Presentation on theme: "Welcome Manager & Coaches"— Presentation transcript:
1Welcome Manager & Coaches Folsom American Little LeagueFebruary 24, 2013
2First Aid and Safety For Youth Sports Ernest J. Hook DPMUpdated and Condensed from “Prevention and Emergencies of Management of Little League Baseball and Softball Injuries, LLB Inc. 1989
3Introduction Objectives Be Familiar with basic sports injuries and terminology.Be aware of up-to-date techniques of preventing sportsBe able to differentiate among mild, moderate and severeKnow appropriate first aid techniques for the injuries you will encounterBe able to design an emergency plan for your league to use when severe injuries occurKnow specific techniques to determine whether an injured player is ready to practice and play again
4Evaluating InjuriesInjuries are classified as: mild, moderate, or severeSymptom- what a player reportsSign- what you observeYou’ll discover the injured player’s symptoms and signs as you evaluate the injury by looking and listening, then by carefully feeling and moving the injured part.Do Not Force the player to move the body part if it is extremely painful.
6Treatment P protect R rest I ice (20- 30 min) C compression E elevationS support
7“It is important that coaches and parents be responsive to complaints of injuries from athletes in all age groups. They should be aware that any athlete who is not playing up to skill level may be suffering from a significant injury.”“Minor sprains, muscle pulls, blisters and overuse are the prevalent injuries in non-contact sports”
8First Aid KitIceZip Lock BagsPlayer Emergency Info.~Phone Numbers
9Contusions Commonly called bruises Bleeding into soft tissue Treatment ~PRICES
10Special Considerations Calcium deposit- occurs from deep muscular bruiseTesticular / Groin (cup and Jill pad)Cardiac (Heart)~ May be no symptoms~ May be life-threatening~ Refer to a physician or local emergency roomSpleen- Occurs from blow to upper abdomen under left rib cageKidney-Occurs from blow to flankA severe blow to the head, the mouth or the eyes is a serious situationFor suspected severe head, neck, spinal injuries avoid movement, and immobilize until EMT arrives for transportation and stabilization
11Muscle Pulls and Strains A strain is a tear or “pull” of muscle or a tendonTreatment: PRICESLocations:~Achilles Tendon~ Patella Tibia~Hamstring~Thigh~Shoulder~ElbowPrevention: Stretching & Warming upRehabilitation: Gradual
12Over-use InjuriesResults when a part of the body is subjected often enough to repeat stressCan lead to growth plate (soft immature bone areas) injury and pain~shoulder~elbow~upper anterior tibia- “Osgood- Schlatter’s condition”~heel bone- “Sever’s Calcaneus Apophysitis”
13Bone Growth Plate Injuries To learn more about growth plates. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeltal and Skin Diseases.1 AMS CircleBethesda, MD has an informative presentation at
14Evaluation Consider the pitch count rules to protect players arms Look for:~change in throwing form~limping~other outward signs that the player has pain, such as continually rubbing a sore areaTreatment: rest, ice, heat, & gradual rehabilitation
15Evaluation Twisting injury to a joint, most commonly ankle or knee Report of a “pop” when the joint was twistedSevere sprains (complete tear or be stiff) may not hurt much, or be very swollenTreatment: PRICES- see doctor
16SprainsA sprain is an injury to a ligament. A ligament is the strong connective tissue that runs from bone to bone across a joint. Ligaments make our joints stable.A severe sprain (or tear) of a ligament can render one of our joints unstable.
17Fractures Look for: Obvious deformity Immediate swelling Bone ends protruding through the skinFeel For:Marked tendernessA grating sensation of one bone end rubbing against the other
18Treatment Physician Evaluation Splinting and Transporting For an open fracture, apply a sterile dressing and summon emergency help immediately.Keep athlete calm
19Injuries to the Small Joints May not be a small injuryOften fingers or toesMay be a strain, sprain,or fracture (commonly called a jammed finger)Treatment: PRICES or buddy tape
20Facial Injury Treatment: ~PRICES ~Nosebleed- compression to nostrils. If bleeding continues,gently pack nostril with sterile gauze or cotton, and continue compressionNotify parentsPhysician referralPossibility of a concussion should be considered
21Injuries to Teeth Evaluation: ~Complaints of pain ~A chip, a crack,looseness of a tooth~Complaints of numb feeling in a toothLook For:~ Missing teeth or fragments of teeth~An uneven tooth that appears to be driven in the gum
22TreatmentSterile gauze, pressure and ice as needed for bleeding and swellingNotify parentsSend a tooth or fragment with the playerSpecial Considerations: gently rinse off the tooth with water. Transport the tooth in sterile, moist gauze sponge or in a cup of water. The best solution is to put the tooth in fresh milk.
