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Earth Science Level 1 Requirements Overview Eric Ianson Feb 27, 2012.

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1 Earth Science Level 1 Requirements Overview Eric Ianson Feb 27, 2012

2 Introduction Program Level Requirements (PLRA or Level 1 Requirements) are a required gate product in NPR –KDP-A: Draft –KDP-B: “Baseline” (typically signed by Project, Program, and Division) –KDP-C: Update (all signatures, including Center Director and SMD AA) The Level 1s are essentially the “contract” between HQ and the project Program Executive and Program Scientist are the primary authors of the Level 1s –Draft input from the project are usually required for many sections –Program Office should have a significant role in development of the Level 1s –PE should maintain configuration control of the Level 1s –Review of Level 1s with ESD should be conducted at least 2 months before the next KDP –Always a good idea to provide a draft to Ken Ledbetter and Mike Luther before formal routing A good L1 requirement is a verifiable requirement –Wherever possible should be clear to a non-expert what you looking to achieve Avoid using descriptive language outside of section 2

3 1.0 Scope 1.0 SCOPE This appendix to the > Program Plan identifies the mission, science and programmatic (funding and schedule) requirements imposed on the > for the development and operation of the > Project of the > Program. Requirements begin in Section 4. Sections 1, 2 & 3 are intended to set the context for the requirements that follow. This document serves as the basis for mission assessments conducted by NASA Headquarters during the development period and provides the baseline for the determination of the science mission success following the completion of the operational phase. Program authority is delegated from the Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate (AA/SMD) through the Earth Science Division within SMD to the > Program Manager at >. For PI lead missions only, use the following paragraph (or appropriate modifications): The >, under contract to >, is responsible for the scientific success of the > Project, utilizing the set of approved co-investigators reflected in the proposal including any approved changes prior to the release of this appendix. The > is responsible for design, development, test, mission operations, and data verification tasks and shall coordinate the work of all contractors and co- investigators. Changes to information and requirements contained in this document requires approval by the Science Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters by the officials that approved the original. 1.0 SCOPE This appendix to the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Plan identifies the mission, science and programmatic (funding and schedule) requirements imposed on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the development and operation of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory – 2 (OCO-2) Project of the ESSP Program. Requirements begin in Section 4. Sections 1, 2 & 3 are intended to set the context for the requirements that follow. This document serves as the basis for mission assessments conducted by NASA Headquarters during the development period and provides the baseline for the determination of the science mission success following the completion of the operational phase. Program authority is delegated from the Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate (AA/SMD) through the Earth Science Division within SMD to the ESSP Program Manager at Langley Research Center. Project management will be conducted at JPL. See Section 3.1. JPL is responsible for scientific success, design, development, test, mission operations, and data verification tasks and shall coordinate the work of all contractors and science team members. The NASA Earth Science Division will select the investigators that will compose the OCO-2 Science Team through a competitive process. Changes to information and requirements contained in this document require approval by the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), NASA Headquarters by the officials that approved the original. OCO-2 is based on the original OCO mission, which was developed under the NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office and launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on February 24, Before spacecraft separation, a launch vehicle anomaly occurred that prevented the spacecraft from reaching injection orbit. The spacecraft was destroyed during re-entry and was unrecoverable. Very Boilerplate section. Avoid editorializing.

