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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم JOHALI_MoHE2nd2015 CHS385

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Presentation on theme: "بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم JOHALI_MoHE2nd2015 CHS385"— Presentation transcript:

1 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم JOHALI_MoHE2nd2015 CHS385
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCTION KING SAUD UNIVERSITY \ CAMS DEPARTMENT\ HE JOHALI_MoHE2nd2015 CHS385 METHODOLY OF HEALTH EDUCATION Remember by “ Promote and Help Others To …….. ? BSCCTPS 6 Self Scientists Six year old boy surrounded.. E-Learning  From book –black board 10% HE Smart & e-board The ZD Holistic HEM Johali 3rd Step To ZD Holistic HEP EISA ALI JOHALI عيسى بن علي الجوحلي CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

2 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم عيسى بن علي الجوحلي EISA ALI JOHALI A Lecturer
Bachelor A. M. Sc. Heath Education, KSU 1407 /1987 Short Fellowship Planning Health Professions Education, UIC, USA 199 MA (Ed.) Philosophies and Sciences of Teaching, Learning and Curriculum in Nursing, UK 1995 PhD Health Sciences By Accrediting Prior Experiences, Hill University Sept. 2012 Author of Two Published Books & 3 Projected WL Messengers ……… _Talal MoHE2015 https://twitter.com/TheNature2011 Dr. Eisa Johali

3 Lecturer Philosophy As I can’t think, learn and decide instead of you, my role is to help, facilitate, support, motivate and promote you to be ready and willing to have and practice meaningful lifelong for today and day after. The above statement is the summary of my teaching philosophy. Based on my postgraduate education and its following experiential earning "Student Centered" is my favorite approach. However, we have no choice; we have to follow our higher national educational system and its procedures with slightly modification to achieve the above vision. As an introduction to my teaching philosophy in my teaching and learning plan, lecture, assignments instructions and student assessment feedback, I use the most related Islamic teachings and Arabic Proverbs that can motivate and promote my students be active, independent thinker, honest and creative hard workers to satisfy themselves, their relatives and patients. The most motivating statements SUCH AS: وَمَنْ يَتَّقِ اللهَ يَجْعَلْ لَهُ مَخْرَجًا * وَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لاَ يَحْتَسِبُ  [الطلاق/2، 3] إِنْ تَتَّقُوا اللهَ يَجْعَلْ لَكُمْ فُرْقَانًا [الأنفال/29]. وقول رسوله الكريم نبينا ”محمد“ عليه أفضل الصلاة والسلام، عن أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه: ( لا يؤمن أحدكم حتى يحب لأخيه ما يحب لنفسه) أخرجه البخاري وقوله صلى الله علية وسلم (كان الله في عون العبد ما كان العبد في عون أخيه) رواه مسلم وأبو داود والترمذي These Islamic Calls are our evidences to assure Quality of our “HEMO-MOHE Course; our teaching-learning, practice and life”. Meanwhile, do not forget the most common Arab Proverb: “Nothing Itching Your Skin like Your Nail” All the Learners will success; Except the one Who DO NOT Welling to Success” – mainly absent and who don’t care Thus, “Be Ready and Willing to Success You Will Success ” As I have taught you in CHS 282 & CHS 382, I hope that you will be ‘learners who have to think, discover, reflect and be independent creative note taker and health educator, not just traditional ‘teacher dependent student’ who may not care to listen, hear, memorize..and eventually sure forget. Johali2ndMoHE2015 CHS385

4 CHS385 Promotion – Vision- Mission
From CHS282 – CHS382, you have probe HE, philosophy, theories…..learn how to write meaningful heath education objectives. In this course we have retrieve what we have learn, review, innovate, compare, distinguish and practice to decide the best methodologies that can assure quality of meaningful health education activities over all ages. Overall Mission of MoHE2015 موهي So; Why - What Are The Best MoHE موهي that We Have To Look For - How to Decide ? CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

5 CHS 385 Course Description \ Objectives & Plan
Course (code and NO): (CHS 385) Course title: Methodology of health education Credit hours: 4 (2+2) Level: 7 Contact hours: 8 Prerequisit e: CHS 382 Course description: The course provide an overview of various techniques designed to enable students to develop and practice the skills necessary for effective delivery of health promotion and education programs to various groups in a variety of settings such as: School; Community; Work-sites and medical care settings. It includes: designing and delivering health education messages, counseling, group work, lecture, presentation, meetings, demonstration and participatory& experiential learning, problem solving/ decision making, community based health education, social marketing, health campaign, peer education/ working with volunteers, behavioral modification, life skills, role play, games, puppets. Maternity and Child Care. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

6 CHS 385 Course Description & L Objectives
Learning Objectives \ Outcomes (reorganized) :  Show proficiency in diagnosis of readiness to learn and learning barriers.  Compare between characteristics of learners: Child- Adults -Aged people.  Describe basic principles of community health education, participation & organization  Develop and practice the skills necessary for effective delivery of health promotion and education programs at various levels of interventions (Level of HE Tenant Model ) intra--inter, group…………international  Identify, distinguish, compare various methods, approaches and intervention activities used in health education & promotion  Select and fit suitable educational method & intervention to various level and groups in a variety of settings such as medical care settings, community, school, work-sites.  Critically analyze, and evaluate the most common methods & interventions of the current health promotion practice in KSA. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

7 Johali Teaching & Learning Plan – Johali MoHE 2015
TOPICS - Teaching and Learning Activités Hours (60) Weeks (15) Introductory : Course Objectives – Learning Outcomes - Plan - Defining Terms & Reasoning 2 + 4 1st Motivation & Learning Scientific Bases 4 + 8 2nd - 3rd PRINCIPLES – CHARACTERSTICS – WHO\WHOM - Characteristics of learners: Child- Adults –Aged People – Family – Community – Organization Principles of community health education, participation & organization - Level \ Field of HE (Tenant Model CHS382) 4+ 8 4th – 5th Scientific Bases of Identifying Best HE Methodologies TRANFER – SHAPE – GROW – DEVELOPM Theories 6th -7th 1st Mid Term Exam\Assignment Plan Common Health Education Methods 1 (counseling; group work, lecture, presentation, meetings ; demonstration and participatory) 8th – 9th Common Health Education Methods 2 (experiential learning; problem solving/ decision making, community based health education, social marketing) 10th -111th Common Health Education Methods 3 (health campaign, peer education/ working with volunteers, behavioral modification, life skills, role play , games and puppet) 12th -13th 2nd Mid Term Exam\ Submit-Present Assignments Analyse, evaluate and practice the best QMoHE 14th – 15th FINAL EXAMS 16-18th The course provide an overview of various techniques designed to enable students to develop and practice the skills necessary for effective delivery of health promotion and education programs to various groups in a variety of settings such as school, community, work-sites and medical care settings. It includes: designing and delivering health education messages, counseling, group work, lecture, presentation, meetings , demonstration and participatory & experiential learning, problem solving/ decision making, community based health education, social marketing, health campaign, peer education/ working with volunteers, behavioral modification, life skills, role play , games and puppet CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

8 Johali Reasoning (Why MoHE the CHS385 ? )
Health Educator Job Description Job Title : Health Education Specialist Scientific Degree : Bachelor Degree AMS . Job requirements : A Competent Graduate Bachelor in his / her Profession’s Specific Knowledge & Skills: Knowledge of health and educational issues, Effective teaching methods and technologies Effective Communication and Counseling Reported to: the Health Education Consultant Master\PhD Job Definition (Summary) : Health Education and Promotion job is a focal point for all allied health professions and health issues. Thus, HE have to work effectively with health teams, with community and organization representatives, they have to facilitate, teach and promote clients to learn how to improve and maintain healthy behaviors. Major Job Duties: As a part of the Health team and under the above “Reported” health personnel; HE will be in charge in the following “Duties and Responsibilities”: Assessing patients, school and community health education needs Managing and organizing health education activities. Participate in providing health education in the local community (Inside Health Services and outside organizations such schools and industries..); Select health education methodology appropriate to the target clients taken in consideration cultural interests and needs. Prepare and participate in designing, evaluation and development of health education materials Supervise and participate in process of designing and implementing health education plans. Give Special Patients Counseling eg; diabetic patient education Improve his/her personal and professional knowledge and skills. Why not without Methods ?! Why not without Methods ?! 1) How to practice HE (HEJD) 2) Assure Quality MoHE CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

