Brian Lloyd School Psychologist / MTSS Implementer – Ingham ISD Hello Everyone! My name is Brian Lloyd, and I began working for Ingham ISD in February of 2013 as a School Psychologist/MTSS Implementer. Prior to working for Ingham ISD, I was a school psychologist and MTSS Coach for East Lansing Public Schools since the start of the 2008 school year.
Learning Targets Identify the continuum of supports for behavior across an MTSS model Identify the behavioral process data and outcome data, and understand the application of data-driven decisions Identify tools and evidence-based strategies for multi- tiered support of behavior, with a focus on a continuum of interventions. Understand how Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Intervention Programs fit into an MTSS system.
Continuum of Positive Behavior Supports
Outcome Data - Behavior
“Rule of Three”: If more than three students are demonstrating the same misbehavior, the management plan needs to be adjusted to address the misbehavior.
Classroom Structures Teacher- Student Relationships Instructional Management Responding to Appropriate Behavior Responding to Inappropriate Behavior Critical Features of Effective Classroom Management (Reinke, Herman, & Sprick, 2011)
The CHAMPs Acronym CConversation HHelp AActivity MMovement PParticipation S Supplies
Opportunities to Respond o Verbal Responses o Written Responses o Action Responses All Students Respond. When possible use response procedures that engage all students. (Archer, 2011) Strengthen Classroom Management
Ratio of Interactions o Positive Interaction: acknowledging a positive behavior o Negative Interaction: addressing a negative behavior; fluent correction 4:1 15:1 Strengthen Classroom Management
Level of Classroom Structure Introduction of classroom structure survey. (Management & Discipline Planning Questionnaire) (Management & Discipline Planning Questionnaire) The level of structure should not be based on teacher preference or familiarity! The level of structure should be based on student need! When in doubt, start with a higher level of structure.
Student Needs Teacher Needs
“Survey says…” 0-30 LOW: Students can be successful with LOW, MEDIUM, or HIGH MEDIUM: Students need MEDIUM or HIGH structure HIGH: Students need HIGH structure
High Effect Sizes Of PBIS High Expectations: 1.44 MTSS/RtI: 1.07 Formative Evaluation of Teacher: 0.90 Teacher Clarity: 0.75 Feedback: 0.75 Teacher-Student Relationships: 0.72 Classroom Behavioral Strategies: 0.68
Tier 2 Interventions The problem-solving process we use for behavior should be similar to the problem-solving we use for academics. If a child doesn’t know how to read…….we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to swim…...we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to multiply…..we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to behave… we punish? John Herner; Counterpoint, Vol 19 (2) NASDSE
Tier 2 Interventions The first step in the tier 2 MTSS problem solving process is to identify the problem. o Operationally define the behavior The next step is to determine what is causing the problem. o Make best determination based on info at hand about antecedents and function of behavior (what is the student getting out of behavior). The next step is to implement a plan to remediate difficulty. o Basic plan that involves evidence based strategies as well as a plan to monitor progress. You then evaluate your plan. o Set a date to review progress and determine next steps. Review fidelity. Continue or change intervention.
Tier 2 Interventions The problem solving process we just discussed requires you to EFFICIENTLY go through an ABC or basic level FBA process. Comprehensive Functional Behavior Assessments (FBAs) are often associated with Tier III interventions However…more basic and practical FBAs are important to consider in order to determine an appropriate match between a presenting behavior problem and an appropriate Tier II Intervention
School resources (time, staff) are often limited and are certainly valuable Many attempts to address problem behaviors: o Consume most of our resources o React to the problem after it occurs o Fade out because they are not working… Problem of “premature implementation” But this may be attributed to a lack of fit (or match) between the problem behavior and the intervention Why Practical FBAs? Work smarter, not harder!
Matching Tier 2 Behavior Need To Intervention Consider using a 5 minute process that tells what’s been done, operationally defines the behavior, antecedents, consequences, and function.