4 2.0 Science Definition 2.0 SCIENCE DEFINITION 2.1 BASELINE SCIENCE OBJECTIVES This section provides a brief, high-level description of the mission science objectives, in terms of the fundamental questions, the overall objectives, and the science goals, as defined in the NASA Science Plan. For AO-type missions, the accepted proposal should be a primary source for this section. 2.2 SCIENCE INSTRUMENT SUMMARY DESCRIPTION This section will provide a very brief, high-level description of what science instruments will be used to satisfy the mission objectives. (2-3 sentences per instrument is typical.) 2.0 SCIENCE DEFINITION 2.1 BASELINE SCIENCE OBJECTIVES The ESSP OCO-2 Project will implement an exploratory science mission designed to collect the space-based measurements needed to quantify variations in the column averaged atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) dry air mole fraction, X CO2, with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to improve our understanding of surface CO 2 sources and sinks (fluxes) on regional scales (≥1000 km) and the processes controlling their variability over the seasonal cycle. This mission will also validate a space-based measurement approach and analysis concept that could be used for future systematic CO 2 monitoring missions. 2.2 SCIENCE INSTRUMENT SUMMARY DESCRIPTION The OCO-2 instrument incorporates three near-infrared spectrometers designed to measure reflected sunlight in CO 2 and molecular oxygen (O 2 ) absorption bands. Soundings, consisting of coincident CO 2 and O 2 spectra, are analyzed with a remote sensing retrieval algorithm to yield spatially-resolved estimates of X CO2. The spectrometer optical design, spectral range, and resolving power were selected to optimize measurement precision and minimize bias. Spectra collected at wavelengths near 1.61 microns are most sensitive to variations in the CO 2 concentration near the surface. Coincident measurements from the O 2 A-band and the CO 2 band near 2.06 microns minimize X CO2 errors associated with pointing uncertainties and scattering by thin clouds and aerosols. The small (≤ 3 km 2 ) sounding footprint is expected to yield > 100 cloud- free soundings on regional scales over > 80% of range of latitudes on the sunlit hemisphere at monthly intervals. The precision and bias of space-based X CO2 retrievals can only be validated at locations where X CO2 is well characterized by other methods. OCO-2 results will be validated through comparisons with X CO2 retrievals from selected ground-based spectrometers in the Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON). Retrievals from TCCON stations designated as OCO-2 “primary ground validation sites” have been validated against in situ CO 2 profiles collected during aircraft overflights of the station, using measurement techniques traceable to World Meteorological Organization standards for atmospheric CO 2 measurements. OCO-2 can acquire > 100 soundings in the vicinity of a TCCON station in a single cloud-free overflight. At least once each season, space-based X CO2 retrievals from cloud-free overflights of ≥ 3 of the primary ground validation sites will be compared with TCCON retrievals to validate the OCO-2 measurement precision and to identify global-scale systematic biases in its space-based X CO2 product. If you want to be descriptive or provide explanatory information, this is the section to do it.

5 3.0 Project Definition (1 of 2) 3.0 PROJECT DEFINITION 3.1 PROJECT ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT This section describes the organizational relationships proposed for the development and operation of the mission. Include an org chart that shows lines of reporting/coordination between SMD, the program office, project, non-NASA partners, and supporting NASA centers/major institutions. Figure XX: Project X lines of authority (using an ICESat- 2 example) 3.0 PROJECT DEFINITION 3.1 PROJECT ORGANIZATION & MANAGEMENT The OCO-2 Project Manager shall report to NASA according to Figure 1. Figure 1. OCO-2 Lines of Authority and Coordination The OCO-2 Project Manager has overall management responsibility for the success of the project. The OCO-2 Project Scientist has overall management responsibility for the science elements of the project. Specific assigned roles and responsibilities are: JPL is responsible for providing: the Project Scientist; project management; system engineering and mission design; safety and mission assurance; the instrument; spacecraft; mission operations and the associated mission operations ground data system; science data processing and delivery of calibrated/validated science data products to an archive for public distribution. NASA is responsible for providing a launch vehicle and launch services for OCO-2 and access to the SN (Space Network) for S-band uplink and downlink and Near Earth Network (NEN) for S-band uplink and downlink and X-band downlink compatible with the OCO-2 mission. A NASA-SMD- Earth Science Division-assigned Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is responsible for public distribution of OCO-2 data and long-term science data archiving. Important to be clear who has project responsibilities

6 3.0 Project Definition (2 of 2) 3.2 PROJECT ACQUISITION STRATEGY This section briefly describes the proposed acquisition approach for the Project's components. The description should include the spacecraft, scientific instruments, launch vehicle, and operations. If applicable, the acquisition of mission critical components should also be briefly described. Remember, this sections defines a strategy and not a set of requirements. The stated requirements start in Section PROJECT ACQUISITION STRATEGY JPL will implement an in-house development of the instrument, utilizing commercial vendors for parts and assemblies. However, the instrument cryocoolers will be obtained from the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, R-Series) Program through an inter-agency transfer between NASA and NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Orbital Science Corporation (OSC) is contracted to provide the spacecraft development, integration, test, launch operations, and mission operations support. NASA’s Launch Services Program at Kennedy Space Center will provide the launch vehicle. Sole source justifications will be implemented based on the past experience on OCO.

