Presentation on theme: "1Word Choice A. Delete Uninformative Words And Avoid Redundancy"— Presentation transcript:
0Seminar in Transportation A summary ofAn Outline of Scientific Writing, Jen Tsi YangBy: A. Ariannezhad, A. Iranitalab, M. kavianipour, A. Mohammadi, A. MoeinaddiniCivil Engineering Department Sharif University of Technology
11Word Choice A. Delete Uninformative Words And Avoid Redundancy The mathematician Pascal once noted to a friend: “I am writing a longer letter than usual, because there is not enough time to write a short one. ”unnecessarily wordy improved versionbrief in duration briefSufficient in number sufficientIt was precooled before It was precooled.
21Word Choice B. Use One Word To Replace A Phrase at this point in time nowthe reason was because becauseit was evident that evidently
31Word Choice C. Avoid Grandiloquence provokes ridicule Sir Winston Churchill: “Give us the tools and we will finish the job.”The greatest speeches in history were simple and to the point
41Word Choice Computations were conducted on the data. It may seem reasonable to suggest that the necrotic effect may possibly be due to toxins.The data were calculated.Necrosis may be caused by toxins.
51Word Choice D. Avoid Cliches And Euphemisms The patient expired The patient passed awayThe patient breathed his lastThe patient has gone to his restThe patient died.
61Word Choice E. Use Synonyms There are two reasons to use synonyms: 1- to avoid monotony from using the same term repeatedly.2- to express the precise shade of meaning for a specific context.The subject demonstrated a marked sensitivity to the allergen. Afterreceiving the medication, she showed marked improvement. This is amarked medical achievement.The subject demonstrated a marked sensitivity to the allergen. Afterreceiving the medication, she showed extraordinary improvement. This isa noteworthy medical achievement.
72 Sentence Structure A. Agreement of Subject And Verb 1- The number of the verb must agree with the number of the subjectAn evaluation of the experimental results, as well as the clinical findings, is described.An evaluation of the experimental results, as well as the clinical findings, are described.An easy way to identify the correct subject and verb form:An evaluation ... is describedAn evaluation ... Are described
8These data are significant 2 Sentence Structure2- Recognize irregular pluralssingular forms: data, formulae, radiiPlural forms: datum, formula, radiuscorrect formcorrect formThis data is significantThese data are significant
92 Sentence Structure3- when singular and plural subjects are joined by either ... or and neither ... nor, the verb must agree with the nearest subject.Either the samples or theapparatus were contaminated.correct formEither the samples or theapparatus was contaminated.both of either and neither, always take a singular verb.Neither of the samples is large.
102 Sentence StructureA compound sentence with more than one dependent clause:correct formThe tissue was minced and samples incubated.The tissue was minced andSamples were incubated.Blood samples have been drawnand measurements have been taken.correct formBlood samples have been drawnand measurements taken.
112 Sentence Structure B. Pronoun Reference A missing antecedent Ambiguous referenceThe monkey, when he was six weeks old, was operated on by the surgeon.The monkey was operated on by the surgeon when he was six weeks old.When he was six weeks old, the monkey was operated on by the surgeon.If the ambiguity cannot be removed by rearranging words, the entire sentence should be rewritten.
122 Sentence Structure C. Active And Passive Voice As fashions change with time, so does the style of scientific writing.It was suggested by Dr. Smith that the test be postponedDr. Smith suggested postponing the test.You should not entirely avoid using the passive voice.The relationship F = ma was discovered by Newton.Newton discovered the relationship F = ma.
132 Sentence Structure C. Active And Passive Voice The passive voice is also used to avoid mentioning the performer of the action when the performer is unimportant, indefinite, unknown, or obvious from text.Bovine serum albumin was purchased from Sigma.Eighteen minutes of the tape had been erased.
142 Sentence Structure D. Nouns From Verbs For many action verbs there are nouns of similar derivation such as:examine/examination and perform/performanceimproved formAn evaluation of the data was done.The data were evaluated.The installation of the newequipment has been carried out.improved formThe new equipment has beeninstalled.
152 Sentence Structure E. Modifiers 1- Adjectival modifiers: Modify the nearest noun.One or more adjectives precede the noun, while adjective phrases follow the noun.a child in blue jeans.a child in jeans the color of the sky.