ABC’s of behavior AntecedentBehaviorConsequence Teacher instructs student to begin assignment Student begins assignment Teacher provides verbal praise Student put on diet by parents Student takes food from classmates during lunch Student eats the food Teacher instructs students to read silently One student cracks a joke to classmates Classmates laugh Student comes to school with a headache Student engages in disruptive behavior Student is sent to the office Student wants to join a game at recess Student bumps into classmates and grabs ball Classmates get mad and tell teacher; student kept in from recess Teacher instructs students to complete math worksheet Student gets out of seat and argues with teacher when directed to do work Student sent into the hallway Examples based on Steege & Watson (2009). Conducting School-Based Functional Behavioral Assessments
ABC’s of behavior AntecedentBehaviorConsequencePossible function? Teacher instructs students to begin assignment Student begins assignment Teacher provides verbal praise Student put on diet by parents Student takes food from classmates during lunch Student eats the food Teacher instructs students to read silently One student cracks a joke to classmates Classmates laugh Student comes to school with a headache Student engages in disruptive behavior Student is sent to the office Student wants to join a game at recess Student bumps into classmates Students get mad and tell teacher; student kept in from recess Teacher instructs students to complete math worksheet Student gets out of seat and argues with teacher when directed to do work Student sent to office
Tier 2 Interventions
Selecting An Intervention You can have the best intervention in the world, but if it is not matched to the student’s need (or cannot be implemented), the intervention is worthless.
Selecting An Intervention Interventions: Evidence-Based Behavioral Strategies for Individual Students – Randy Sprick (2008)
Antecedents or +Consequences Intervention Students with chronic, minor escape or disruptive behaviors; seekers of adult attention A CICO:Check-In, Check- Out Behavior may be due to a lack of information or awareness; minor but potentially annoying behavior; moderate behavior in early stages BPlanned Discussion Students engaged in frequent, long term minor or moderate behaviors; may not be aware of behavior; monitoring would reduce frequency. C Data Collection & Debriefing Students who have experienced repeated failure; may have low expectancy rate or self-esteem DGoal Setting Compulsive, impulsive, habitual, or off-task behavior; unaware or poor self-monitoring ECueing or Pre-Correcting Pragmatic/social deficits are a potential trigger to behavior. F Functional Communication Low self-awareness of behavior but with a potential and motivation to take responsibility and control; older students GSelf-Monitoring & Self- Evaluation
Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education Program, Second Edition A comprehensive book by Deanne A. Crone, Robert H. Horner, and Leanne S. Hawken. Guilford Publishing, Inc., published in 2010
Who is CICO appropriate for? Students with minor behavior disruptions o Disruptive, interferes with learning o Out of seat, talking out, not sharing, off task, unprepared for class, defiant, refuse to do work, inappropriate language o Not dangerous, violent, or severe/chronic behavior Students who respond well to adult attention Behaviors occur throughout the day, not just in one setting (i.e., recess) Behavior not primarily related to an escape function due to academic deficit (modification may be needed)
CICO (BEP) as a Tier II Intervention Easy to implement for teachers (5-10 minutes per check-in) Flexible (if needed) Can support approximately students at a time Check-in/out person can be anyone (BEP Coordinator, paraprofessional, etc) Regular feedback and progress monitoring Students can easily transfer in or out Parent participation Frequent data entry and review Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010
Components of CICO Components of CICO Cycle: 1.Check-in with adult in the morning (positive contact, make sure student is prepared for the day) Teaching and prompting of skills and expectations 2.Feedback from the teacher during the day (after each period of the day) – earn 0, 1, 2 3.Check-out with adult at end of school day 4.Bring home for parent check-in & signature 5.Bring back to school for morning check-in Daily Progress Report Aligned to school-wide expectations Established goal criteria (i.e., 80%) Optional Reward System Component
Effectiveness of CICO Based on research-based strategies/principles Daily positive interactions with adults Helps to motivate/encourage student Frequent feedback Clear expectations Predictable pattern for students Supports behavior and academic performance Involves parents in intervention process Addresses antecedents replaces negative antecedents with consistent positive antecedents Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010
When to Modify Collect data for at least 2-3 weeks before modifying Make sure that intervention was delivered consistently and with fidelity Modifications presented in BEP book: goals – more academic driven peer reinforcers additional check-in remove signature portion