9 Introductory Probing & Define Terms
Society and Social Terms CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

10 HE METHODOLOGIES – DEFINING & REASONING
Synonyms of Method : Approach ; How ; Strategy; Style; System; Tack - Way; Tactics… Origin of METHOD: Middle English, prescribed treatment, from Latin methodus,from Greek methodos, from meta + hodos way First Known Use: 15th century = Create A Concept Map Figure of Methodology meanings Define Methodology and Method Method - A way of doing something - A careful or organized plan that controls the way something is done CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

11 HE METHODOLOGIES – DEFINING & REASONING
Medical – Teaching definitions and uses; A systematic procedure, technique, or mode of inquiry employed by or proper to a particular discipline or art  A systematic plan followed in presenting material for instruction A way, technique, or process of or for doing something  A body of skills or techniques Examples of METHOD: He claims to have developed a new method for growing tomatoes. Their teaching method tries to adapt lessons to each student. We need to adopt more modern methods of doing things. Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study, or the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles .. Method refers to the science of teaching and learning approach Create A Concept Map Figure of Methodology meanings History of Health Education Methodology CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

12 Philosophical - Scientific Bases
People “Learning - Learners” Through Ages How People Learn Through Age Stages Society and Social Terms CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

13 اطلبوا العلم من المهد إلى اللحد
How People Learn Throughout Age Stages While Crawford D. (2004) concludes ""The literature supports the idea that adults are very capable of learning well into their seventies which is a good reason to accept ‘Andragogy” the lifelong learning as more than just a pleasant mantra", the Arab and Islamic world have more evidence in their well known Proverb: اطلبوا العلم من المهد إلى اللحد Seek education from the cradle to the grave. Keep learning from when you're born until you die This Proverb indicates that “people can and have to learn over all ages from fetus to death using best methods suite their different abilities and characters”. So it necessary to realize these differences in order to decide the best ' HE approaches, methodologies and strategies appropriate for every ages stages, you can use Maslow and Coleman Models that you have learn early courses, mainly CHS 282 and 382. CHS385 Remember Ages “Maslow & Coleman - Do You ? If You Don’t You Have To Lear Again !!!? Johali2ndMoHE2015

14 Knowing Brainstorming
Do You Know What You Don’t Know This move, from "knowing that you don't know" to "knowing that you know" is what most learning and hence teaching is all about. Be Ready To Take Smart Note ‘terms-draw Your child's education: What you don't know can hurt you Hosted by Bridgeway Academy, a leading provider of academic programs for K-12 students worldwide, this educational summit will increase public awareness of the full range of educational options available to students, no matter what their learning style.  Attendees will have the opportunity to submit questions during the presentation which will be answered by the education experts during a Q&A session. All will leave with an in depth understanding of their educational options as well as an exclusive opportunity to receive a Learning Style Assessment (LSA)—a highly intuitive assessment that allows parents to gain a firm understanding of their child's individual learning style.  In addition, attendees will learn about the 3 Cs of education including:  • Taking back Control:  How and when to advocate, and when to say enough is enough Know your Choice Customize for your child

15 Do You Know What You Don’t Know
Knowing Brainstorming Do You Know What You Don’t Know This move, from "knowing that you don't know" to "knowing that you know" is what most learning and hence teaching is all about. In Knowing, the two senses are those of: Awareness of self, (represented by the vertical red line in the diagram below) and Knowledge of the world (the horizontal blue line) If I don't know I don't know                                      I think I know If I don't know I know                               I think I don't know Laing R D (1970) Knots Harmondsworth; Penguin (p.55) "He that knows not,     and knows not that he knows not         is a fool.             Shun him He that knows not,     and knows  that he knows not         is a pupil.             Teach him. He that knows,     and knows not that he knows         is asleep             Wake him. He that knows,     and knows that he knows         is a teacher.             Follow him." (Arabic proverb) NEIGHBOUR R (1992) The Inner Apprentice London; Kluwer Academic Publishers. p.xvii "We know what we know, we know that there are things we do not know, and we know that there are things we don't know we don't know"  Donald Rumsfeld (4 Sept 2002) (Woodward, 2004: 171.  Video here.) It is ironic, perhaps, that the initial insight is allegedly Arabic. Draw Do You Know What You Don’t Know

16 Does aging have an effect on adult learning?
Discover Characteristics Does aging have an effect on adult learning? Click here to play the “I Want to be a Millionaire” (oops wrong game) “Adult Education and Aging Game” IQ in Adults A. Decreases about 1% a year after the age of 30. B. Increases about 1% a year until the age of 65. Answer C. Doesn’t materially change during adulthood D. Starts dropping off significantly after the age of 65. Hide Answer !! CHS385 The Correct Answer is C. Contrary to popular opinion, IQ doesn’t decline remarkably with age. Johali2ndMoHE2015

17 How People Learn Through Age Stages
A group of 50 year olds were given IQ tests that had taken 31 years earlier. They made higher scores on every part except math reasoning. Wechsler found test scores increased until 35 then declined very slowly after that. IQ = Intelligence Quotient (proportion) Next Question CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

18 Physical Strength in Adults
How People Learn Through Age Stages Physical Strength in Adults A. Peaks around the age of 20. B. Peaks around the age of 30. C. Peaks around the age of 40. D. Peaks around the age of 50 Hide Answer !! The Correct Answer is B. Physical strength reaches a peak around the age of 30. In England, Galton set up a booth at a National Fair and tested over 7,000 people for physical strength, his research and later research reveals 30 is the peak. However, physical strength declines slowly. Research at Harvard found physical strength dropped dramatically between 70 and 75. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015 Next Question

19 Intelligence - Hearing
How People Learn Through Age Stages Intelligence - Hearing There is a relationship between intelligence and speed of learning A. In youth. B. In adults. C. In both youth and adults. D. In neither youth or adults Hide Answer !! The correct answer is A The relation between intelligence and hearing In youth there is a correlation between intelligence and speed in learning. In adulthood, this is not true. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

20 Hearing Gradual decline until 65, then more rapid. Older people
How People Learn Through Age Stages Hearing The ability to hear peaks before A. Age 15 B. Age 30 C. Age 45 D. Age 60 Hide Answer !! The Correct Answer is A Peak Performance in Hearing Occurs Before Age 15 Gradual decline until 65, then more rapid. Older people Hear less and Hear slower CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

21 COMMON SENSE PRACTICE FOR MINIMIZING HEARING LOSS
As people age: - Men lose ability to hear high sounds. Women lose ability to hear low sounds. This is one of the reasons why women talk more with women and men talk more with men in the older years COMMON SENSE PRACTICE FOR MINIMIZING HEARING LOSS Sit people where they can see everyone’s face. Use small groups. Teacher should stand still. Teacher should speak, clearly, distinctly, and loudly Use more than one sense while teaching. Observe faces of students. Eliminate outside noises. Ask people to speak out if they can’t hear. Repeat questions and answers. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

22 The most acute decline in vision occurs
A. Between 13 and 18 B. Between 18 and 40 C. Between 40 and 55 D. After 55 Older Eyes Suffer Vision loss in dim light Narrowing field of vision Slow adaptation to dark Cataracts Defective color vision SO…………….. The Correct answer is C. Vision Continuous gain Gradual decline Sharp decline 55 On Gradual decline Common Sense Practices For Minimizing Losses Associated With Age - Vision Minimized Use abbreviation Illumination More Direct Light Don’t Face Direct Light Eliminate glare White or Chalk Boards Keep Clean Use Large Writing Media Use Sharp Color Contrast Enlarged Type or Print Avoid Abbreviations Seating Seat People Close to Board CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

