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Welcome Manager & Coaches

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1 Welcome Manager & Coaches
Folsom American Little League February 24, 2013

2 First Aid and Safety For Youth Sports
Ernest J. Hook DPM Updated and Condensed from “Prevention and Emergencies of Management of Little League Baseball and Softball Injuries, LLB Inc. 1989

3 Introduction Objectives
Be Familiar with basic sports injuries and terminology. Be aware of up-to-date techniques of preventing sports Be able to differentiate among mild, moderate and severe Know appropriate first aid techniques for the injuries you will encounter Be able to design an emergency plan for your league to use when severe injuries occur Know specific techniques to determine whether an injured player is ready to practice and play again

4 Evaluating Injuries Injuries are classified as: mild, moderate, or severe Symptom- what a player reports Sign- what you observe You’ll discover the injured player’s symptoms and signs as you evaluate the injury by looking and listening, then by carefully feeling and moving the injured part. Do Not Force the player to move the body part if it is extremely painful.

5 Severe Injuries Pain Swelling Deformity Unconsciousness Eye Injury
Nausea/ Vomiting Head, Neck, Chest (Heart)

6 Treatment P protect R rest I ice (20- 30 min) C compression
E elevation S support

7 “It is important that coaches and parents be responsive to complaints of injuries from athletes in all age groups. They should be aware that any athlete who is not playing up to skill level may be suffering from a significant injury.” “Minor sprains, muscle pulls, blisters and overuse are the prevalent injuries in non-contact sports”

8 First Aid Kit Ice Zip Lock Bags Player Emergency Info. ~Phone Numbers

9 Contusions Commonly called bruises Bleeding into soft tissue Treatment

10 Special Considerations
Calcium deposit- occurs from deep muscular bruise Testicular / Groin (cup and Jill pad) Cardiac (Heart) ~ May be no symptoms ~ May be life-threatening ~ Refer to a physician or local emergency room Spleen- Occurs from blow to upper abdomen under left rib cage Kidney-Occurs from blow to flank A severe blow to the head, the mouth or the eyes is a serious situation For suspected severe head, neck, spinal injuries avoid movement, and immobilize until EMT arrives for transportation and stabilization

11 Muscle Pulls and Strains
A strain is a tear or “pull” of muscle or a tendon Treatment: PRICES Locations: ~Achilles Tendon ~ Patella Tibia ~Hamstring ~Thigh ~Shoulder ~Elbow Prevention: Stretching & Warming up Rehabilitation: Gradual

12 Over-use Injuries Results when a part of the body is subjected often enough to repeat stress Can lead to growth plate (soft immature bone areas) injury and pain ~shoulder ~elbow ~upper anterior tibia- “Osgood- Schlatter’s condition” ~heel bone- “Sever’s Calcaneus Apophysitis”

13 Bone Growth Plate Injuries
To learn more about growth plates. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeltal and Skin Diseases. 1 AMS Circle Bethesda, MD has an informative presentation at

14 Evaluation Consider the pitch count rules to protect players arms
Look for: ~change in throwing form ~limping ~other outward signs that the player has pain, such as continually rubbing a sore area Treatment: rest, ice, heat, & gradual rehabilitation

15 Evaluation Twisting injury to a joint, most commonly ankle or knee
Report of a “pop” when the joint was twisted Severe sprains (complete tear or be stiff) may not hurt much, or be very swollen Treatment: PRICES- see doctor

16 Sprains A sprain is an injury to a ligament. A ligament is the strong connective tissue that runs from bone to bone across a joint. Ligaments make our joints stable. A severe sprain (or tear) of a ligament can render one of our joints unstable.

17 Fractures Look for: Obvious deformity Immediate swelling
Bone ends protruding through the skin Feel For: Marked tenderness A grating sensation of one bone end rubbing against the other

18 Treatment Physician Evaluation Splinting and Transporting
For an open fracture, apply a sterile dressing and summon emergency help immediately. Keep athlete calm

19 Injuries to the Small Joints
May not be a small injury Often fingers or toes May be a strain, sprain,or fracture (commonly called a jammed finger) Treatment: PRICES or buddy tape

20 Facial Injury Treatment: ~PRICES
~Nosebleed- compression to nostrils. If bleeding continues,gently pack nostril with sterile gauze or cotton, and continue compression Notify parents Physician referral Possibility of a concussion should be considered

21 Injuries to Teeth Evaluation: ~Complaints of pain
~A chip, a crack,looseness of a tooth ~Complaints of numb feeling in a tooth Look For: ~ Missing teeth or fragments of teeth ~An uneven tooth that appears to be driven in the gum

22 Treatment Sterile gauze, pressure and ice as needed for bleeding and swelling Notify parents Send a tooth or fragment with the player Special Considerations: gently rinse off the tooth with water. Transport the tooth in sterile, moist gauze sponge or in a cup of water. The best solution is to put the tooth in fresh milk.