Rationale A student’s behavior may result from a lack of information. Planned Discussion is an easy, quick, and efficient intervention. As an intervention, Planned Discussion is a respectful and potentially empowering way to address problem behavior. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Planned Discussion Purpose: To help students understand and address concerns associated with: Minor but potentially annoying misbehavior Moderate misbehavior in the early stages Chronic or severe concerns, as one part of a comprehensive plan (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Planned Discussion Planned Discussion has the potential to have a positive impact on just about any behavior. Because of the powerful effects of a planned discussion, it should be an integral part of every intervention plan. **Note: Planned Discussion will only be effective for students with sufficient language skills. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Discussing A One-Time Event vs. Planned Discussion One-Time EventPlanned Discussion Does not address a repeated behavior Brief correction provided that does not interrupt the flow of instruction Immediately set a time to follow up with student Does not include other individuals Does address repeated behavior Conducted outside of classroom instruction Conducted during a neutral and scheduled time May include other individuals (i.e., other teacher or parents)
Positive Characteristics of Planned Discussion Demonstrates concern so that the student truly understands the issues at hand. Involves student in brainstorming solutions. Lets student know you are there to help him/her learn & grow and that you care. Action plan for behavioral change is developed with the student. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 1: Prepare to Meet with the Student Identify the Central Concern Determine Who Should Participate in the Discussion Schedule the Discussion for a Neutral Time Plan to keep a written record of the discussion (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 2: Meet with the Student Work with the Student to Define Concerns Brainstorm Actions Set up an Informal Action Plan Schedule a Follow-Up Meeting and conclude the Meeting with Words of Encouragement Share a Written Record (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 3: Follow Up with the Student Encourage Student Efforts Meet Once a Week with the Student Determine Whether More Structured Interventions are Needed Provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Intervention C DATA COLLECTION AND DEBRIEFING
Rationale Gathering data often solves the problem all by itself; increases awareness Because of the powerful effects of a planned discussion, it should be an integral part of every intervention plan. Effective teachers collect data that o defines the problem in measurable terms o determines objectively whether interventions are working Data will form the basis for assessing fidelity and/or the need for a different intervention (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Purpose To increase positive behavior or decrease negative behavior with any behavioral goal through observation, as well as to use a systematic approach of recording data to gauge the effectiveness of subsequent interventions. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 1: Choose an Objective but Simple Data Collection Method Either use an existing form or record marks on an index card. Some choices include: Basic Frequency Count of Misbehavior Duration Recording Latency Recording Rating Scale (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
> 100 minutes of non-participation After 8 weeks, about 70% improvement (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 2: Meet with the Student (and parents, if appropriate) Explain the data you plan to collect and how you will inform the student of the data. Meet regularly (at least one a week) with the student to o share and discuss the one-page visual summary of the data, o review trends, discuss ideas for improving o set improvement targets, and o CELEBRATE progress (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Partner 1: Review Data Collection Forms: o Behavior Counting Forms o Interval Scatterplot Partner 2: Review Data Collection Forms: o Rating Scale o Participation Evaluation Record Share Any Insights With Your Partner Partner Activity
Intervention D GOAL SETTING
Rationale Students who have experienced repeated failure have difficulty setting realistic goals Goal setting o increases clarity of expectations, o helps set attainable goals, and o can increase the student’s motivation Learning to set and achieve realistic goals is a lifelong skill (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Purpose Goal setting helps students identify what they hope to accomplish and actions they can take to reach their goals. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 1: Develop a Plan Review the problem and overall student goals by identifying o strengths, o desired outcomes, and o collected information. Select the goal setting format Set up the goal-setting conference (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 2: Meet with the Student Help the student establish long-range goals and short-range goals. Brainstorm actions to avoid and actions to take. Help the student identify specific actions the student is willing to take in order to reach the short-term goals. Identify ways that adults could help the student reach his or her goals. If using rewards, a structured reinforcement system, or corrective consequences, make sure the student understands all of the contingencies Set up regular times for follow-up Review responsibilities and sign appropriate goal setting form. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 3: Provide Ongoing Support and Encouragement Provide frequent positive feedback; encourage the student to keep striving towards his or her goals. Correct calmly. Avoid sounding disappointed or reproachful. Evaluate the impact of the plan and make needed revisions. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Intervention E Cueing & Precorrecting