23 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Maslow & Coleman ? Begins with birth Ends with death Classifying 7 Stages Infancy- birth to 1 year Early childhood years Late childhood years Adolescence years Early adulthood years Middle adulthood years Late adulthood - 65 and up 4 TYPES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Physical: Body growth Mental: development of mind Emotional: feelings Social: interactions & relationship CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015 Plus;

24 Child and Adult Learning Characteristics
How People Learn Via Age Stages Child and Adult Learning Characteristics Children Adults 12-65 Aging 65 + Rely on others to decide what is important to be learned. Decide for themselves what is important to be learned. Keep Reading; Writing …. Accept the information being presented at face value. Need to validate the information based on their beliefs and values. Expect what they are learning to be useful in their long-term future. Expect what they are learning to be immediately useful. Have little or no experience upon which to draw, are relatively "blank slates." Have substantial experience upon which to draw. May have fixed viewpoints. Little ability to serve as a knowledgeable resource to teacher or fellow classmates. Significant ability to serve as a knowledgeable resource to the trainer and fellow learners. Maintain & Adjustment Child Adult and Old Age Learning Characteristics The 1 – 5 years old patients decide fort themselves Both ‘child-adult’ are sometimes “fatigued \ exhaustion” when they attend classes, old age more. Adults attend classes often with a Mixed set of motives - educational, social, recreational - and sometimes out of an overdeveloped puritanical sense of duty.

25 What People Remember 90% of what they teach 20 % of what is heard
After review taxonomy of LO Interest Patients \ Learners Characters What People Remember 10 % of what is read 20 % of what is heard 30 % of what is seen 50 % of what they see & hear ok In OSHA the bad news found that only 30% of the students are listening while 70% are talking, Interest Patients \ Learners Characters OSHA found only 30% of students are listening to lectures and 70% are talking مشتت سرحor playing with mobile يفكر chew 70 % what they say as they do a task 90% of what they teach CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015 https://www.osha.gov/dte/.../training_techniques2.ppt

26 Draw any learning theory model w
Learning Theories Q: How do people learn? A: Nobody really knows !! but there are huge theories, can be classified these 6 theories (your left) - summarized in THREE Figure Model ( your right ) : Behaviorism Cognitivism Social Learning Theory Social Constructivism Multiple Intelligences Brain-Based Learning Draw any learning theory model w CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

27 Learning Theories CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

28 Learning Theories CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

29 Learning Theories CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

30 Philosophies - Theories -Approaches - Model - Strategies and Methods
HEP Philosophies - Theories -Approaches - Model - Strategies and Methods Redraw Your Activity-Process Systematic Model of the Relationship Between Teaching Approach, Method, and Techniques Johali 1995 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

31 Philosophies - Theories -Approaches - Model - Strategies and Methods
HEP Philosophies - Theories -Approaches - Model - Strategies and Methods Analogy = Likeness; Similarity; Equivalenceقياس التمثيل في علم الطرق Johali 1995 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

32 Philosophies - Theories -Approaches - Model - Strategies and Methods
HEP Philosophies - Theories -Approaches - Model - Strategies and Methods Deductive reasoning (top-down logic – Informal) contrasts with ”Inductive reasoning (bottom-up logic - Formal) in the following way: In deductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules that hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse, narrowing the range under consideration until only the conclusion is left. In inductive reasoning, the conclusion is reached by generalizing or extrapolating from initial information. As a result, induction can be used even in an open domain, one where there is epistemic uncertainty. Note, however, that the inductive reasoning mentioned here is not the same as induction used in mathematical proofs – mathematical induction is actually a form of deductive reasoning. Inductive oppose of tradional = استقرائي \ حثي \ تخليقي Deductive استدلالي \ استنتاجي Johali 1995 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

33 Different Between Theories Approaches Model Strategies and Methods
HEP “Philosophy - Theory – Model - Approach – Methods – Strategies” Plan “P – T – M – A – M – S” PLAN Different Between Theories Approaches Model Strategies and Methods SOCIETAL EMPOWERMENT PERSON-CLIENT EDUCATIONAL BEHAVIOUR MEDICAL Aim is to effect on the physical, social and economic environment, in order to make it more conducive to good health Self-empowerment of the client is seen as central Aim is to give information and ensure knowledge and understanding of health issues and to enable well-informed decisions to be made Aim is to change people’s individual attitudes and behaviour so that they adopt a healthy lifestyle Aim is freedom from medically-defined disease and disability such as infectious diseases Focus is on changing society not on changing the behavior of individuals Help them to identify what they want to know about and take action on and make their own decisions and choices according to their own interest and values Information about health is presented and people are helped to explore their values and attitudes and make their own decisions teaching people how to stop smoking, encouraging people to take exercise, eat the right food, look after their teeth etc Involves medical intervention to prevent or ameliorate ill-health Value democratic right to change society and will be committed to putting health on the political agenda - HE role act as facilitator in helping people to identify their own concerns and gain the knowledge and skills they require to make things happen - Clients are valued as equal who have knowledge, skills and abilities to contribute, and who have an absolute right to control their own health destinies Help in carrying out those decisions and adopting new health practices may also be offered value the educational process and respect the right of the individual to choose their own health behaviour Responsibility to raise with clients the health issues which they think will be in their client’s best interests A healthy lifestyle is in the interest of their clients and that they are responsible to encourage as many people as possible to adopt a healthy lifestyle Values preventive medical procedures and the medical profession’s responsibility to ensure that patients comply with recommended procedures CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015 Further -

34 More Intelligent Learners and Teachers & HE !! ?
How We Can Become More Intelligent Learners and Teachers & HE !! ? CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

35 How We Can Become More Intelligent Learners and Teachers & HE !! ?
 Twelve Characteristics of Intelligent Behavior: Persistence: Persevering when the solution to a problem is not readily apparent. Decrease Impulsivity: Think before speaking or doing. Listen: Listen to others with empathy and understanding. Flexibility in Thinking: Consider other options--there's never one right way to do everything. Metacognition: Try to be aware of your own thinking. Check for Accuracy and Precision: Revise, revise, revise. Questioning and Problem Posing: Be critical in your questioning. Use Past Knowledge: Draw on what you know and apply it to new situations. Precise Language and Thought: Use more descriptive language to communicate more precisely. Use All the Senses: Utilize as many sensory pathways as possible--visual, tactile, kinesthetic, auditory, olfactory, and gustatory. Creativity: Use your ingenuity, originality, and insightful--we are all creative beings. Be Curious: Work on your sense of wonderment and inquisitiveness--learn to enjoy problem solving and develop a sense of efficacy as a thinker. Part of In the 12 Intelligent behavior, health educators have to listen to patients In decrease impulsivity means Think before speaking ل or doing CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

36 Have faith that all learners can think
How We Can Become More Intelligent Learners and Teachers & HE !! ? What We Can Do as Teachers\HE to Promote Intelligent Behavior: Have faith that all learners can think Help learners see thinking as a goal Present challenging problem solving opportunities Create a safe, risk-taking environment Give learners time to learn Provide a rich responsive environment for learning Pay attention to learners' developmental readiness and sequence Be the kind of learner you would have them be learn FINALLY REMEMER To Know That You Don’t Know A Lot – Be Aware – Ready & Willing FINALLY REMEMER To Know That You Don’t Know A Lot – Be Aware – Ready & Willing CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

37 Further for learning Knowledge; education; erudition; scholarship; culture; wisdom; study; be taught; be trained; become skilled at; gain knowledge of; find out; hear; discover; realize; ascertain; gather; understand…… MILO  Leadership DevelopmentT he MILO Process Knowing and Not Knowing Knowledge; education; erudition; scholarship; culture; wisdom; study; be taught; be trained; become skilled at; gain knowledge of; find out; hear; discover; realize; ascertain; gather; understand…… Dialogue DIALOGUE CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

38 Motives and Barriers To Learning
MOTIVATION WHY Just Remember Did You Learn Motivation ? Where – What ….!! Maslow; Mc Gregor X-Y Model ; Just Remember Did You Learn Motivation ? Where – What ….! CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

