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Fire Prevention and Public Education Firefighter II.

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Presentation on theme: "Fire Prevention and Public Education Firefighter II."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fire Prevention and Public Education Firefighter II

2 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Copyright and Terms of Service Copyright © Texas Education Agency, These materials are copyrighted © and trademarked ™ as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may not be reproduced without the express written permission of TEA, except under the following conditions: 1) Texas public school districts, charter schools, and Education Service Centers may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for the districts’ and schools’ educational use without obtaining permission from TEA. 2) Residents of the state of Texas may reproduce and use copies of the Materials and Related Materials for individual personal use only, without obtaining written permission of TEA. 3) Any portion reproduced must be reproduced in its entirety and remain unedited, unaltered and unchanged in any way. 4) No monetary charge can be made for the reproduced materials or any document containing them; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged. Private entities or persons located in Texas that are not Texas public school districts, Texas Education Service Centers, or Texas charter schools or any entity, whether public or private, educational or non-educational, located outside the state of Texas MUST obtain written approval from TEA and will be required to enter into a license agreement that may involve the payment of a licensing fee or a royalty. Contact TEA Copyrights with any questions you may have.TEA Copyrights 2

3 Fire Prevention 3

4 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Inspection Requirements Personal – Have ample knowledge of fire- and life-safety issues – Have the ability to refer citizens to additional sources of information – Present a well-groomed and professional appearance – Wear a clean uniform in good condition 4

5 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Inspection Requirements (continued) Equipment – General information May need to conduct research before performing the inspection May need to use reference material, personal protective equipment (PPE), and/or special equipment during the inspection – Most pre-incident surveys include the following types of equipment Writing (e.g. pencils) Drawing (e.g. graph paper) Other (e.g. flashlight) 5

6 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Scheduling Inspections Most fire inspections and other fire prevention activities must be conducted during normal business hours Many fire departments schedule them at specific times on specific days of the week Types – In advance with the owners at the most convenient and least disruptive time for them – In a systematic block-by-block manner that works well for ordinary mercantile occupancies 6

7 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Conducting Inspections Follow the department’s Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Review the fire code requirements for the specific type of occupancy Represent the fire department favorably Enter the premises and contact the occupant’s representative Review the inspection process briefly Answer any questions Utilize the representative as a guide of the premises during the inspection Tactfully ask the guide to open all locked rooms and closets 7

8 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Conducting Inspections (continued) Report any refusals to the fire prevention officer so that an inspection warrant may be obtained or other appropriate action may be taken Begin the inspection by looking for hazards and observing the property (and its activities) from the exterior and then move to the interior Some examples of specific items to watch for include – Access for fire personnel and apparatus to the structure and its fire protection equipment – Building name and type of business – Emergency contact numbers for the building owner or manager – Address numbers clearly visible from the street – Portable fire extinguishers in place, properly mounted, operable, and unobstructed – Exit signs and emergency lighting operable 8

9 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Conducting Inspections (continued) Explain each code violation to the occupant’s representative Create and agree to a plan of correction if code violations are found – Specify a reasonable deadline for violation correction(s) – Specify a time for a follow-up inspection Have the occupant sign the inspection form Leave a copy of the form with the occupant Thank the occupant for his or her cooperation Leave a business card 9

10 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Surveys: Firefighter Skills Required Interpersonal skills – Communication – Mitigation – Facilitation – Negotiation – Mediation Technical knowledge and skills – Building construction – Fire and life safety requirements – Fire code requirements – Common and special hazards – Building utilities – Energy systems – Fire protection appliances and systems 10

11 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Pre-incident Planning Surveys of Public and Commercial Occupancies Purposes – To gain information that can greatly increase firefighter and citizen safety – To get this information in advance because it may not be available during a fire – To document information that helps firefighters Become familiar with the structures in their district, as well as their uses and hazards Recognize existing hazards Visualize the application of standard tactics Develop new tactics if necessary 11

12 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Pre-incident Planning Surveys of Public and Commercial Occupancies (continued) Conducting – Have the initial meeting with the owner – Survey the property’s exterior Make general observations Complete preliminary notes Take photographs 12