Rationale To help students control impulsive, excessive, habitual, or off-task behavior. Children are sometimes unaware of their own behaviors. Behaviors can interfere with peer relationships or success in school. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
What exactly is CUEING? Cueing is used to interrupt an inappropriate behavior that is already taking place. Cueing takes the place of reprimands or corrections that would be more verbose and that the teacher would end up repeating many times
What exactly is PRECORRECTING? Precorrecting is an attempt to anticipate and prevent an inappropriate behavior before it occurs. Precorrection : a prompt for appropriate behavior sets the stage for positive feedback
Cueing or Precorrecting? Nosepicking Skipping items on tests Pencil tapping Disrespectful tone of voice Chronic pencil sharpening Cueing Precorrecting
Cueing and Precorrecting will fade as the student becomes successful—the more successful the student is, the less signaling used
Step 1: Develop A Plan A.Identify possible signals that might be used B.Identify what adults will do when the student either responds or fails to respond to a signal C.Identify other settings/adults to include in the plan D.Decide whether the student needs to be taught a replacement behavior E.Identify ways to determine whether the intervention is helping the student reach the goal
Step 2: Meet with the Student to the Plan A.Review the problem and goals B.Help the student select a signal C.Explain any consequences that will be used if the student fails to respond D.Briefly demonstrate and practice using role- playing E.Set up regular meeting times to debrief with the student F.Conclude with words of encouragement
Step 3: Implement Plan A.Begin using the precorrection or cue anytime the student exhibits the inappropriate behavior B.Reinforce the student for responding to the signal and/or for not needing the signal C.Implement evaluation & debriefing procedures D.Make periodic revisions and adjustments to the plan as necessary E.Provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement; CELEBRATE
Intervention F FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION
Purpose To improve communication/social skills of students whose deficits in this area may be leading to misbehaviors. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Rationale Students with limited communication/ social skills may engage in inappropriate behaviors in an attempt to get their needs met. Poor interactions with peers may trigger conflict or lead to isolation Behavior is communication. Need to teach a prosocial replacement behavior. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Increased Frequency of Occurrence Autism Spectrum Disorders Trauma Special Education Need to engage speech-language pathologists, occupational therapists, school psychs
Step 1: Determine Need A.Identify the misbehavior objectively; B.Consider antecedents and consequences to determine if behavior is related to communication/social skills
Step 2: Multidisciplinary Team Meeting A.Discuss alternative means of communication or replacement behaviors. B.Determine who will teach prosocial communication skills C.Include all relevant parties
Step 3: Implement the Plan A.Teach in context B.Model and role-play C.Reinforce student when performing appropriate behavior; withhold reinforcement otherwise D.Measure performance and revise as needed; fade
d-step/middle-school.aspx A nonprofit working globally to promote children’s social and academic success nd-step/kindergarten-grade- 5.aspx
Intervention G Self-Monitoring & Self-Evaluation
Purpose To increase student awareness of a particular behavior so they can learn to take responsibility for their own behavior and control what they do (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 1: Develop a Plan A.Determine the behavior to be monitored and evaluated. B.Identify positive and non-examples. C.Determine when and how the student will record behaviors. D.Design a cueing system to prompt the student to record if needed. E.Have an adult monitor and compare results with the student’s record. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
B. Set Boundaries Between Responsible and Irresponsible Behaviors Responsible Behavior:Irresponsible Behavior: The teacher asks Joan to sit down: -Joan nods and sits down. -Joan says, “Okay,” and sits down. -Joan does not respond to the teacher but immediately sits down. -Joan asks in a respectful tone, “I need to sharpen my pencil. Is that OK?” The teacher asks Joan to sit down: -Joan sits down but calls the teacher a name or says “Why should I?” -Joan sits down, but in a sarcastic tone says, “Okay, whatever you say.” -Joan does not sit down or respond. -Joan goes to sit down in an exaggerated slow motion.