162 Sentence Structure 2- Adverbs: Mainly modify verbs, but they can also modify, adjectives, other adverbs, and even whole sentences.Most single-word adverbs end in -ly, such as lightly and evenly precede the words that they modify.He noted a relatively large increase in blood flowAn exception is when the adverb modifies an intransitive verb.He walked quickly
172 Sentence Structure 2- Adverbs: If The modifier makes up a large portion of the sentence,As soon as my replacement arrived, I left.I left As soon as my replacement arrived.Compound verbs consist of one or more helping verbs and a participle.He is probably writing his thesis now.If only the participle is being modified,His thesis has been carefully written.The procedure has been tried time after time.
182 Sentence Structure 2- Adverbs: Sometimes a single adverb can take one of several positions in the sentence. It should never, however, separate a verb from its object.Slowly, he drew the blood into the syringe.He slowly drew the blood into the syringe.He drew the blood slowly into the syringe.He drew the blood into the syringe slowly.but neverHe drew slowly the blood into the syringe.
192 Sentence Structure 2- Adverbs: A misplaced modifier making the sentence confusing or illogical.We purchased rats from a dealer weighing about 250 g.We purchased rats weighing about 250 g from a dealer.
202 Sentence Structure F. Germanic Construction Sentences containing several adjectives in sequenceThis is a case where the most concise sentence is not the clearestThe gas analyzer sampling tube is then connected to the calibrator mixing chamber.The sampling tube of the gas analyzer is then connected to the mixing chamber of the calibrator.
212 Sentence Structure G. Punctuation In August 1993, a dam in a remote western province of China burst and killed 257 people.the U.N. disaster relief agency misread a Chinese document Which read:“as of September 1,257 people were dead,”Instead of“as of September 1, 257 people were dead.”
222 Sentence Structure H. American And British Styles 1- Spelling Some American words ending with -ction, -ense, -er, -El, - log, or -yze are spelled differently in British usage.For some verbs ending with -e, the American style is to drop the silent e when a suffix is added, while British style retains the e.
23judge judgment judgement Ending American British-ction connection connexioninflection inflexion-ense defense defence-er center centreliter litre-or behavior behaviourcolor colour-yze analyze analyseVerb American Britishage aging ageingjudge judgment judgement
242 Sentence Structure 2- Punctuation With Quoted Material The British rules forA comma, an exclamation point, a period, or a question markHe shouted, “Have a safe trip!” as we drove away.Why did she say, “Call me when you get home”?Colons and semicolons are placed outside the quotation marks.It was clear that everyone had read “Treatment of Tumors”; the ensuing discussion was brisk and informed.
252 Sentence Structure 2- Punctuation With Quoted Material The American rulesA colons, ellipses, exclamation points, question marks, or semicolonsA comma or period, however, is always placed inside the closing quotation mark..“This meeting is now adjourned,” were her closing words.“The pen is mightier than the sword” is his favorite maxim.
262 Sentence Structure 2- Punctuation With Quoted Material The American practice is to use a comma after e.g. and i.e., while the British style omits the comma.American BritishPlease bring some form ofidentification, e.g., a driver’slicense or passportPlease bring some form ofidentification, e.g. a driver’slicense or passport
273 Paragraph Structure basic guidelines for paragraph design: A lucid paragraph contains a topic sentence and clearly related supporting sentencesbasic guidelines for paragraph design:1- Cover only one main point or idea in each paragraph.2- Each sentence should establish or support the topic of the paragraph3- Include information that explains why actions were takenAll of the patient data were kept in paper files. The absence of even oneclerk caused delays in the monthly reporting. Finally, management decidedto interview some systems analysts.