39 WHY Teaching – Learning
To provide an introduction to the “Spirit of M” To learn about “M principles to use with individuals on behavior change To assess motivation for readiness to change To provide a foundation to build skills Spirit of Team Assure Success Spirit of Team Assure Success M = Motivators who – how Motivation Success = People the Students & Patients CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

40 Three Components of M Spirit
Collaboration Evocation Autonomy Working in partnership Draw out ideas and solutions from individuals Decision making left to the person Motivator CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

41 I want to, but I don’t want to
MOTIVATION Just Remember Did You Learn Motivation ? Where – What ….!! MI = Motivational Interviewing Directive, person centered counseling style that aims to help people explore and resolve their ambivalence تناقض; تأرجح ; تردد “ about behavior change. “Michael Wiles and Cross Country Education, Inc. 2005” What is Ambivalence? I want to, but I don’t want to Ambivalence is key issue to resolve for change to occur Mi is a counseling style rather than a set of techniques. It is not a method for tricking people in to doing things they do not want to do. It is a style for eliciting from the person their own motivations for change. It is a way of interacting with people to assess their readiness to change and to help them move through different stages of change. MI focuses on creating a comfortable atmosphere without pressure or coercion to change. It is called interviewing because it involves careful listening and strategic questioning rather than teaching to help people overcome their ambivalence to change. Any change that will happen will come from within the client and not imposed upon them by some outside force. It is the role of the client to be able to articulate and resolve his or her own ambivalence to change. Ambivalence is the I want to but I don’t want to state of mind – feeling 2 ways about something. Direct persuasion is rarely effective at resolving ambivalence. Mi is a counseling style rather than a set of techniques. It is not a method for tricking people in to doing things they do not want to do. It is a style for eliciting from the person their own motivations for change. It is a way of interacting with people to assess their readiness to change and to help them move through different stages of change. MI focuses on creating a comfortable atmosphere without pressure or coercion to change. It is called interviewing because it involves careful listening and strategic questioning rather than teaching to help people overcome their ambivalence to change. Any change that will happen will come from within the client and not imposed upon them by some outside force. It is the role of the client to be able to articulate and resolve his or her own ambivalence to change. Ambivalence is the I want to but I don’t want to state of mind – feeling 2 ways about something. Direct persuasion is rarely effective at resolving ambivalence. First Developed in 1983 by William Miller in the treatment of problem drinkers and further concepts were elaborated by Bill Miller and Stephen Rollnick in 1991. MI has been used in many health settings . Clinical trials of MI have shown that persons are more likely to enter, stay in and complete treatment; to participate in follow-up visits; to adhere to glucose monitoring and to improve glycemic control; to increase exercise and fruit and vegetable intake; to reduce stress, to improve medication adherence; to decrease alcohol and drug use; to quit smoking; and to have fewer subsequent injuries and hospitalizations. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

42 Motivation – the extremes?
Motivation Factors Motivation Vision Motivation – the extremes? COMPLIANCE COOPERATION COMMITMENT The Plodder The Enthusiast Little Enthusiasm High enthusiasm Little Motivation High Motivation Which would you prefer on your project team and why? Motivation Factors CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

43 Douglas McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y
points = strong Theory Y beliefs points = moderate Theory Y beliefs points = mixed Theory Y and Theory X beliefs points = moderate Theory X beliefs   points = strong Theory X beliefs 1 2 3 4 5 SA A U D SD Most people will try to do as little work as possible. For most people, work is not as natural as play or recreation. Most employees must be closely supervised in order to get them to perform up to expectations Most employees actually prefer to be told exactly what to do rather than having to figure it out for themselves Most employees do not care much about the organization's goals. Most employees would prefer increased job security to increased responsibility. Most people will not use their own initiative or do things that they have not been specifically assigned to do. Employees generally do not have much to contribute when asked to participate in making decisions or solving problems It is just basic human nature--people just naturally dislike work. Most employees will not exercise self-control and self-motivation--managers must do this for them CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

44 Motives and Barriers To Learning
CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

45 Why don't we participate in learning ? ؟
Motives and Barriers for Learning Why don't we participate in learning ? ؟ GIVE YOUR REASONS….First ?!! then see Video make smart note Barriers to Learning Presentation Boshier, Morstain and Smart: Houle wasn't good enough for these guys--they had to go out and come up with an even longer list of why adults participate in learning (there's a lot of "list comparison" that goes on in educational research, isn't there?). They came up with six factors for participation: Social Relationships: make friends and meet others. External Expectations: complying with the wishes of someone else with authority. Social Welfare: desire to serve others and/or community. Professional Advancement: desire for job enhancement or professional advancement. Escape/Stimulation: to alleviate boredom and/or to escape home or work routine. Cognitive Interest: learning for the sake of learning itself. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

46 Why don't We Participate in learning ? ؟
This critical learning question have been studied by many researchers. The following researchers have worked out ways of grouping specific barriers into categories: Johnstone and Rivera; Found two categories: External or situation barriers and;  Internal or dispositional barriers Cross: Three categories; Situational barriers (depending person's situation at a given time), Institutional barriers (all practices and procedures that discourage adults from participation--like filling out those application forms for graduate school), Dispositional barriers (person's attitude about self and learning( Darkenwald and Merriam: Add another category to Cross' list; Informational barriers (person is not aware of educational activities available). Above taken from: Merriam, S. & Caffarella, R. (1991). Learning in Adulthood. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, All of the above-mentioned studies look at participation from a psychological perspective, "If one looks at the social structure rather than individual needs and interests, one discovers some very different explanations as to why adults do or do not participate in adult learning activities" (1991, p. 94). To be Summarize …. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

47 LEARNING CONDITIONS & BARRIARS
Most of us can come up with many reasons for not participating in educational activities, but as educators, we may be so used to participating in learning ourselves that it becomes difficult to "think outside the box" sometimes. Merriam and Brockett (1997) devote a whole chapter (the info below is from pp ) to the issue of access to adult education and list four major conditions that limit access: Geographic Conditions: There is a great divide between urban, suburban, and rural settings. Rural areas tend to have fewer resources for education. In many industrialized countries, however, inner cities may be worse off than some rural areas. Migrant and homeless people are also at a great disadvantage for receiving access to education. Demographic Factors: Age and sex influence who participates and who doesn't. Young and middle-aged adults participate more than older adults--of course, younger adults often continue learning for their jobs. But older adults tend to have less education in general than younger people, and level of education is a good predictor of who will continue to participate in educational activities. The role of age could change significantly in the future, however, in countries such as the U.S., where life expectancy continues to rise. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

48 LEARNING CONDITIONS & BARRIARS
Socioeconomic Conditions and Education: Those who have relatively affluent backgrounds, tend to remain that way and also tend to participate more in education. Those from less wealthy families participate less partly because they have less money to do so, but also because they don't fit into the system of education (i.e. they don't speak the same language, share the same norms, etc.) which is built and maintained by wealthier people. Formal education is also the kind of education that "counts the most," but it also costs the most and has the most prerequisites--less well-off people may be engaging in a variety of learning activities, but these activities don't count since they don't earn the learners an "official" piece of paper. Cultural Determinants: Minority groups all over the world tend to participate less than majority groups. This can be due to majority groups explicitly prohibiting the participation of minority people. It can also be that belonging to certain non-majority groups can impact one's attitudes towards education. As a member of a particular social group, you may not feel that you can trust certain forms of education and may feel uncomfortable participating in them. Additionally, immigrant populations tend not to participate in educational activities as much as native-born populations. (Now Try To Think Can You Draw The Above Barriers in an Attractive Model ? ) CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

49 Learning conditions and barriers Models
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50 HOW TO DECIDE HOW TO CHOOSE OR INNVATE
Johali MoHE Sciences - HOW TO DECIDE HOW TO CHOOSE OR INNVATE Sample Figure for Health Education Paradigm Theory and Process Model CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