23 Eye Injuries Listen for: ~Complaints of pain in the eye
~Complaints of blurred vision ~Complaints of double vision ~Complaints of loss of part or all the visual field Treatment: ~Ice is the only acceptable pain killer for the eye ~Notify parents ~Immediate physician referral ~Make an eye shield: this helps protect the eye from pressure as well as to keep it clean until a doctor can examine Consider: Facial fractures and concussions

24 Insect Bites and Stings
Possible allergic reaction Pain/Swelling/Rash Weakness, Headache Difficulty breathing Stomach cramps Treatment: Apply ice Epinephrine Family should provide info.if the player has any allergies

25 The Unconscious Athlete: Heat Illness
Head and neck injury Cardiac arrest Heat Illness Other illness Asthma Diabetes Epilepsy

26 Type of Heat Illness Physical Findings Symptoms and Complaints Heat
Cramps Muscle tightening & Spasm with intense pain Usually lower leg but may be abdominal or rib cage Muscle spasms, either seen or felt, that usually do not respond to kneading to massage Exhaustion Severe fatigue, profound weakness, light-headed “Flu-like” symptoms: headache, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Elevated temperature, ranging from 98.6 F to 103 F. Stroke Confusion, disorientation, agitation in milder cases Hysterical behavior, delirious behavior, coma in more severe cases Temperature at least 105F. Hot, flushed, dry

27 Treatment Move player immediately out of the sun & into the shade
For heat cramps: Rest, cooling Gentle stretching Diluted salt solution (1 salt to 1 quart water) by mouth

28 Treatment For heat exhaustion Rest, rapid cooling
Diluted salt solution Activate emergency care plan Notify parents Watch for progression to heat stroke For heat stroke Extreme medical emergency Rapid cooling, remove clothing, pack in ice, wet & fan Caution do not: try and force a player to drink water unless you are certain he or she is conscious

29 Special Considerations
All children are more susceptible to heat illness than adults Heat exhaustion may lead on to heat stroke, so it is important to treat heat exhaustion as vigorously as possible Prevention: Drink water Periods of cooling Avoid practice when temp. is above 90 or humidity is above 95%

30 Check the field conditions for hazards prior to practice or game
Watch for snakes, players should avoid brush areas. The End

31 Concussions A concussion is a brain injury that results from a bump, blow or jolt to the head or body which causes the brain to move rapidly in the skull and which disrupts normal brain function.

32 Concussions • All concussions are serious.
• Concussions can happen in any sport or recreational activity. • Recognizing and responding properly to concussions when they first occur can help prevent further injury or even death.

33 Concussions Causes of Concussion • A knock to the head from a fall…
• A jolt to the torso from a collision… • A hit to the head from a stick or ball…

34 Concussions SIGNS OBSERVED BY COACHING STAFF Appears dazed or stunned
Is confused about assignment or position Forgets an instruction Is unsure of game, score, or opponent Moves clumsily Answers questions slowly Loses consciousness (even briefly) Shows mood, behavior, or personality changes Can’t recall events prior to hit or fall Can’t recall events after hit or fall

Headache or “pressure” in head Nausea or vomiting Balance problems or dizziness Double or blurry vision Sensitivity to light Sensitivity to noise Feeling sluggish, hazy, foggy, or groggy Concentration or memory problems Confusion Just not “feeling right” or “feeling down”

36 Concussions When You Suspect a Concussion Remove the athlete from play
Ensure that the athlete is evaluated by a health care professional experienced in evaluating for concussion. Inform the athlete’s parents or guardians about the possible concussion Keep the athlete out of play the day of the injury and until a health care professional, experienced in evaluating for concussion, says it’s OK for the athlete to return.

37 Positive Coaching Alliance


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