Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems 5.Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts 6.Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety 7.Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable 8.Assure a competent public health and personal health care workforce 9.Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services 10.Conduct research to attain new insights and innovative solutions to health problems 11. Public Health Functions Steering Committee (1994) CHS385104Johali2ndMoHE2015

106 Tools & Techniques Oral Questions Assignments Research Work (group) Quizzes Conversation Skills Assessment Projects Questions Observation Checklist Portfolio Narrative records Photographs/ Videos Paintings/ Artistic Endeavour Observation Essays Self Assessment Peer Assessment Rating Scales Narrative Reports CHS Yes will be used Johali2ndMoHE2015

107 Johali Adopted Philosophy To Quality of MoHE ??!! Strategic Approach to Community Health Improvement Johali Adopted Philosophy To Quality of MoHE ??!! Strategic Approach to Community Health Improvement Yes will be used

108 Further Support Topics - Patient/Family Education Learning Module - A Model for Educational Feedback Based on Clinical Communication Skills Strategies: Beyond the "Feedback Sandwich“ Us9CQ9J_sec Us9CQ9J_sec CHS385Johali2ndMoHE Chapter 5 : Instructional Methods and Strategies Co-Lead Authors: Christopher White, MD and Lynn Manfred Co-Authors: Judy Bowen, MD, Martin Leamon, MD, Jennifer Koestler, MD, Lyuba Konopasek, MD, Marilyn Kimmelman, EdD, Paul M. Krueger, DO, David A. Rogers, MD, MHPE

109 References & Sources  Adult Learning /learning.html /learning.htmlhttp://www.fsu.edu/~adult-ed/jenny /learning.html  Workshop on Methods for Changing Environmental Conditions for Health: influencing organizations, key actors and stakeholders -  Abraham, C., & Michie, S. (2008). A taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychology, 27, 379–387.  Bartholomew, L. K., Parcel, G. S., Kok, G., Gottlieb, N. H., & Fernandez, M. E. (2011). Planning Health Promotion Programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-  Skills-based health education including life skills, Unicef, New York ( ) Born to Learn CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE


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