7 4.1 Science Requirements (1 of 2) 4.1 SCIENCE REQUIREMENTS The approach we take defines two levels of requirements: baseline and threshold. The Baseline requirements list the full performance expectations for the mission, and are the standard against which the mission will be judged at the major gate reviews. The Threshold requirements represent the minimum acceptable pre-launch performance we will accept for the mission to go forward. Expected performance below the threshold, either expected or through an inability to demonstrate said performance pre-launch, will mean the mission should not proceed. The project can define a smaller set of critical measurements as “mission success criteria” for both the baseline and threshold performance. These are mission requirements, and must include all known factors that may affect mission performance. If ancillary data are required to meet mission requirements they should be stated as assumed inputs, if appropriate. For example, if a measurement requires cloud clearing then the approach for achieving that should be stated either as a companion instrument or an existing measurement from another established source BASELINE SCIENCE REQUIREMENTS This section shall describe the scientific requirements that must be achieved in order to fully satisfy the baseline science objectives. Requirement statements should be concise and clearly stated in a form suitable for objective verification THRESHOLD SCIENCE REQUIREMENTS This section shall describe the threshold (or minimum) scientific requirements (the “science floor”) that are required to scientifically justify performing the mission. Requirement statements should be concise, succinct, and suitable for objective verification. The threshold science requirements should represent programmatic scope differences and correspond to the Cost Management and Scope Reduction requirement (see section 5.2). 4.1 SCIENCE REQUIREMENTS BASELINE SCIENCE REQUIREMENTS Retrieve estimates of the column-averaged CO 2 dry air mole fraction (X CO2 ) on regional scales (≥1000 km) from space-based measurements of the absorption of reflected sunlight by atmospheric CO 2 and O 2, collected in cloud-free scenes over ≥ 80% of range of latitudes on the sunlit hemisphere at monthly intervals for 2 years. Compare space-based and ground-based X CO2 retrievals from soundings collected during overflights of ≥ 3 primary ground validation sites at least once each season to identify and correct global-scale systematic biases in the space-based X CO2 product and to demonstrate a precision of ≤ 0.3% for collections of ≥100 cloud-free soundings. Record, validate, publish, and deliver science data records and calibrated geophysical data products to a NASA SMD-Earth Science Division-assigned DAAC for use by the scientific community. Validate a space-based measurement approach and analysis concept that could be used for future systematic CO 2 monitoring missions THRESHOLD SCIENCE REQUIREMENTS Retrieve estimates of the column-averaged CO 2 dry air mole fraction (X CO2 ) on regional scales (≥1000 km) from space-based measurements of the absorption of reflected sunlight by atmospheric CO 2 and O 2, collected in cloud-free scenes over ≥ 80% of range of latitudes on the sunlit hemisphere at monthly intervals for ≥ 1 year. Compare space-based and ground-based X CO2 retrievals from soundings collected during overflights of ≥ 3 primary ground validation sites at least once each season to identify and correct global-scale systematic biases in the space-based X CO2 product and demonstrate a precision of ≤ 0.5% for collections of ≥100 cloud-free soundings. Record, validate, publish, and deliver science data records and calibrated geophysical data products to a NASA SMD-Earth Science Division-assigned DAAC for use by the scientific community. Validate a space-based measurement approach and analysis concept that could be used for future systematic CO 2 monitoring missions. Most important section in L1s. BE CLEAR.