D. Develop a Recording System for the Student Tally marks + and – Circling a symbol or number Rating scales Rubrics Others?
Step 2: Meet with Student Review the problem and the goal. Introduce the procedures that will be followed. Review everyone’s roles and responsibilities. Conclude the meeting with words of encouragement. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 3: Implement Plan Encourage student efforts Make periodic revisions and adjustments to the plan as necessary. When the student demonstrates consistent success, fade the intervention. Once the intervention has been faded, provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement; CELEBRATE (Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Additional Intervention Resources Effective School Interventions 2 nd Edition– Natalie Rathvon - Good resource for behavior and academics intervention-modification intervention-modification oks/2014PIESV.pdf oks/2014PIESV.pdf
Activity Aggression, Off-Task/non-compliment, Impulsive/disruptive, Running/flight This is a list of the most common behaviors Brian is called for. What behaviors that you work on are as common as these? We have these behaviors listed on poster paper. Work in teams of 2-3 and discuss tier 2 and tier 3 interventions that you have seen WORK to improve these behaviors. Write those interventions on post-its and place them on the corresponding poster paper. One intervention can be written on more than one post-it to place on multiple poster paper. We will share/out discuss the interventions at the end of the activity with the large group.
Function Based Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP): 1.Make the problem behavior irrelevant Decrease the need to engage in the behavior 2. Make the problem behavior inefficient Provide a replacement behavior that serves the same function as the inappropriate behavior 3. Make the problem behavior ineffective Do not allow the child to obtain what is wanted through inappropriate behavior 4. Make the plan positive Write a plan that you would want written for you. If your plan is dependent on negative consequence, there is a much greater chance that the plan will NOT be successful.
A-B-C Defined AntecedentBehaviorConsequence When ___ happens… the student does (what) _________ … because (why) _________
On Mondays and/or when up all of the night before. Daily nongraded quiz on previous night’s homework Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out of room. Avoids doing quiz & homework discussion. Do quiz without complaints. Discussion about answers & homework. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting. + Give time to review homework. + Give quiet time before starting. + Give easy “warm- up” task before doing quiz. + Precorrect behavior options & consequences. + With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, or request completion of task next period. + Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO). + Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers. Teach options to problem behavior: 1. Turn in blank 2. Turn in w/ name 3. Turn in w/ name & first item done. 4. Turn in w/ name & 50% of items done.
BIPs Are Action Plans When writing BIPs, assign people responsible for doing each strategy/action. Develop a plan to monitor the effectiveness of the plan. Always ask “How will we know if this is working? This will require a baseline an the use of measurable data. Create a plan that is possible. This may require allocating resources to remediate the problem. Expect some time for behavior change to occur. Schedule a follow up date to review the plan, but also check and adjust. These plans are more likely than not to involve some trial-and-error.
TEAM TIME Break into small teams of 2-3 Think of a student with whom you are experiencing behavioral challenges and we go through a process to match a behavioral intervention to the student’s need. Let’s take about 5 minutes with your team to make best guesses for each step.
Bullying We would be remiss if we did not address bullying at during this session. Bullying is an extremely serious problem that is difficult to address in the timeframe that we are given. The best single resource I have found to assist with both defining bullying for parents, students, and teachers is this web site: Another very good bullying resource is the Olweus intervention program. Information about Olweus can be found here: ex.page ex.page
Review of Learning Targets Identify the continuum of supports for behavior across an MTSS model Identify the behavioral process data and outcome data, and understand the application of data-driven decisions Identify tools and evidence-based strategies for multi- tiered support of behavior, with a focus on a continuum of interventions. Understand how Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Intervention Programs fit into an MTSS system.
Discussion Thanks for coming! Please let us know what you would like more information on and we will do our best to address them or find someone that can.