13 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Pre-incident Planning Surveys of Public and Commercial Occupancies (continued) Conducting (continued) – Include the following in the preliminary notes Location of fire detection and suppression systems (e.g. fire hydrants and fire alarm control panels) Pertinent information about the building (e.g. type of construction and occupancy) Visibility of address numbers Accessibility from all sides Barriers to aerial device operations Problematic placement of trees or shrubs Barred windows or security doors Location of the utility shutoffs Overhead obstructions to ladder use 13

14 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Pre-incident Planning Surveys of Public and Commercial Occupancies (continued) Conducting (continued) – Move to the basement or roof – Survey the interior systematically Look at each floor in succession Create floor plans if they are not available Note and photograph hazards and unsafe conditions 14

15 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Pre-incident Planning Surveys of Public and Commercial Occupancies (continued) Conducting (continued) – Remember that more than one visit may be necessary – Survey all of the buildings on a property separately, if more than one building is present – Use and update the pre-existing survey floor plan to save time, if one is available – Discuss the survey results and any fire- or life- safety concerns with the owner 15

16 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Pre-incident Planning Surveys of Public and Commercial Occupancies (continued) Making maps and drawings – Update or create maps when needed – Include the general arrangement of the property – Note anything that might affect firefighting tactics – Make the drawing neat, accurate, and to scale – Use a clipboard, a ruler and/or graph paper if electronic mapping programs are not available – Record data using common map symbols as much as possible – Create cutaway views to show structural features (e.g. elevations) when necessary 16

17 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Pre-incident Planning Surveys of Public and Commercial Occupancies (continued) Taking photographs – Obtain permission if necessary – Take photos From more than one angle From an elevated position Of close-ups and the interior – Take video when possible and permitted 17

18 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Residential Fire Safety Surveys: Firefighter Responsibilities Conduct surveys in teams of two Dress and act professionally Introduce yourself, your partner, and provide proper identification Explain the survey procedure Maintain a courteous attitude Focus on preventing fires and eliminating threats to fire safety 18

19 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Residential Fire Safety Surveys: Firefighter Responsibilities (continued) Compliment the occupants when favorable conditions are found Offer constructive suggestions for eliminating hazards Survey all rooms including the garage Discuss the survey results with the occupant and answer any questions Thank the occupants for the invitation Keep the survey results confidential 19

20 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Residential Fire Safety Surveys: Firefighter Responsibilities (continued) Provide occupants with fire- and safety- awareness information – Maintain clear exit pathways – Keep a flashlight by the bed – Have two exits available – Never leave an infant or toddler unsupervised in or near a bathtub or pool – Always turn over the range the handles of pans containing hot liquids 20

21 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Residential Fire Safety Surveys: Fire Causes Malfunctioning heating appliances and water heaters Combustibles too close to heating appliances or lamps Unsafe cooking procedures Smoking materials Overloaded extension cords and multiple-outlet devices Exposed electrical wiring Defective electrical appliances Improper use of combustible or flammable liquids Poor housekeeping Untended candles 21

22 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Types of Surveys: Interior Combustible materials Appliances Electrical wiring and equipment Portable heating units Woodstoves or fireplaces Heating fuel General housekeeping practices Smoke alarms Electrical distribution panels Gas appliances Oil-burning units Furnaces Water heaters Shop or work rooms Accumulated waste Flammable liquids 22

23 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Types of Surveys: Exterior Roof Chimneys and spark arrestors Yard and porch areas Barbecues and fuel Outside waste burners Garages, sheds, barns, and outbuildings Flammable liquids and gases Lightening protection Security devices Power lines 23

24 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Fire Hazards: Fuel Ordinary combustibles – Wood – Cloth – Paper Flammable and combustible gases – Natural gas – Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) – Compressed natural gas (CNG) Flammable and combustible liquids – Gasoline – Oils – Lacquers – Alcohol 24

25 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Fire Hazards: Fuel (continued) Chemicals – Nitrates – Oxides – Chlorates Dusts – Grain – Wood – Metal – Coal Metals – Magnesium – Sodium – Potassium Plastics, resins, and cellulose 25

