2Participants will:Enhance understanding of word study principles and practicesUnderstand basic principles of small group instruction - forming, planning and conducting to provide individualized attention/differentiation.Determine skills and/or strategies to teach in small group based on student data.Plan at least one guided reading/small group lesson.Plan one or more authentic independent practice activities.Read through list to set the tone for the day.Include information about grade level sharing at the end of the day.
3Word Study What are some of your successes? Take a few minutes to think about your word study program.What are some of your successes?What are some of your challenges?Write down a few of each and share with your table.Be ready to share whole class.After about 3-5 minutes, have participants share whole group.
4Read through lists and comment Open for discussion
5Word Study in a Nutshell Integral part of balanced literacyBased on the 3 levels of English orthography -Alphabet, Pattern, MeaningDifferentiatedWords Their Way is one of several word study programs (Word Journeys-Ganske, Making Words-Cunningham, Word Ladders-Rasinski) All are based on developmentally appropriate instruction and word patterns.Two articles in your packet to help you make sense of the value of word study. Put them on your summer reading pile.-word study at appropriate developmental levels helps students to become more proficient readers-more on that in a minute-addresses student learning where they are, not what’s next in “the series”-WTW one of the more popular methods of WS
6Layers of English Orthography Prefixes, suffixes, Greek and Latin rootsMeaningPattern42-44 sounds-only 26 lettersAlphabetLetter/sound relationshipsEarly readers/spellers rely on letter names for the sounds they make. Short vowels are particularly problematic. Often use e for short a and e for short i.Single sounds are sometimes spelled with more than one letter or are affected by other letters (blends, digraphs, vowel teams, silent e). There is some consistency among the patterns.Helps students make sense of newly encountered words if they understand that groups of letters can have specific meaningRevisit challenges to see if we can help teachers work them out...
7Flexible GroupingFlexible grouping is the cornerstone of successful differentiatedinstruction – Carol Ann TomlinsonFlexible grouping is an opportunity for students to work with a variety of students, through whole group or in many different forms of small groups. The key to flexible grouping is in the name…FLEXIBLE. Students have an opportunity to be in different groups depending on the activity.Initially use whole group for instructionDivide group for practice or enrichmentNot used as a permanent arrangementUse groups for one activity, a day, a week, etc.BenefitsGives students and teachers a voice in work arrangements.Allows students to work with a variety of peers.Keeps students from being “pegged” as advanced or struggling.Terri - Using flexible groups increases student learning such as: academic growth, social skills, efficient learning, gives them attention, motivation, achievement, acceptance, etc.,and is the key to differentiate instruction.
8What are your challenges? At your tables, talk about the challenges you have with differentiation and/or flexible grouping.provide time for whole group share
9Forming groups Today we will look at running records data any additional student datato form and refine guided reading groups.Miscue Analysis (Accuracy)The Continuum of Literacy Learning (Comprehension)Kedra-miscue analysishelp teachers mine data to create leveled groups and choose 3 areas of focus
10Organization for Successful Small Groups Establish classroom managementAssess and establish groupsKnow what you need to teachPlan lessons to masteryCreate effective and meaningful activitiesCommunicate expectationsBuild in accountabilityHow do we manage our groups?First step is to really take time to establish effective classroom management-especially your expectations for students during independent practice. Attempting small group instruction without having expectations and routines in place is a recipe for disaster.Next, assess your students in order to establish your groups.You have to know what you are going to teach. Meeting in a small group gives you an opportunity to provide targeted instruction based on student need.Your goal for students is mastery. Be sure to plan lessons that will lead to student mastery. A time for explicit, directed instruction.Be sure to plan meaningful activities. Your time together in small group is like gold! Don’t squander it.Clearly communicate your expectations to students-both in the small group and with the students engaged in independent practice activities.Build accountability into your activities-post its, graphic organizers, logs, notebooks.
11Organization (cont’d.) Teacher chooses the groupsNon-teacher group needs self directed work that is challenging and engagingUn-interrupted teacher groupKnown routines & proceduresConsistent expectations in transitionsTimedOrganizedLimited movementGroups should be based on student needs, not choice.The key to successful independent work is to make it challenging enough to keep students engaged for extended periods of time, but not so challenging that students need your assistance with it. Worksheets and PB pages don’t generally work for this purpose. Think authentic activity-reading and writing for a purpose, engaging in word work-not packets.Students must be trained to recognize that when teacher is with a small group, she cannot be interrupted. Teach them how to self-help.Spend time to teach students routines, expectations and procedures.Be consistent when you transition from group to group. Make it a timed change, have everybody move to the right or left. Make sure your expectations are well articulated. Keep movements limited to avoid chaos.Before moving on to our next segment, take a moment to talk at your tables about your experiences with small group instruction, whether they were positive or negative. We’ll then take a few minutes to share out.