23Eye Injuries Listen for: ~Complaints of pain in the eye ~Complaints of blurred vision~Complaints of double vision~Complaints of loss of part or all the visual fieldTreatment:~Ice is the only acceptable pain killer for the eye~Notify parents~Immediate physician referral~Make an eye shield: this helps protect the eye from pressure as well as to keep it clean until a doctor can examineConsider: Facial fractures and concussions
24Insect Bites and Stings Possible allergic reactionPain/Swelling/RashWeakness, HeadacheDifficulty breathingStomach crampsTreatment:Apply iceEpinephrineFamily should provide info.if the player has any allergies
25The Unconscious Athlete: Heat Illness Head and neck injuryCardiac arrestHeat IllnessOther illnessAsthmaDiabetesEpilepsy
26Type of Heat Illness Physical Findings Symptoms and Complaints Heat CrampsMuscle tightening & Spasm with intense painUsually lower leg but may be abdominal or rib cageMuscle spasms, either seen or felt, that usually do not respond to kneading to massageExhaustionSevere fatigue, profound weakness, light-headed“Flu-like” symptoms: headache, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrheaElevated temperature, ranging from 98.6 F to 103 F.StrokeConfusion, disorientation, agitation in milder casesHysterical behavior, delirious behavior, coma in more severe casesTemperature at least 105F.Hot, flushed, dry
27Treatment Move player immediately out of the sun & into the shade For heat cramps:Rest, coolingGentle stretchingDiluted salt solution (1 salt to 1 quart water) by mouth
28Treatment For heat exhaustion Rest, rapid cooling Diluted salt solutionActivate emergency care planNotify parentsWatch for progression to heat strokeFor heat strokeExtreme medical emergencyRapid cooling, remove clothing, pack in ice, wet & fanCaution do not: try and force a player to drink water unless you are certain he or she is conscious
29Special Considerations All children are more susceptible to heat illness than adultsHeat exhaustion may lead on to heat stroke, so it is important to treat heat exhaustion as vigorously as possiblePrevention:Drink waterPeriods of coolingAvoid practice when temp. is above 90 or humidity is above 95%
30Check the field conditions for hazards prior to practice or game Watch for snakes, players should avoid brush areas.The End
31ConcussionsA concussion is a brain injury that results from a bump, blow or jolt to the head or body which causes the brain to move rapidly in the skull and which disrupts normal brain function.
32Concussions • All concussions are serious. • Concussions can happen in any sport or recreational activity.• Recognizing and responding properly to concussions when they first occur can help prevent further injury or even death.
33Concussions Causes of Concussion • A knock to the head from a fall… • A jolt to the torso from a collision…• A hit to the head from a stick or ball…
34Concussions SIGNS OBSERVED BY COACHING STAFF Appears dazed or stunned Is confused about assignment or positionForgets an instructionIs unsure of game, score, or opponentMoves clumsilyAnswers questions slowlyLoses consciousness (even briefly)Shows mood, behavior, or personality changesCan’t recall events prior to hit or fallCan’t recall events after hit or fall
35Concussions SYMPTOMS REPORTED BY ATHLETES Headache or “pressure” in headNausea or vomitingBalance problems or dizzinessDouble or blurry visionSensitivity to lightSensitivity to noiseFeeling sluggish, hazy, foggy, or groggyConcentration or memory problemsConfusionJust not “feeling right” or “feeling down”
36Concussions When You Suspect a Concussion Remove the athlete from play Ensure that the athlete is evaluated by a health care professional experienced in evaluating for concussion.Inform the athlete’s parents or guardians about the possible concussionKeep the athlete out of play the day of the injury and until a health care professional, experienced in evaluating for concussion, says it’s OK for the athlete to return.