283 Paragraph Structure basic guidelines for paragraph design: 4- Keep a consistent point of view and maintain the same grammatical voice.5- Use parallel construction to make the paragraph easier to understand
29Part II: Planning the Paper PreliminariesTo write or not to writeYou shouldStart with a premiseDevelop a theoryOr conduct a series of experimentsProve or disprove the premiseYou Shouldn’tStart with data collected by your students or coworkersTry to explain the data
30Part II: Planning the Paper PreliminariesFormat of a regular paperTitleAcknowledgementAuthorReferencesAbstractTablesIntroductionFiguresMaterial and MethodsLegends of FiguresResults(And)IMRADDiscussion
31Part II: Planning the Paper PreliminariesFormat of a regular paperSuggested ApproachFollow the journal’s instructionsDecide which experimental dataMaterials and Methods sectionThe results, figures and tablesIntroduction and DiscussionThe reference listThe tables in numerical orderThe figures in numerical orderSelect a tentative title
32Part II: Planning the Paper PreliminariesFormat of a regular paperSuggested ApproachThe abstractRevise the first draftRevise the manuscriptSeek comments from each author (Multiauthor paper)Reread the manuscriptHave someone review the manuscriptHave the text polished by someone fluent in EnglishSubmit the manuscript to the journal
33Part II: Planning the Paper PreliminariesFormat of a regular paperKeep in mind two factsBrevityClaritypractice to condense your manuscript as much as possibleConvention for verb formsIntroduction and Discussion: Present TenseMaterials and Methods and Results: Past Tense
34Part II: Planning the Paper PreliminariesCommunications (letters) to the editorThey areAn urgent report of unusual resultsNew and significant insights that allow for rapid publicationTheir importance to current research warrant immediate publicationThey are notShort versions of regular papersThey should beVery briefConciseClear
35Part II: Planning the Paper PreliminariesNomenclature and StyleInternational standards on nomenclature should be observed.The US National Academy of Sciences recommends various guides.Chemistry. The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, ed. Dodd, J. S. (1986) American Chemical Society Publications, th Street, N.W., Washington, DCPhysics. AIP Style Manual (1990) American Institute of Physics, 335 East 45th Street, New York, NY
36Part II: Planning the Paper Title and Running TitleA title is usually a phrase, but can be a complete sentence.A good title should:Provide specific informationBe informative and lucidInclude a subtitle if needed:The frequency and predictors of helmet use among Iranian motorcyclists: A quantitative and qualitative studyNot be in question formNot contain nonstandard abbreviation:The CMC of SDSThe critical micelle concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate
37Part II: Planning the Paper Title and Running TitleA good title should:Begin with an important termNot contain judgmental wordsNot be serialProvide a running title:Less than fifty characters long including spacingThe briefer title that appears on each page of textSudden deafness and its relationship to atherosclerosisRunning title: SUDDEN DEAFNESS AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS
38Part II: Planning the Paper AuthorsMultiauthorshipTwo questions show upWho should be listed as an author?In what order should coauthors be listed?“I will list your name in my paper, and you will list my name in your publications.”It is usually:The first author did the researchlast author is the supervisor
39Part II: Planning the Paper AuthorsMultiauthorshipIt is suggested thatTitle page contains the names of those who have contributed materially to the workOthers can be thanked in the AcknowledgmentsCitingReducing list of more than three authors, to the first author’s name followed by “et al.”One Record: In a 1987 paper in Phys. Rev. D. there were 108 authors from 14 universities
40Part II: Planning the Paper AuthorsFormat of namesfirst name/middle name/last name/designationsDoyle Arthur Bramhall jr.Asghar Rastegar M.D.Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle DLThe spelling of a name in English is a matter of personal preference.
41Part II: Planning the Paper AuthorsRomanization of Persian namesFrom the ALA-LC Romanization Tables:
42Part II: Planning the Paper AuthorsRomanization of Persian namesExamples:
43Part II: Planning the Paper Abstract and Key WordsAbstractIs not an indicative summery or a table of contentsGives actual dataA mini-paperMaximum information with minimum wordsCoveringObjectiveMaterials and MethodsResultsConclusions
44Part II: Planning the Paper Abstract and Key WordsAbstractShould answerWhyHowWhat150 to 250 words or even lessWithin one double-spaced typed page on standard-size paper.
45Part II: Planning the Paper Abstract and Key WordsDouble-spacedIn MS WordType the whole abstractSelect all the textHold ctrl+2
46Part II: Planning the Paper Abstract and Key WordsIn abstractAvoid abbreviations unlessA name is better known by its abbreviationDNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)A long term is used several times (5 or more)The University of California at San Francisco (UCSF)Avoid citing referencesDon’t end with “The results will be discussed,”
47Part II: Planning the Paper Abstract and Key WordsKey Words3 to 5 words or short phrasesUsually not the words already in the titleTitle:Analysis of urban network performance under stochastic incident occurrencesKeywords:traffic accident, natural disasters, traffic fluctuations, network designBut not:stochastic events, urban network, network design
48Part II: Planning the Paper IntroductionIntroductions includes:Background informationNot the elementary factsThe reason of this projectRelevant findingsSpecialized background factsA brief summary of previous workThe introduction aims to evoke interest and should also be brief to avoid losing the reader’s attention.
49Part II: Planning the Paper IntroductionCovers three partsThe general backgroundPrevious findings by othersYour examinations of the questionsVerbsIn the present tense for ongoing truthsIn the past tense for this research findingsDoctors recommend taking aspirin each day to prevent heart attacks. We administered daily aspirin to 200 subjects and found it unsuitable for ulcer-prone patients.