51 HE LEVEL \TYPES \ FIELD the Johali CHS382 Tenant ….:
WHO \ WHOM OUR CPMMUNITY \ PEOPLE \ ORGANIZATIONS In planning health promotion interventions; There is an increasing interest in systematic descriptions or taxonomies of health promotion interventions, the theoretical methods they contain, and the determinants that are targeted for change (Stavri & Michie, 2012). However, most of these taxonomies focus on individual behavior change and only a few also include behavior change of environmental agents (Bartholomew, et al., 2011; Khan et al., 2009) at the interpersonal, organizational, community and policy levels. Moreover, translating methods into applications demands a sufficient understanding of the theory behind the method, especially the theoretical parameters under which the theoretical process is effective or not (Schaalma & Kok, 2009) The new synergy support our tenant HE LEVEL \TYPES \ FIELD the Johali CHS382 Tenant ….: CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

52 METHODS FOR EVERY LEVEL Adapted HuCOMP PH1-FuHE – M0oHE LEVELS
Johali Tenant METHODS FOR EVERY LEVEL National–International INTRA&INTER Social & Cultural Organizational Group INTERPERSONAL INTRAPERSONAL Adapted HuCOMP PH1-FuHE – M0oHE LEVELS Self interact to interpret reality & create messages. At this basic level, the central communicative processes of encoding & decoding are performed to help us coordinate our meanings and messages at 2. Interaction, negotiation and relations between two individuals, its effectiveness based on level 1, this level is the most important to health communication and, thus, it is important to gain at least the “Seven Top Health Communication Skills (Pagano & Ragan, 1992, 29) . Interaction of three or more individuals to adapt & achieve common tasks, its effectiveness based on 1. & 2. e.g; medical team. Encompasses 1, 2, & 3, it is important to develop effective formal channels and informal networks e.g; hospitals & health centres. Intra & Inter Social/Cultural joints all the above, it can be within more than two different groups, communities in one organization, nation or nations. This is the highest level of communications, e.g; national and international mass media & satellites. Methods For Ecery Level METHODS FOR EVERY LEVEL CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

53 Johali Summary Philosophies & Theories of Education
DO YOU REMEMBER - WHERE – HOW USE TO DECIDE Johali Summary Philosophies & Theories of Education Key Concepts Most Common Philosophies & Theories of Education Humanism Technocrat Progressivism Reconstruction Transfer Shape Travel /Jearny Grow Education /Process Preserve& Transmit Knowledge Adaptation/ Training Training/Skills/Objectives Personal Growth & Development Society-Centered Create better society Knowledge/ Theory worthwhile relative- essential for safe practice Life experience Tentative Student interest Tentative Society interest Skills/ Practice Relative to safe practice Vital Teacher/HE Centre / Transferor Instructor & Guide Facilitator Indoctrinator/ Orientator Examination/ Evaluation Vital-theory Vital- practical Self interest & evaluation Vital theory-practice for better society Student/Patient  Passive- container Fully-controlled Passive- holder practically fully supervised Active/ Free-interest Active Semi-control Curriculum/Plan Map of key Subject Schedule of Basic Skills/ a kind of Technology Portfolio of Experiences Agenda of Cultural Issues DO YOU REMEMBER ?!! WHERE – HOW CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

54 MoHE Define & Reasoning Why & How to choose the appropriate ?
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55 BEHAVIORAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES
BEO Based MoHE CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

56 Complex / Independent / Active
THEORY OF BEHAVIORAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES Learn to behave BLOOM s’ TAXONOMY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES the Domains Simple / Dependent / Passive COGNITIVE Know – Knowledge AFFECTIVE Think – Value – Response - Judge PSYCHOMOTOR/ACTION Intellectual Skills Behaviors (Doing): Reflect – Adapt - Modify - Decide – Move Complex / Independent / Active CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

57 Simple / Dependent / Passive Behavioral Objective Area Class
THEORY OF BEHAVIORAL EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES- Learn to behave The BLOOM s’ TAXONOMY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES the Verbs Simple / Dependent / Passive Behavioral Objective Area Class Action/ Psycho Affect Cognitive Reflect/Move Receive Remember Knowledge Communicate Respond Reason Comprehension Act Value/apprise Plan to solve Int. Ability Application Adapt Organize/character Format Analysis Develop Create/Interpret Understand Int. Skills Synthesis Decide Ext Judge Inter Judge Evaluation Complex / Independent / Active / Deep understanding CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

58 Teaching -Learning Objectives
Key Characters (ICHO) Independent of other actions Contain a specific action verb Have a beginning and ending Observable and measurable Must contain the condition(s) under which performance is to occur Do NOT Use (KLU) To Know To Learn To Understand Read slide Key Charracters Why (cloudy ; dreamlike) Johali2ndMoHE2015 CHS385

59 COMMON METHODOLOGIES - APPROCHES
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60 SELF-EMPOWERMENT COLLECTIVE METHODS
Andraogy - Participatory learning Critical Thinking CT to Problem Solving PS – DM Counselling: Client-centred & Group Counselling Individual & Social Assertiveness Training Educational drama CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

61 Johali 1995 Plus Research Gate - LinkedIn Results
Andragogy Community\ People\ Students\Patient Cantered Learning Johali 1995 Plus Research Gate - LinkedIn Results CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

62 Johali 1995 Plus Research Gate - LinkedIn Results
Knowles, M. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy 2nd ed. New York: Association Press According to the article Malcolm Knowles an American practitioner and theorist of adult education, defined andragogy as “the art and science of helping adults learn”. Knowles identified the six principles of adult learning as: Adults are internally motivated and self-directed Adults bring life experiences and knowledge to learning experiences Adults are goal oriented Adults are relevancy oriented Adults are practical Adult learners like to be respected Johali 1995 Plus Research Gate - LinkedIn Results Johalili2013 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

63 THE CLIENT-CENTRED APPROACH (The Real EMPOWERMENT)
Aim is to work with clients in order to help them to identify what they want to know about and take action on and make their own decisions and choices according to their own interest and values Health promoter’s role is to act as a facilitator in helping people to identify their own concerns and gain the knowledge and skills they require to make things happen Self-empowerment of the client is seen as central to this amazing approach Clients are valued as equal who have knowledge, skills and abilities to contribute, and who have an absolute right to control their own health destinies CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

64 Participatory Learning
Participatory Learning is a new non formal Adult learning, your role just a facilitator to promote, help and support Client Participation The degree of participation in the HE process directly influences the amount of learning. When the HE works with clients in a learning context, one of the first question to discuss is “What does the client wants to learn?” The amount of learning is directly preoperational to the learner's involvement – the more involvement the more quality of learning” For example, a group of senior citizens “old ages” attended a class on nutrition and aging, yet made few changes in eating patterns. It was not until the members became actively involved in the class, encouraged by the HE to present problems and solutions for food purchasing and preparation on limited budget, that any significant behavioral changes occurred. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

65 Participatory Learning
What – How Do We Learn – Group Exercise ? The purpose of this exercise is to see ourselves as learners before discussing how to help learners learn. ======== This exercise reminds us that: Everybody has his or her own learning habits ? Some people learn fast with books ? Others learn better from friends or TV Or Programs; Internet…..etc.? May enjoy learning through group work and your friends (True ?) You may prefer learning through real demonstrations, when you compare your experience with others .. You find that different people have different learning habits- Each of our learners is different ( True ?) We have to keep this in mind and develop flexible teaching-learning methods. There is no single best way, Are we facilitators ?, Do we need to find the best ones for our own centre ? Chambers, R. (1993) Treading more carefully: participatory rural appraisal – past , present and future. New Ground 13, Hart R (1996) Children’s Participation: The Theory and practice of Involving Young Citizens In Community Development and Environmental Care, UNICEF CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