12Independent/Group Work Ideas ActivityRead to Self …………….…..Writing Station………….….Word Study………………...Research…………………….Textbook work……………..Leveled Readers……………Written dialog……………...AccountabilityResponse JournalWriting JournalWord Study notebookNotesWritten workTurn in dialogHere is a little chart that we put together to kind of help you as to what to do to make them accountable with their work.- Read some of the activities, etc.- Discuss Written Dialog: the students work in pair to work on a prompt or problem to work out; instead of discussing it out loud, they write each other notes (now its okay to pass notes, lol).
13Work Stations in Action Jot down any of your noticings, thoughts, or revelations as you view this video clip.
14Guided Reading in Action Jot down any of your noticings, thoughts, or revelations as you view this video clip.
15How Do I Start ?: The Initial Framework for Every Classroom Students are divided into small groups (ideally, 4-6 students per group)Lessons will run minutesDetermine appropriate level of groupsProvide a text for each childUse a benchmark assessment like the Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Kit or the Developmental Reading Assessment to determine the appropriate levels for your groups. We have also provided forms for estimating the levels of your students.
16What Does Guided Reading Look Like ? The teacher introduces the text to the small groupAs the text is read aloud or silently, the teacher briefly works with students; each child reads the whole text.The teacher may select one or two teaching points to address after readingThe students resume reading and apply the teaching points presented by the teacherWe have provided a handout in your packet that points our behaviors to notice and teaching points to consider for guided reading groups matched to students Fountas and Pinnell levels.
17Pre-Reading Activities: The Teacher From Fountas and Pinnell Selects an appropriate text, one that will be supportive but with a few problems to solvePrepares an introduction to the storyBriefly introduces the story, keeping in mind the meaning, language, and visual information in the text, and the knowledge, experience, and skills of the readerLeaves some questions to be answered through readingYou may want to discuss genre, elicit background knowledge , pre-teach difficult vocabulary, and set a purpose for reading.
18During Reading Activities: The Teacher From Fountas and Pinnell “Listens In”Observes the reader’s behaviors for evidence of strategy useConfirms children’s problem-solving attempts and successesInteracts with individuals to assist with problem-solving at difficulty (when appropriate)Makes notes about the strategy use of individual readersThis is where it would be helpful to have a checklist of behaviors to notice. As you “listen in” you can note how the students are interacting with the text and note successes or assist students who are having difficulty with the text.
19Post Reading Activities: The Teacher From Fountas and Pinnell Talks about the story with the childrenInvites personal responseReturns to the text for one or two teaching opportunities such as finding evidence or discussing problem-solvingAssesses children’s understanding of what they readSometimes, engages the children in extending the story through such activities as drama, writing, art, or more readingSometimes, engages the children for a minute or two of word workThis is where you will revisit the text and invite students to share their thinking about what they have read. Here you will also probe more deeply into students understanding of the text by focusing on one or two teaching points that will further students comprehension of the text.
20AssessmentOngoing observations will probably be the most beneficial for tracking students.A notebook with Post-It notes can serve as your documentation.Running records provide a quick assessment of fluency.The key to effective, scaffolded instruction is knowing where students are, where they needto be, and then building a bridge between those two points. This requires being able touse efficient, effective, ongoing assessment tools and adjust plans accordingly (Fountasand Pinnell 1996).Small groups instruction is work in progress:a teacher may find that the lesson needs to be broken down into smaller partsvocabulary needs more review before you can continuea lack of students using strategy and weakening their ability to read for meaningthe written assignment is too difficult at this time and needs to be broken down into visual tasks or graphic aids first
21Now it’s your turn! We are now going into our “planning mode.” First, you need to decide if you are going to conduct a guided reading group or a small group for instruction.Next, think about what your focus of instruction will be for those lessons:reading comprehension strategiesverbal skills and discussionvocabularydecoding/fluencytext featuressummarizationsequencecharacter analysisGuided reading should be planned in three segments:1. Before the Reading OPTIONS: Picture Walk, Predictions, Difficult Vocabulary, Personal Connection2. During Reading OPTIONS: Asking Comprehension Questions, Discussing Text Features, Pointing Out Vocabulary3. After Reading OPTIONS: Building Fluency through Repeated Reading, SummarizationWhat Are My Other Students Doing?Other students MUST be kept busy with engaging and challenging work. There needs to be accountability for the work they are doing. The teacher should be able to see at a glance that all students are working.Centers are appropriate even for older students.
22And Lastly… Take a few minutes to… Fill out your exit card Jot down some reflections/goals