50Part II: Planning the Paper IntroductionOften includes a literature search for further studyBooks and articlesIndex periodicalsAbstract journalsColleagues and othersComputer searchNaturally, you can summarize your own previous work, but an introduction is not a place to showcase your talents.
51Part II: Planning the Paper Materials and MethodsBear in mind thatYour entire paper is on methodologyIt is the easiest part to writeShouldn’t be too lengthySufficient information should be providedMaterialsThe name, source, purity, and potencyHazardous materials and dangerous methodsVerbs in past tense and passive voiceEnzyme A was purchased from SigmaWe purchased Enzyme A from Sigma
5210-ResultGeneral statements that interpret the raw data obtained from experimental measurements.Meat of the paper and the most important part of the studyThe results are presented as text, illustrations, and tables.
53Text The text may be any length. For clarity, long passages of text are often organized by topic into subsections.Sometimes the Results and Discussion are combined into one section.
54Text’s GuidelineEmphasize only important observations that will answer the question or solve the problem raised in your Introduction.Be selective about your results.Structure the text so that the emphasis is on the results.Do not include information that properly belongs in other sections of the paper such as Materials and Methods.Do not repeat the legends for figures or the titles of tables in the text.
55Text’s GuidelineExplain in the text only those illustrations and tables whose significance is not obvious to the reader.Be sure that the text, illustrations and tables are consistent with one another.Analyze your data by statistical methods, if appropriate.Be honest. Do not omit data that do not support your hypothesis.Use the past tense of verbs in the Results section, except when referring to figures and tables.
56Text’s GuidelineTerms beginning a sentence are nearly always spelled out.A sentence should not begin with a numeral or symbol.Numbers in a sentence should not begin with a decimal point.
57One picture is worth a thousand words! 11- FiguresOne picture is worth a thousand words!
58FigureThe text in the Results section is often supplemented by figures or illustrations, such as graphs and diagrams.The interested reader will usually, after scanning the Title and Abstract, glance over the illustrations and tables for an overview of the work.
59DESIGN PRINCIPLESRead the Instructions to Authors of the journal to which your manuscript will be submitted.Design your illustration to fit the columns of the journal.Size the illustration to optimal dimensions.Indicate the units of the X- and Y-axes.Scale units by a power of 10 so that tick marks on the axes are labeled with one- or two-digit numbers.Avoid wasted space within an illustration.
60DESIGN PRINCIPLESUse labels, symbols, and scales large enough to be read after the illustration is reduced.Use standard symbols to indicate data points. The most common ones are and .Draw scales on all four sides of a boxed figure.
61DESIGN PRINCIPLESSolid plot lines are preferable, except where overlapping or crossing curves would be difficult to understand.A dashed line is often used to represent a control or standard curve, which contrasts with solid lines for the experimental curves.Do not clutter the axes with tick marks and numbers.
62DESIGN PRINCIPLESDo not crowd a graph with overlapping curves and symbols.
64DESIGN PRINCIPLESSome graphs require different scales in different regions.
65DESIGN PRINCIPLESDisplay similar curvesas a series of graphs.
66DESIGN PRINCIPLESUse vertical bars to indicate the ranges of experimental error.
67DESIGN PRINCIPLESDo not extrapolate a curve beyond the actual data unless justifiable.Identify the source of an illustration that has been published elsewhere.Ask yourself.. Is the figure necessary?
68LEGEND A legend is needed to explain all symbols, identify all curves, and define all abbreviations not specified on the curves.It can briefly mention experimental conditions.
6912- TablesA table can list large amounts of numerical values in a small space.It is preferable to figures when exact values are of utmost importance.It is less effective than a figure for showing trends in the data.
70TABLE COMPONENTSTable number: It is numbered in order of appearance in the text.Title : The title should be a brief and intelligible identification of the content.SubheadingColumn headings: A column heading briefly indicates the nature of the data in the column.
71TABLE COMPONENTSHorizontal rules: If there is more than one level of data in the table, this is indicated by a heading for each level and a horizontal rule spanning the columns in that level.Stub: The leftmost column is called the stub, and lists categories or subjects described in the other columnsBody of table: Numerical data presented in the table should be decimal aligned. Numbers without decimal digits are aligned along the implied decimal point.Footnote
72DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Design the table to fit the columns of the journal.Keep the table simple and easy to follow.Do not waste large amounts of empty space in the body of a table.Round the data to the nearest significant figures.Arrange the columns to facilitate comparison of the data.Ask yourself: Is the table necessary?