66 What environment can we create for better learning? Exercise 1
Why; What – How Do We Learn – Group Exercise & Games ? Participatory Learning What environment can we create for better learning? Exercise 1 Please draw a sketch of your literacy class setting – doorway (s), windows, desks, chairs, blackboard, etc. We can think about a good environment in two ways: One is the physical environment – facilitates including the building that houses the learning centre and facilities in the classroom. We can ask the following questions: “ ë Do learners have places to sit?; Is there enough light?; s the place warm or cool enough?; Is water available?; Is the learning place interesting to look at, with some photos and charts on the wall?; ë Is there too much noise from outside?; ë Are there toilets? Second, we need to consider the psychological environment. In other words, adult learners need to feel comfortable in their minds when they learn. The following statements may be common to many of us: “ ë I feel relaxed in class, not threatened by anything; ë The facilitator and the other learners listen to me; ë Other people respect my ideas.; ë I can express my opinions freely…. In order to make the situation relaxed and friendly, we may play some games. We call them çice breakersé or çenergizers.é CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

67 Brain Storming Critical Thinking - Problem Based Learning & Problem Solving & Decision Making (CTPSDM) What is brainstorming? Brainstorming is used to generate a large number of creative ideas when problem solving and achieving objectives. It can even be used for decision making. Brainstorming was first introduced a book named Applied Imagination written in the late 1930’s by Alex Osborn. Steps for a brainstorming session: ë Identify the issue(s) with the learners. ë Write the issue(s) on the board and explain. ë Ask learners to think about the issue(s) for a few minutes. ë Invite quick ideas on the issue(s) without elaboration. ë Ask learners not to interrupt or argue. ë Assign someone to write down ideas on the board. ë Stop brainstorming at some point and ask learners to clarify each idea. ë Put ideas into categories and prioritize. ë Discuss and underline the ideas agreed upon. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

68 Critical Thinking - Problem Solving & Decision Making (CTPSDM)
P1: the 8 Coins? Move two coins to make each coin touch three coins P2 the 7 Matchsticks : Move Three Matchsticks to Make 5 Six Thinking Hats CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

69 Critical Thinking - Problem Solving & Decision Making (CTPSDM)
P is the gap between the current and the desired situations/ it is an obstacle /barrier to achieve objective PS is the act of finding the most appropriate solutions/answers D the choice of one from a set of initially possible alternatives. DM is a problem-solving process where you are required to make a choice on one solution based on many solutions gathered from the information you have acquired (http://www.sunrisepage.com/manage/decision.htm) DM is the study of identifying and choosing alternatives on the values and preferences of the decision maker. Use Problem Solving as a learning method CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

70 + Critical Thinking - Problem Solving & Decision Making (CTPSDM)
Problem-Solving Skills      in Education and Life + 5 Whys Root Cause Analysis Problem Solving Tool--Video Training Use Problem Solving as a learning method + CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

71 Demonstration & Return demonstration
The demonstration method often is used for teaching psychomotor skills and is best accompanied by explanation and discussion, With time set aside for return demonstration by the client or caregiver the HE, It gives clients a clear sensory image of how to perform the skill. Because a demonstration should be within easy visual and auditory range of learners, it is best demonstrate in front of small groups or a single client. Use the same kind of equipment that clients will use, show exactly how the skill should be performed, and provide learners with ample opportunity to practice until the skill is perfected. CHS385 https://www.google.com.sa/search?q=demonstration+method&espv= Johali2ndMoHE2015

72 Demonstration & Return demonstration
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73 Demonstration & Return demonstration
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74 Steps to follow for a role play:
Acting of roles by group participants. Can be useful where communication difficulties exist between individuals in a setting, e.g. families, professional practice, etc. At times, having clients assume and act out roles maximize learning. For example, A parenting group, , found it helpful to place themselves in the role of their children; their feelings about various ways to respond became more apparent. - Reversing roles can effectively teach spouses in conflict about better ways to communicate. - To prevent role-playing from a becoming a game with little learning, plan the proposed drama with clear objectives in mind. Steps to follow for a role play: ë Choose the subject matter and outline a basic plot. ë Select the actors. Do a small role play first. Later it can evolve into a long drama in the form of a series, in which the same characters reappear, more join in, and more issues are covered. ë Prepare flash cards of proverbs or sayings that the actors can use at any time. ë Encourage the actors to make up their own spontaneous dialogue to suit the story line and plot. ë Arrange some time after the role play to discuss the experience Role playing can be useful CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

75 Do We Like – Can We Do – How we can we make learning enjoyable ?!
SIMUALTION - GAMES Do We Like – Can We Do – How we can we make learning enjoyable ?! SIMULATION Useful for influencing attitudes in individuals with varying abilities. Generally in school setting, but of relevance to other groups. Advantages Active learners Practice “reality” in a safe setting Useful for cognitive and psychomotor domains of learning Limitations Labor intensive Costs of equipment GAMES instructional methods requiring the learner to participate in a competitive activity with preset rules to achieve an educational objective TERM OF THE DAY simulation Acting out or mimicking an actual or probable real life condition, event, or situation to find a cause of a past occurrence (such as an accident), or toforecast future effects (outcomes) of assumed circumstances or factors. A simulation may be performed through (1) solving a set of equations (amathematical model), constructing a physical (scale) model, (3) staged rehearsal, (4) game (such as wargames), or a computer graphics model (such as an animated flowchart). Whereas simulations are very useful tools that allow experimentation without exposure to risk, they are gross simplifications of the reality because they include only a few of the real-world factors, and are only as good as their underlying assumptions. What earning Games for Health s Ed4cat56na3 Ga Advantages Active learner Perceived as “fun” by many learners Useful for all three domains of learning Limitations Too competitive for some learners Ice Breakers in   CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

76 Games are growing media form
https://www.facebook.com/anthony.d.champagne Why Games Games are growing media form There is little doubt that people are increasingly allocating time from other media to games Games may offer better forms of educational experiences (at times) Researchers are trying to figure this out and early returns are promising The technologies & talents housed in the games industry have proven capabilities beyond games Exploit technologies and techniques honed by millions if not billions of dollars Summary Points... We've come a long way in a few years The research agenda is still being set, and barely is being met but momentum to do so is building We can't just research, or build, we must do and respect both needs equally. We can have an effect but the strength, size, and pervasiveness are questions Defining the usage space, do's, don'ts, strengths..,etc. For what we gain... can we actually measure? CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

77 Do We Like – Can We Do – How we can we make learning enjoyable ?!
learning GAMES Do We Like – Can We Do – How we can we make learning enjoyable ?! Communication Circles: (suitable for later stages; skill: writing): Ask all the participants to write down their names on small pieces of paper. Put all the pieces together and ask participants to pick out one name at random. If they pick out their own name, then they should swap the paper with someone else. For the following two or three weeks every participant writes short letters ormessages to the participant whose name they picked out. The facilitator acts as a message-bearer, distributing this secret mail among the members of the circle. At the end of the period, the participants say whom they have been writing to, and then letters are displayed on the wall to compare. True or False: (suitable after two or three months; skill: reading) Write several statements on large pieces of paper, making them either true or false. For example: snakes eat mice, birds eat worms, not seeds; sunrise in the morning, sunset in the east; fresh water is salty... Show these statements to the class very quickly (speed reading) and ask the participants to decide T (True) or F (False). What earning Games for Health s Ed4cat56na3 Ga Ice Breakers in   CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

78 Do We Like – Can We Do – How we can we make learning enjoyable ?!
learning GAMES Do We Like – Can We Do – How we can we make learning enjoyable ?! Cotton Blowing:- We can use this game to build teamwork, to encourage planning, and to stimulate learners to be analytical. What earning Games for Health s Ed4cat56na3 Ga CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

79 Counseling and Group Work in Health Education
Counselling is one of the educational methods most frequently used in health education to help individuals and families. During counselling, a person with a need (the client) and a person who provides support and encouragement (the counsellor) meet and discuss in such a way that the client gains confidence in his or her ability to find solutions to their problems. Groups can often do things that individuals could not do by themselves. They may be able to support their members in the practice of improving their health behaviour. School health education is any combination of learning experiences initiated by you as a Health Extension Practitioner in the preschool and school setting (Figure 11.1). Your work will be targeted to develop the behavioural skills required to cope with the challenges to health at school. Different HEP Strategies Johali2ndMoHE2015 CHS385