8 4.1 Science Requirements (2 of 2) SCIENCE INSTRUMENT REQUIREMENTS This section shall specify what is crucial about the instrument that must be present to accomplish the mission objectives. This may include the scientific measurements required to be accomplished with each instrument, and/or the critical science instrument design and required operating capabilities for accomplishing these measurements. State only requirements for which failing to meet the requirement would jeopardize meeting the mission objectives SCIENCE INSTRUMENT REQUIREMENTS The space-based instrument shall be capable of acquiring coincident measurements of reflected sunlight in the CO2 bands centered at wavelengths near 1.61 and 2.06  m and in the O2 A-band centered near  m. The spectral range and resolving power of the space-based instrument shall be selected to resolve individual absorption lines from the underlying continuum throughout each CO 2 and O 2 band to retrieve estimates of X CO2 that meet the Science Requirements (Section 4.1). The OCO-2 instrument shall be capable of acquiring CO 2 and O 2 soundings with a footprint size ≤ 3 km 2 at nadir to facilitate the acquisition of cloud-free scenes in at least 10% of the soundings collected over the sunlit hemisphere on monthly time scales.

9 More Program Requirements 4.2 MISSION AND SPACECRAFT PERFORMANCE This project shall be Category > per NPR D, and the mission class shall be > per NPR The guidelines for mission classification and project categorization are in the NPDs. In each case in pre-Phase A the proposed taxonomy will be developed together with the mission study team and the ESD, and then with the Agency stakeholders (OCE, OSMA). This paragraph shall specify particular mission or spacecraft performance requirements that constitute the Mission Success Criteria and are thus critical in successfully meeting the scientific requirements of the mission. Mission lifetime should be specified herein, as well as particular performance features which are mission critical. This could include such parameters as dedicated calibration maneuver requirements (moon calibrations?), 4.3 LAUNCH REQUIREMENTS This payload shall be launched on an expendable launch vehicle of Risk Category > or higher, per NPD C. This section shall define launch requirements such as the launch time frame, launch window, the spacecraft orbit, and/or the method for achieving launch and orbit insertion, as applicable. 4.4 GROUND SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS This section shall specify particular ground system design or performance requirements that are critical in meeting the science objectives of the mission. 4.2 MISSION AND SPACECRAFT PERFORMANCE The OCO-2 project shall be Category 2 per NPR D, and the payload class shall be C per NPR The OCO-2 mission shall complete the In-Orbit Checkout (IOC) period within 90 days after launch, and then begin operations consistent with the science requirements in Section The Observatory shall fly in a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit that provides access to ≥90% of the range of latitudes on the sunlit hemisphere at least once a month. After IOC, the Observatory’s orbit nodal crossing time shall be between 11AM and 2PM, and vary by less than 15 minutes during the science mission as defined in Section 4.2(e). The OCO-2 mission lifetime is 2 years baseline (1 year threshold) following completion of IOC. 4.3 LAUNCH REQUIREMENTS The Observatory shall be launched on an expendable launch vehicle of Risk Category 2 or 3, per NPD C with a payload isolation damping system, if needed. The OCO-2 project shall target a Launch Readiness Date in February GROUND SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS The OCO-2 project shall develop a ground system to meet the performance requirements in section 4.1 and the reprocessing and data latency requirements in section 4.5. Only be as specific as you need to be.

10 4.5 Data Requirements (1 of 3) SCIENCE DATA MANAGEMENT a) The > shall produce the standard science data products listed in Table 1. b) All data and the standard science data products listed in Table 1, along with the scientific source code for algorithm software, coefficients, and ancillary data used to generate these products will be delivered to the >, in accordance with the NASA Earth Science Data and Information Policy specified at information-policy/. Public release of these data shall conform to the NASA Earth Science Data and Information Policy. There shall be no period of exclusive access.http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/earth-science-data/data- information-policy/ c) Science algorithms used to generate the standard science data products listed in Table 1 shall be documented in Algorithm Theoretical Basis Documents (ATBDs). d) The > will coordinate with the > the release of product versions, to ensure completeness and accuracy of quality information, validation status, and metadata of the > science data products. e) The > will coordinate with the > on the data and information to be transferred at > closeout. 4.5 MISSION DATA REQUIREMENTS SCIENCE DATA MANAGEMENT The OCO-2 Project shall produce the standard science data products listed in Table 1. All standard data products listed in Table 1 shall be delivered, in accordance with the NASA Earth Science Data and Information Policy specified in the 2006 Earth Science Reference Handbook (NP GSFC), to a NASA SMD Earth Science Division-assigned DAAC. Public release of this data shall conform to the NASA Earth Science Data and Information Policy, U.S. Law, and the NASA/CalTech prime contract (NAS ). Science algorithms used to generate the standard data products listed in Table 1 shall be documented in Algorithm Theoretical Basis Documents (ATBDs). Often the most challenging section to reach agreement on; work with ESD Data folks