78Outline Discussion Acknowledgments References Summary of Preparing a Manuscript
79Discussion takes the data reported in the Results section interprets the findings,evaluates their significanceexamines the implicationsDISCUSSION FORMATstarting with the questionshould be answered by a chain of argumentsComparison with others’ observationsbeginning and ending are for important ideasEnd the Discussion with a positive statement
80Some suggestions Begin the discussion with a topic sentence Mention new findings. knowledge, and conceptsState whether you have achieved your goal or have found exceptionsSuggest future studies
81GRAMMATICAL STYLE past tense present tense past perfect tense Data were taken from fifty volunteers.present tenseWe conclude that regular exercise reduces the severity of osteoporosis.past perfect tenseWe had studied the secondary structure of protein in 1985present perfect tenseThe conformation of protein B has been studied by nmr (Smith, 1990).
82AcknowledgmentsGives credit to those who have contributed to the research.Technical assistance, advice from colleagues & …not clerical assistance, word processing, or encouragement from friendssources of funding(Grants, gifts, fellowships& …) should be mentionedBe briefWe thank … instead of The authors thank…We are deeply indebted to…We are grateful to …Make certain that the acknowledgments accurately reflect the situation
83References basic components of a documentation system: text citation reference list
84documentation systems NUMBER SYSTEMAUTHOR-DATEALPHABET-NUMBER SYSTEM
85NUMBER SYSTEM Text citation For example, (1), [2-5], or 6. The history of optical activity goes back almost two centuries to the pioneer researches of J. B. Biot and A. J. Fresnel (1). Biot was the first to observe two types of optical rotatory dispersion. He also gave us the definition of specific rotation (2).1. Smith, J. Q. (1978) Famous French Scientists.2. Lowry, A. (1935) Optical Rotatoly Power. Lungmans, Green, London;
86Bovine serum albumin in acid solution undergoes reversible “swelling” upon lowering the pH from 4 to Yang, J. T. and Foster, J. F. (1954) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76,
87AUTHOR-DATElast names of the authors & the year of publication The history of optical activity goes back almost two centuries to the pioneer researches of J. B. Biot and A. J. Fresnel (Smith, 1978). Biot was the first to observe two types of optical rotatory dispersion. He also gave us the definition of specific rotation (Lowry, 1935). Bovine serum albumin in acid solution undergoes reversible “swelling” upon lowering the pH from 4 to 2(Yang and Foster, 1954).
88Many methods of circular dichroic analysis have been develope1 and all use the far-UV spectra of a set of reference proteins to determine the conformation of an unknown protein.1 Greenfield and Fasman, 1969; Rosenkranz and Scholten, 1971; Brahmsand Brahms, 1980; Saxena and Wetlaufer, 1971; Chen and Yang, 1971;Chen et al., 1972, 1974; Chang et al., 1978; Bolotina et al., 1980a,1980b; Provencher and Glockner, 1981; Hennessey and Johnson, 1980;Compton and Johnson, 1986; Manavalan and Johnson, 1987; van Stokkumet al., 1990; Perczel et al., 1991, 1992; Bohm et al., 1992; Sreerama andWoody, 1993.
90(Chen et al., 1972, 1974) additional references by the same authors (Gene, 1958, fig. 5)(Gates, 1980; Dale and Sanders, 1992) Several references in one citation(Chen et al., 1972, 1974) additional references by the same authors(Ames et al., 1975) Multi-author works: more than two authors(NIH, 1974) author is an organization(Smith, in press) the work is not yet releasedNational Institutes of Health (NIH) (1974) A report on legionnaire’s disease. J. Am. Med. Assoc
91Reference ListChou, P. and Fasman, G. D. (1974). Biochemistry 13:Anderson, K. G. (1995) “Genetic Engineering: Tools for the Next Century.” Ph.D. diss., Harvard University.
92ALPHABET-NUMBER SYSTEM is identical to the number system, except that sources in the reference list are arranged alphabetically by author
93Summary of Preparing a Manuscript FRONT MATTERTEXTBACK MATTER
94FRONT MATTERtitle pageAuthors and Affiliationsabstractlist of key
95title page Choose a title that will attract the reader’s interest. Use the fewest possible words to adequately describe the content of the paper.Be specific.Avoid abbreviations, except standard ones such as DNA.Put important terms at the beginning of the title
96Authors and Affiliations Include only those who have contributed materially to the research project.List order depends on each author’s role and contribution.Write names in western formatList the affiliations of all authorsList the corresponding author:the addressTelephone & fax numberProvide the country code
97AbstractIt begins on a new page and contains up to 150 to 250 words. avoid citing references in the abstract.Objective and scope: informative for research papers and indicative for conference reports, and so forthMethodologySummary of resultsConclusions
98Key WordsProvide several words or phrases for the benefit of the indexer.Include words that are not part of the title of the paper.
