8–4 Orienting Employees Employee orientation o A procedure for providing new employees with basic background information about the firm. Orientation content o Information on employee benefits o Personnel policies o The daily routine o Company organization and operations o Safety measures and regulations o Facilities tour
Orienting Employees A successful orientation should accomplish four things for new employees: o Make them feel welcome and at ease. o Help them understand the organization in a broad sense. o Make clear to them what is expected in terms of work and behavior. o Help them begin the process of becoming socialized into the firm’s ways of acting and doing things.
Overview of the Training Process Directly after orientation, training should begin. Training means giving new or current employees the skills that they need to perform their jobs. The task is to identify the employee behaviors the firm will require to execute its strategy, and from that deduce what competencies employees will need. Chapter 8-6
8–8 The Training Process Training o The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. The strategic context of training o Performance management: the process employers use to make sure employees are working toward organizational goals. Web-based training Distance learning-based training Cross-cultural diversity training
8–9 The Training and Development Process Needs analysis o Identify job performance skills needed, assess prospective trainees skills, and develop objectives. Instructional design o Produce the training program content, including workbooks, exercises, and activities. Validation o Presenting (trying out) the training to a small representative audience. Implement the program o Actually training the targeted employee group. Evaluation o Assesses the program’s successes or failures.
Analyzing Training Needs Task analysis o A detailed study of a job to identify the specific skills required, especially for new employees. Performance analysis o Verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether that deficiency should be corrected through training or through some other means (such as transferring the employee).
Conducting the Training Needs Analysis The training needs analysis should address the employer’s strategic/longer term training needs and/or its current training needs. Strategic goals (perhaps to enter new lines of business or go abroad) usually mean the firm will have to fill new jobs. Strategic training needs analysis focuses on identifying the training that employees will need to fill these new future jobs. Chapter 8-11
Explain how to distinguish between problems you can fix with training and those you can’t Chapter 8-12
Performance Analysis: Current Employees’ Training Needs Performance analysis is the process of verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether the employer should correct such deficiencies. This can be done by comparing the person’s actual performance to what it should be. Most training is focused on improving current performance. Analyzing current employee needs is more complex than the new employee needs. You also must decide whether training is the solution to the underlying problem or is it just convenient to refer the employee to a program. Chapter 8-13
Performance Analysis: Current Employees’ Training Needs Chapter 8-14 A task analysis can be used to determine the training needs of new employees. A task analysis record form also can be used for tracking purposes. There are several methods that can be used to identify an employee’s training needs, including supervisor, peer, self, and 360-degree performance reviews. The biggest issue is to figure out what is causing reduced performance. Can the person perform or are they unwilling to do so? If the problem is employee motivation then training is unlikely to fix this.
The OJT Process 1.Prepare the learner by putting the learner at ease and explaining why he or she is being taught. 2.Present the operation. Explain quantity and quality requirements and go through the job at a normal pace. 3.Do a tryout and have the learner go through the job several times at a reduced, then normal, pace. 4.Follow-up and designate to whom the learner should go for help. Gradually decrease supervision. Chapter 8-20
8–22 Training Methods (cont’d) Apprenticeship training o A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training. Informal learning o The majority of what employees learn on the job they learn through informal means of performing their jobs on a daily basis. Job instruction training (JIT) o Listing each job’s basic tasks, along with key points, in order to provide step-by-step training for employees.
8–23 Training Methods (cont’d) Effective lectures o Use signals to help listeners follow your ideas. o Don’t start out on the wrong foot. o Keep your conclusions short. o Be alert to your audience. o Maintain eye contact with the trainees. o Make sure everyone in the room can hear. o Control your hands. o Talk from notes rather than from a script. o Break a long talk into a series of five-minute talks.
Programmed Learning Programmed instruction (PI) o A systematic method for teaching job skills involving: Presenting questions or facts Allowing the person to respond Giving the learner immediate feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers Advantages o Reduced training time o Self-paced learning o Immediate feedback o Reduced risk of error for learner
8–25 Training Methods (cont’d) Literacy training techniques o Responses to functional illiteracy Testing job candidates’ basic skills. Setting up basic skills and literacy programs. Audiovisual-based training o To illustrate following a sequence over time. o To expose trainees to events not easily demonstrable in live lectures. o To meet the need for organizationwide training and it is too costly to move the trainers from place to place.
8–26 Training Methods (cont’d) Simulated training (occasionally called vestibule training) o Training employees on special off-the-job equipment so training costs and hazards can be reduced. o Computer-based training (CBT) o Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) o Learning portals
8–27 Distance and Internet- Based Training Teletraining o A trainer in a central location teaches groups of employees at remote locations via TV hookups. Videoconferencing o Interactively training employees who are geographically separated from each other—or from the trainer—via a combination of audio and visual equipment. Training via the Internet o Using the Internet or proprietary internal intranets to facilitate computer-based training.
8–28 What Is Management Development? Management development o Any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. Succession planning o A process through which senior-level openings are planned for and eventually filled. Anticipate management needs Review firm’s management skills inventory Create replacement charts Begin management development
8–29 What Is Management Development? Management development o Any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. Succession planning o A process through which senior-level openings are planned for and eventually filled. Anticipate management needs Review firm’s management skills inventory Create replacement charts Begin management development
8–30 Managerial on-the-Job Training Job rotation o Moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points. Coaching/Understudy approach o The trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person he or she is to replace; the latter is responsible for the trainee’s coaching. Action learning o Management trainees are allowed to work full-time analyzing and solving problems in other departments.
8–31 Off-the-Job Management Training Case study method o Managers are presented with a description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve. Management game o Teams of managers compete by making computerized decisions regarding realistic but simulated situations. Outside seminars o Many companies and universities offer Web-based and traditional management development seminars and conferences.
8–32 Off-the-Job Management Training Role playing o Creating a realistic situation in which trainees assume the roles of persons in that situation. Behavior modeling o Modeling: showing trainees the right (or “model”) way of doing something. o Role playing: having trainees practice that way o Social reinforcement: giving feedback on the trainees’ performance. o Transfer of learning: Encouraging trainees apply their skills on the job.
Off-the-Job Management Training Corporate universities o Provides a means for conveniently coordinating all the company’s training efforts and delivering Web-based modules that cover topics from strategic management to mentoring. In-house development centers o A company-based method for exposing prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills.
8–34 Off-the-Job Management Training Executive coaches o An outside consultant who questions the executive’s boss, peers, subordinates, and (sometimes) family in order to identify the executive’s strengths and weaknesses. o Counsels the executive so he or she can capitalize on those strengths and overcome the weaknesses.
8–35 Managing Organizational Change and Development What to change? o Strategy: mission and vision o Culture: new corporate values o Structure: departmental structure, coordination, span of control, reporting relationships, tasks, decision-making procedures o Technologies: new systems and methods o Employees: changes in employee attitudes and skills
8–36 Overcoming Resistance to Change What causes resistance? o All behavior in organizations is a product of two kinds of forces—those striving to maintain the status quo and those pushing for change. Lewin’s Change Process o Unfreezing: reducing the forces striving to maintain the status quo. o Moving: developing new behaviors, values, and attitudes, sometimes through structural changes. o Refreezing: reinforcing the changes.
How to Lead the Change (in 10 Steps) 1.Establish a sense of urgency. 2.Mobilize commitment through joint diagnosis of problems. 3.Create a guiding coalition. 4.Develop a shared vision. 5.Communicate the vision. 6.Help employees to make the change. 7.Generate short-term wins. 8.Consolidate gains and produce more change. 9.Anchor the new ways of doing things in the company’s culture. 10.Monitor progress and adjust the vision as required.