11 4.5 Data Requirements (2 of 3) SCIENCE DATA REQUIREMENTS a) > science data product formats shall conform to the >. b) The > science data products metadata shall conform to ISO Geographic Information - Metadata standards and adhere to the Metadata Requirements – Base Reference for NASA Earth Science Data Products document published at eosdis/requirements, and the > shall baseline to a specific initial version before launch.http://earthdata.nasa.gov/about- eosdis/requirements c) The > shall transfer to the > all the information and documentation required for long-term preservation of knowledge about the products resulting from >, as defined in the NASA Earth Science Data Preservation Content Specification document published at eosdis/requirements, and shall baseline to a specific initial version.http://earthdata.nasa.gov/about- eosdis/requirements Additional requirements may be added to this section to provide greater specificity to the science data requirements SCIENCE DATA REQUIREMENTS OCO-2’s Level 1 and Level 2 science data product formats shall conform to the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) standard. The metadata for the OCO-2 standard data products listed in Table 1 shall conform to the Earth Observing System (EOS) Clearinghouse (ECHO) Science Metadata Model. The OCO-2 Project shall coordinate the release of product versions with the NASA SMD-Earth Science Division-assigned DAAC. The OCO-2 Project shall deliver reprocessed data products which meet the science requirements in Section 4.1 within 6 months after completion of the science mission as specified in Paragraph 4.2.e. X CO2 products mapped on a uniform spatial grid shall be produced by the OCO- 2 Project. Table 1. OCO-2 Data Products * EDOS: (Earth Observing System) Data and Operations System **Delivery latency after ground receipt

12 4.5 Data Requirements (3 of 3) APPLIED SCIENCE DATA REQUIREMENTS Beginning in Phase C, the > shall organize and host a > data product application workshop annually. The workshop will share information on > science data applications and define potential applications that can be supported with existing > data requirements. Results will be provided to the > science team and at other > workshops and meetings APPLIED SCIENCE DATA REQUIREMENTS Beginning in Phase C, the OCO-2 Project shall participate in an OCO-2 data product application workshop annually. The workshop will share information on OCO-2 science data applications and define potential applications that can be supported with existing OCO-2 data requirements. Results of the workshop will be provided to the OCO-2 science team and at other OCO-2 workshops and meetings.

13 4.6 Mission Success Criteria 4.6 MISSION SUCCESS CRITERIA This section identifies the criteria for a successful mission. State the requirements that must be met to satisfy the mission success criteria. 4.6 MISSION SUCCESS CRITERIA Launch into a sun-synchronous orbit that provides near global access at monthly intervals. Collect global space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to improve understanding of CO 2 sources and sinks and quantify their variability over an annual cycle (as specified in section 4.1.2). Record, validate, publish, and deliver science data records and calibrated geophysical data products to a NASA SMD-Earth Science Division-assigned DAAC for use by the scientific community. Validate a space-based measurement approach and analysis concept for future systematic CO 2 monitoring missions. What constitutes mission success EXTERNAL to the Agency; rules always seem to be changing for MSC