99TEXTIntroductionMaterials and MethodsResultsDiscussion
100Introduction Nature and scope of the problem Pertinent literature citedMethodsRecent findings and theoriesPrincipal results
101Materials and MethodsProvide detail sufficient to enable a competent reader to repeat the experiments.Do not include resultsRemember that a good reviewer will read this section to judge the validity of your approach.
102Results Do not start the Results section by describing methodology. Report significant results only.Avoid redundancyCite figures and tables conciselyBear in mind that text in figures and tables must be legible after reduction by the printer
103Discussion New results should not be introduced in this section Present the principles, relationships, and generalizations shown by the resultsPoint out any exceptions or any lack of correlation, avoid focusing on trivial detailsShow how your results and interpretations agree or disagree with published work
104DiscussionDiscuss the theoretical implications and any possible applicationsState your conclusionsSummarize your evidence for each conclusion
105BACK MATTER Acknowledgment References Cite only significant published referencesFollow the journal’s instructions for documentation
107Outlines Review and Decision First Proof Posters Preparation of an Oral Presentation
108Review and DecisionA manuscript is usually evaluated by at least two anonymous reviewers (referees). The editor or an associate editor will refer the manuscript to a member of the editorial board, who often asks outside referees for additional opinions before delivering a definitive recommendation. The referring editor then makes the final decision on the manuscript.
109Review and DecisionThe decision on a manuscript is usually one of the following:Outright acceptance, which is rare.Outright rejection, usually when both reviewers are very negative about the manuscript or one reviewer has raised serious objections.Request for major or minor revision
110Review and DecisionTo submit a revised manuscript the cover letter should include the following:1. The authors’ names, the title of the manuscript, and the manuscript number assigned by the journal.2.The authors’ response to the reviewers’ comments and criticism , including the page and line number of each comment.3.An explanation of any disagreement between the authors and reviewers to the satisfaction of the editor.
111Review and DecisionTo submit a revised manuscript the cover letter should include the following:4.The word “REVISION” typed or handwritten on the required.5.copies of the revised manuscript A copy of the original manuscript with editing marks (only if major alterations were made). This will help the editor and the reviewers verify how what part of the reviewers’ suggestions were incorporated into the revised manuscript.
116Posters why we must use poster? participation at scientific meetings increased to the point where the number of speakers had to be restricted. For a time, societies appointed some of their members to serve on juries, selecting the papers to be presented orally and the rest as posters. Major annual meeting with the number of participants would easily exceed 20,000 and special symposia such as the Gordon Conferences however 100 participants for each conference With so many posters there is considerable competition for the reader's time and attention.
118several principles apply to all Posters: 1.Do not overload the poster with illustrations or text
119several principles apply to all Posters: 2.Choose typestyles carefully.
120several principles apply to all Posters: 3.Clearly separate the text.
121several principles apply to all Posters: 4.Arrange the poster components for continuous, smooth flow
122several principles apply to all Posters: 5.Put the most important information at eye level.
123other principles apply to all Posters: 6.Keep the text short and explicit.7.Maximize legibility.8.Use portrait orientation.
124Preparation of an Oral Presentation Every researcher should be able to prepare and deliver good oral presentations. If there is no substitute for practice, you should take advantage of opportunities to give presentations in the local scientific community.Public speaking is largely a matter of personal style. A good speaker can make a complex subject such as nuclear physics understandable to the audience.
125Preparation of an Oral Presentation guidelines: 1. Do not read your lecture to the audience.2. include a heading on each illustration.3. Limit each slide to one main idea.4. Keep slides simple.5. Number the slides in order.6. Make duplicates of slides that are used more than once.7. If possible. use graphs rather than tables.
126Preparation of an Oral Presentation guidelines: 8. Limit curves to a maximum of three or four per figure.9. Limit columns to a maximum of four per table or seven per bar chart.10. Limit text to a maximum of five to seven lines per slide and six or seven.11. Leave some space between lines.12. Use a pointer.13. Remember to turn on the room light at intervals.14. Use large lettering for projections.