80 Group Work & Counseling
GROUP DISCUSSION Gladding defined a group as “a collection of two or more individuals who meet in face-to-face interaction, interdependently, with the awareness that each belongs to the group and for the purpose of achieving mutually agreed-on goals.” Steps for a group discussion: 1. State the reasons for and the goals of the discussion beforehand. 2. Talk in an informal way and ask about the concerns learners have so that they can help choose a topic (family planning is one example). 3. Select a moderator to start the discussion. 4. Encourage group members to present the pros and cons of the topic. 4. Everyone should have a chance to speak and share ideas. 5. Gather information and analyze. Have someone take notes on the blackboard. We have to know that group discussion is not just people chatting. It is useful to set up ground rules for group discussion such as these: ë We listen to each other. ë We respect other peoples ideas. ë We do not hurt or insult each other. ë We speak briefly, clearly and precisely. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

81 2. Remaining sessions in 8 Steps SELEESR:
Group Counseling Process 2. Remaining sessions in 8 Steps SELEESR: Summary of the initial meeting. Establish therapeutic atmosphere. Leader models facilitative behaviors. Establish a relationship. Address members’ concerns/problems. Explore previous solutions, look at alternatives. Set goals, try new behaviors, assign homework Report and evaluate results First session in CBDD: 1. Clarify ground rules and guidelines. 2. Build cohesiveness and trust. 3. Discuss confidentiality. 4. Discuss active listening for each other. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

82 Group Leader Characteristics (Corey)
Group Counseling Process Implications for Different Ages Group counseling can help children in formative years acquire social skills, improve racial relationships, and shape a positive attitude towards school. Group counseling can support preadolescents in dealing with family, peer pressure, and anger management. Group counseling can help high school students with making choices, stress, aggression, and eating disorders. Group counseling can help students with self-esteem, self-determination, body awareness, and self-concept (ex. unity model). Group Leader Characteristics (Corey) Presence – genuine care in “being there” for clients Personal power – self confidence and awareness of one’s power Courage – ability to take risks and be vulnerable Willingness to confront oneself – being honest and self aware Sincerity and authenticity – sincere interest in the well-being of others and behaving without pretense Sense of identity – knowing one’s values, strengths, and limitations Belief and enthusiasm for the group process Inventiveness and creativity – open to new ideas and experience CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

83 Passive – Actice – Attractive LP
Lecture & Presentation HE have to present information to a large group. The lecture method, a formal kind of presentation, may be the most efficient way to communicate general health information. However, lectures tend to create a passive learning environment for the audience unless strategies are devised to involve the learners. You CHS382 Exciting To capture their attention, slides, overhead projections, computer-generated slide presentations, or videotapes can supplement the lecture. Allowing time for question and dissection after lecture also actively involves the learners. This method is best used with adults, but even they have a limited attention span, and a break at least midway through a presentation of 1 hour will be appreciated. Distributing printed material that highlights and summarizes the content shared, or supplements it, also reinforce important points. Passive – Actice – Attractive LP You CHS382 Exciting CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

84 You CHS382 Top Exciting - Why
Lecture & Presentation You CHS382 Top Exciting - Why Still More …………….. You CHS382 Exciting CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

85 - Learning and unlearning of specific habits.
BEHAVIOUR CHANGE - MODIFICATION - Learning and unlearning of specific habits. Stimulus-response learning. Generally behavior specific, e.g. quit smoking phobia desensitization. - Often used in intra-personal, cultural, social, national communication educational levels, and include techniques intended to help those in the target population experience a change in behavior systematic procedure for changing a behavior and process based on stimulus response theory - Emphasis placed on a specific behavior that one might want to increase or decrease - Particular attention given to changing the events that are antecedent or subsequent to the behavior that is to be modified CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

86 JOHALI QUALITY MODEL -SUMMARY OF THE MOST COMMOM MoHEs
METHODOLOGIES JOHALI QUALITY MODEL -SUMMARY OF THE MOST COMMOM MoHEs M & T MAJOR METHODS CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

87 METHODOLOGY – THE MOST COMMOM CAP BASEDE
M Types with Kinds of Learning; Status of Learners plus Advantages & Disadvantages CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015 87

88 Behavior modification Modeling Peer-group discussion
Health Problem and Behavior Based Characters M & T Relation to Objectives & Complexity HEMLT Strategies Prevalent category Diagnostic Criterion Behavior modification Modeling Peer-group discussion Simulations and games Inquiry Learning Programmed Learning \ ETV Mass media Individual instruction Lecture Audiovisual aids Cognitive Desired Educational Outcomes Affect Psycho. Simple HI Complexity Complex HB Complexity Short HB Duration Long Infrequent HB Frequency Frequent Rare HB Extent Widespread Additive HB Nature Substantive Think survey Saudi Accreditation Association – CAMS & College of Education CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

89 Recommended HEM Strategies To Age; Believe & Socioeconomic Status
HEMLT Strategies Prevalent category Diagnostic Criterion Behavior modification Modeling Peer-group discussion Simulations and games Inquiry Learning Programed Learning \ TV Mass media Individual instruction Lecture Audiovisual aids Infants and preschool children Age Primary school children Secondary school Adults Weak Believes HBM Moderate Strong High intermediate Socioeconomic statue CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

90 May not be easily available May be expensive May not be appropriate
TECHNOLOGIES 3 Examples Disadvantages Advantages Techniques With high – school students , cases of drug dependency can be viewed and used as basis for discussion Need careful selection and previewing Need meaningful introduction and follow – up discussion costly Electricity required All information in film may not be appropriate No self – pacing Need proficient with equipment Resemble ‘look like’ reality Available to large audiences Effective illumination of attitudes and values , can demonstrate skills Visual and auditory senses stimulated 9.Filme , video , television Tape initial session of a group in which health attitudes are discussed . Play back in later session to assess any changes Quality recordings may be difficult to obtain Person using must be proficient with equipment Auditory sense stimulated Self – pacing Small recorders can be inexpensive , Can be used for a variety of reasons 10. Tape recordings Inviting an adolescent diabetic who is coping well to speak to a group of new juvenile diabetics about how he feels in relation to his condition May not be easily available May be expensive May not be appropriate Present reality May provide a point of comparison May command respect because of knowledge 11. Expert contributors CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015 90

91 METHODS OF STAGES OF CHANGE
CONCEPT DEFINITION METHODS OF TX. PRE-CONTEMPLATION Unaware of the problem, hasn’t thought about change Engagement skills, develop trust, assertive outreach, accept client where they are at, provide concrete care CONTEMPLATION Thinking about change, in the near future (usually w/in the next 6mos) Instill hope, positive reinforcement for harm reduction, discuss consequences, raise ambivalence, motivational interviewing PREPARATION Making a plan to change plans, setting gradual goals (w/in 1 mo) Assist in developing concrete action, problem solve w/ obstacles, build skills, encourage small steps, tx planning ACTION Specific changes to life style has been made w/in past 6 mos Combat feelings of loss and emphasize long term benefits, enhance coping skills, teach how to use self help, tx. Planning, develop healthy living skills, teach to avoid high risk situations MAINTENANCE Continuation of desirable actions, or repeating periodic recommended step's Assist in coping, reminders, finding alternatives, relapse prevention RELAPSE PART OF THE PROCESS Determine the triggers and plan for future prevention CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

92 Johali MoHE Social Marketing (SM)
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93 Product : the physical product and its symbolic meaning
Social Marketing (SM) We have to use carefully for facilitating modifying health behaviors SOCIAL MARKETING defined as: The application of marketing concepts and techniques to the marketing of various socially beneficial ideas and causes instead or products and services in the commercial sense. (Fox & Kotler 1980) SM 8 Steps SM 4 Ps 1. Establishing management and operating procedures 2. Selecting the products to be marketed 3. Identifying the consumer population 4. Deciding on brand names and packaging 5. Setting an appropriate price 6. Recruiting sales outlets 7. Arranging and maintaining a distribution system 8. Carrying out promotion Product : the physical product and its symbolic meaning Price : The Value of the product Place : Where the product is available Promotion (Advertize) :advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and publicity CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