14 5.0 Cost Requirements 5.0 NASA MISSION COST REQUIREMENT 5.1 COST The > funding allocation is > dollars for the design, development, and operation of the mission. (Include wording to indicate what is included, e.g., whether or not launch vehicle costs or data analysis costs are included.) 5.2 COST MANAGEMENT AND SCOPE REDUCTION Provided that Program Level Requirements are preserved, and that due consideration has been given to the use of budgeted contingency and planned schedule contingency, the > shall pursue scope reduction and risk management as a means to control cost. The Project Plan shall include potential scope reductions and the time frame in which they could be implemented. If other methods of cost containment are not practical, the reductions identified in the Project Plan may be exercised; however, any reduction in scientific capability (above the baseline science requirements), including those reductions specifically identified in the Project Plan, shall be implemented only after consultation with and approval by the Program Scientist. Scope reductions from baseline science requirements to threshold science requirements or potential scope reductions affecting these Program Requirements shall be agreed to by the officials represented on the approval page of document. 5.0 NASA MISSION COST REQUIREMENT 5.1 COST The OCO-2 life cycle cost (LCC) shall not exceed $XXXXM. The LCC includes the cost for the formulation, implementation, launch, operations, calibration, validation, science data analysis costs to generate the products in Table 1, and $10M (a not-to- exceed figure) for the two cryocoolers obtained from the NOAA GOES-R Program. 5.2 COST MANAGEMENT AND SCOPE REDUCTION Provided that Program Level Requirements are preserved, and that due consideration has been given to the use of budgeted contingency and planned schedule contingency, the OCO-2 project shall pursue scope reduction and risk management as a means to control cost. The Project Plan shall include potential scope reductions and the time frame in which they could be implemented. If other methods of cost containment are not practical, the reductions identified in the Project Plan may be exercised. Scope reductions from baseline science requirements (Section 4.1.1) to threshold science requirements (Section 4.1.2) or potential scope reductions affecting these Program Requirements shall be agreed to by the officials represented on the approval page of document. Keep this as simple as possible

15 Requirements 6.0 MULTI-MISSION NASA FACILITIES This section shall define the Program’s intended use of multi-mission NASA facilities, and include a definition of how the use of these facilities will be funded. Negotiated agreements or draft agreements with defensible cost estimates shall be supplied at the Confirmation Review for KDP-C. 7.0 EXTERNAL AGREEMENTS This section will define the external organizations that the project is dependent upon for mission success. Program requirements supported by these agreements shall be clearly identified. 8.0 PUBLIC OUTREACH AND EDUCATION The > project shall develop and execute an Education and Public Outreach Plan consistent with SMD requirements for the class of project. 9.0 SPECIAL INDEPENDENT EVALUATION Specification of any independent evaluation is a Program requirement which should be defined for a Project only if there are unique factors which would call for a correspondingly unique independent evaluation. An example would be situations in which the science is compelling enough to warrant embracing exceptional technical risk, to the extent that HQ would require a special independent evaluation. Ordinary independent reviews are required by existing directives and need not be specifically called out in this appendix to the Program Plan WAIVERS This section must document, either explicitly or by reference to an approved waiver, any NPR requirements or processes which the project is either eliminating or substantially modifying at the Project level. Program level waivers of NPR requirements should not be repeated in this document. 6.0 MULTI-MISSION NASA FACILITIES The NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) shall be made available by NASA for S-band uplink and downlink and X-band downlink compatible with the OCO-2 Mission. The SN, also known as the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) shall be made available by NASA for rapid communications between the spacecraft and ground during the IOC, orbit correction maneuvers, and emergencies. 7.0 EXTERNAL AGREEMENTS The OCO-2 mission shall include no flight hardware or flight software contributions from organizations outside of NASA, precluding the need for external agreements for flight hardware or software contributions. The OCO-2 Project shall reimburse NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) for the two GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Series R) Program cryocoolers per the countersigned inter-agency transfer MOA (Memorandum Of Agreement). The scope of the contributions from the international or interagency partners on the OCO-2 Science Team, validation activities, or data sharing shall be described in formal agreements between NASA and these organizations. 8.0 PUBLIC OUTREACH AND EDUCATION The OCO-2 project shall develop and execute an Education and Public Outreach Plan. 9.0 SPECIAL INDEPENDENT EVALUATION No special independent evaluation is required for the OCO-2 Project WAIVERS The OCO-2 Project was granted Agency approval to complete a tailored formulation phase that reduced that number of KDP gates, gate product versions, and technical reviews during this period.


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