26 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Fire Hazards: Heat Sources Chemical heat energy – materials that are improperly stored may come in contact with each other and react or decompose and generate heat Electrical heat energy – caused by poorly maintained electrical appliances, exposed wiring, and lighting Mechanical heat energy – created by moving parts on machines, such as belts and bearings Nuclear heat energy – created by fission and is not commonly encountered by firefighters 26

27 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Fire Hazards: Common Obstructed electrical panels Poor housekeeping and improper storage of combustible materials Defective or improperly used heating, lighting, or power equipment Improper disposal of floor-cleaning compounds Misuse of fumigation substances and flammable or combustible liquids 27

28 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Fire Hazards: Special Commercial occupancies Manufacturing facilities Public assembly venues 28

29 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Fire Hazards: Target Hazard Properties Lumberyards Bulk oil storage facilities Shopping malls Hospitals Theaters Nursing homes Rows of frame tenements Schools High-rise hotels/condominiums 29

30 Public Fire- and Life- Safety Education 30

31 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. General Considerations Accurate information is a necessity Positive messages are received best – Positive: “crawl low under smoke” – Negative: “do not stand up in smoke” Target the message to the specific audience and the priority issue 31

32 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Audience Considerations (Adult) Utilize teachable moments (e.g. new home buyers, new-parent classes, etc.) Use the basic four step method of instruction – Preparation Learn the material Practice the presentation Know the audience – Presentation Explain the information Use visual aids (e.g. smoke alarm) Demonstrate techniques (e.g. stop, drop, and roll) – Application Provide the opportunity for the audience to practice the material learned Tactfully correct mistakes that are made – Evaluation Assess the effectiveness of the presentation Identify the aspects that need improvement 32

33 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Audience Considerations (Children) Children from birth to eight years old are especially at risk Remember that children – Usually interpret information literally – Have limited attention spans – Often fidget and interrupt, so remain flexible – Learn by doing, not listening Decide with the teachers in advance how to handle questions Build rapport by speaking at the children’s eye level Ask misbehaving children for help to provide redirection Communicate simple concepts using positive messages Do not use fear as a teaching tactic 33

34 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Presentation Topics: Stop, Drop, and Roll Action to take if a person’s clothing catches on fire Demonstrate the proper techniques Invite the audience to perform the technique Emphasize that a bystander may need to – Help the person drop to the ground – Smother the fire with nearby items such as coats, rugs, or blankets 34

35 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Presentation Topics: Home Safety Persuade the audience to make safety a way of life Promote the following – Escape plans – Exit Drills in the Home (EDITH) program – Other similar safety efforts Communicate fire and safety rules – Keep bedroom doors closed while sleeping – Have two emergency exits from every room – Ensure that windows can be easily opened – Train children to use fire escape ladders, especially in multi- story dwellings – Roll out of bed to the floor if awakened by a smoke alarm signal – Stay low to avoid heated gases that rise 35

36 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Presentation Topics: Home Safety (continued) Communicate fire and safety rules – Crawl to the door, feel it with the back of your hand, use the window for escape if it is warm or hot to the touch – Establish a meeting place outside of the home – NEVER reenter the home after successfully exiting – Call the fire department from a cellular phone or a neighbor’s house – Use candles with caution Place candles on heat-resistant surfaces Always use a candle holder 36

37 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Presentation Topics: Smoke Alarms May be battery-operated or a part of a security alarm system Recommended placement includes – In every bedroom – At every level (each story) Minimum placement includes – One in the hallway outside of each sleeping area and between the sleeping area and other rooms in the house – Close enough to be heard through the closed bedroom door – Usually mounted on the ceiling Should be installed, maintained, and tested according the manufacturer’s specifications 37

38 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Presentation Topics: Carbon Monoxide Detectors Are needed in addition to fire alarms Should be installed according the manufacturer’s specifications 38

39 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Some Life-safety Issues Eliminating fire hazards Escaping a fire Testing smoke alarms Installing a child safety seat correctly Wearing a bicycle helmet 39

40 Copyright © Texas Education Agency All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Resources , Essentials of Firefighting (5 th Edition), International Fire Service Training Association (IFSTA),


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