94 SM Strengths 1. A valuable change tool 2. Useful in persuasion
3. Useful in creating awareness and interest 4. Helpful by reinforcing through repetition of message WEAKNESSES & LIMITATION Heavy reliance on mass media (effects of selective processes) Makes the audience passive Tends to be manipulative May create negative public sentiments for real consume products Creates resistance if opposed to strongly reinforced and deeply entrenched ideas/habits Focus on the “individual” rather than the “community” at large for the proposed change Only appropriate in certain circumstances Ideas from “outside” - not the audience’s own CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

95 REFLECT & PRACE REFLECT & PRACTICE CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

96 for teaching & learning content areas of skills-health education
Every philosophy – theory – level – fields…..has each own : Characters - Content - Methods Child-seeking = Child-centred Inclusive of children Effective for learning Healthy and protective for children Involved with children, families, and communities Gender-sensitive Content Methods The methods for teaching & learning The content areas of skills-health education Every philosophy – theoryy – level – fields…..has each own : Content Methods An overview of the key elements of the vision of a child friendly school is provided here. For more information, see A child friendly school should be: - Inclusive, in that the goal is to have all children at school and learning, with special needs being met - Effective academically - Healthy and protective for children in terms of the physicaland psychosocial environment - Gender sensitive - Involved and communicating with families and communities and listening to children and young people. - group work & discussion - brainstorming - role play - educational games - debates - practising people skills Johali2ndMoHE2015 CHS385

97 About what? Towards what? For what?
Content What topic? What issue? Knowledge Attitudes Skills (life) About what? Towards what? For what? (i) Content To effectively influence behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and (life) skills must be applied in a particular content area, topic or subject. Learning about decision making, for example, will be more meaningful if the content or topic is relevant and remains constant or linked, such as looking at different aspects or types of decisions related to relationships, rather than considering decisions about a number of unrelated or irrelevant issues. Genuine participation of the group is essential for identifying the relevance of content. Whatever the content area, a balance of three elements needs to be considered in implementing skills based health education: 1. Knowledge, 2. Attitudes, and 3. Skills The question for program designers is ‘what’ knowledge, attitudes and skills will be addressed The ‘skills’ referred to above are sometimes called “life skills” – or psychosocial and interpersonal skills. Many different issues, topics or subjects can be the focus of skills-based health education or life skills-based education; for example, health issues such as drug use, HIV/AIDS/STD prevention, suicide prevention and mental health, self esteem; or other issues, such as consumer education, environmental education, peace education, or education for development. Note that life skills do not include skills such as interviewing skills, or physical or manual skills involved in agriculture or animal husbandry, which might be called ‘livelihood’ skills. Learning Outcomes CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

98 Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) with answers
USING POWERPOINT&TO&CREATE SCIENTIFIC POSTERS Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) with answers LIVE if possible Just Example 1 SAQ 11.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 11.1 and 11.2) Explain the difference between counselling and advice, and give examples of each of them. Hide answer Answer Counselling is a helping process where one person explicitly, and purposefully, gives their time to assist clients to explore their own situation, and act upon a solution. It is the process by which we first understand the problem, and then help the client to understand their problem, and then we need to work together with them to find a solution that is appropriate to their situation. It involves helping people to make decisions and giving them the confidence to put their decision into practice. Advice is based on opinions and suggestions about what could be done about a situation or problem. It is an opinion given by experts on what to do and how to do it. In advice, the decision is made by the health worker and the clients are expected to follow the decision. But in counselling, the decisions are made by the clients themselves. Advice is not appropriate in health counselling for two reasons. First, if the advice is right, the person may become dependent on the counsellor for solving all their problems in the future. Second, if the advice turns out to be wrong, the person will become angry and no longer trust the counsellor. Just Example 1 CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

99 Selecting Objective Based HE Methods
To achieve each of your stated objectives, you need to choose the best educational method, because not all health education methods are appropriate to achieve each of your objectives — some methods are better than others. For example, if one of your learning objectives is to increase knowledge about a particular health subject, you should choose a method which is appropriate for this objective This Table shows health education methods that are appropriate for each learning objective. Learning objective Health education method Raising awareness and passing on knowledge Lecture with discussion, talks at public meetings or social gatherings, and the distribution of materials such as posters and leaflets Changing attitudes Individual approaches such as counselling or discussion, using visual and audio-visual materials Skill development Training and demonstrations involving practice Changing attitude health education objectives can achieved by Counseling and discussion the vest for CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

100 Selecting Objective Based HE Methods
When you are choosing the educational method that you will use, you should also consider: The number of people involved. Learner preferences. The appropriateness of the method to the local culture. Availability of your resources. A method that best fits the characteristics (age, sex, religion, etc.) of the target group. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

101 FURTHER CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

102 Highest Level Community health education, participation & organization
????????????????????????? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

103 The Public Health System
Assuring the Conditions for Population Health Employers and Business Academia Governmental Public Health Infrastructure The Media care delivery system Community Assuring the Conditions for Population Health Employers and Business Academia Governmental Public Health Infrastructure The Media care delivery system Community ربما لا حاجه لها Much of the work in public health is accomplished through community partnerships. There is vast literature on the value of coalitions and community capacity. There are new methods for measuring partnerships through network analysis and new areas of study continue to develop. You’ve probably heard of the MAPP (Mobilizing Action through Planning and Partnerships) approach through NACCHO. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

104 The 10 Essential Public Health Services
Monitor health status to identify community health problems Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable Assure a competent public health and personal health care workforce Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services Conduct research to attain new insights and innovative solutions to health problems Public Health Functions Steering Committee (1994) Stimulated by the clear need to develop a more descriptive framework describing public health, the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) convened a national workgroup in 1993 called the Public Health Functions Steering Committee. It was chaired by the Surgeon General and included representatives from most PHS agencies and from a number of national public health organizations. In the fall of 1994, the committee produced Public Health in America, a document that described a vision, a mission statement, a list of public health goals, and a list of ten public health services needed to carry out basic public health responsibilities. The ten services have subsequently been called the "Ten Essential Public Health Services." It was the committee's specific intent that these essential services represent the full range of responsibility in public health across federal, state, and local levels. CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

105 Paintings/ Artistic Endeavour
Yes will be used Narrative records Portfolio Photographs/ Videos Questions Essays Assessment Conversation Skills Observation Self Assessment Tools & Techniques Projects Assignments Quizzes Checklist Yes will be used Rating Scales Research Work (group) Oral Questions Observation Paintings/ Artistic Endeavour Peer Assessment Narrative Reports CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

106 Johali Adopted Philosophy To Quality of MoHE ??!!
Strategic Approach to Community Health Improvement Yes will be used ????????????????????????? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! A Strategic Approach to Community Health Improvement

107 Further Support Topics
- Patient/Family Education Learning Module - A Model for Educational Feedback Based on Clinical Communication Skills Strategies: Beyond the "Feedback Sandwich“ Chapter 5 : Instructional Methods and Strategies Co-Lead Authors:  Christopher White, MD and Lynn Manfred Co-Authors: Judy Bowen, MD, Martin Leamon, MD, Jennifer Koestler, MD,  Lyuba Konopasek, MD, Marilyn Kimmelman, EdD, Paul M. Krueger, DO, David A. Rogers, MD, MHPE CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015

108 References & Sources Born to Learn
Adult Learning /learning.html Workshop on Methods for Changing Environmental Conditions for Health: influencing organizations, key actors and stakeholders - Abraham, C., & Michie, S. (2008). A taxonomy of behavior change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychology, 27, 379–387. Bartholomew, L. K., Parcel, G. S., Kok, G., Gottlieb, N. H., & Fernandez, M. E. (2011). Planning Health Promotion Programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Skills-based health education including life skills, Unicef, New York (http://www.unicef.org/programme/lifeskills/mainmenu.html ) Born to Learn CHS385 Johali2ndMoHE2015


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