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Muscle Injuries *Risk Factors *Preventative Measures

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Presentation on theme: "Muscle Injuries *Risk Factors *Preventative Measures"— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscle Injuries *Risk Factors *Preventative Measures
SHMD 249 2/05/2012 Muscle Injuries *Risk Factors *Preventative Measures

2 Sports Injuries

3 Risk Factors Something external to the body that can cause injury
Extrinsic Risk Factors Something external to the body that can cause injury Intrinsic Risk Factors A physical aspect of the athletes body that can cause injury

4 Inappropriate coaching or instruction
Pg Extrinsic Risk Factors Inappropriate coaching or instruction Coaches: Give incorrect instructions - which lead to injury. Must have in-depth knowledge about sport & be up-to-date to maintain highest & safest standards. Must be able to communicate effectively. Current rules/regulations must be interpreted correctly & appropriately enforced.

5 Incorrect Advice on Technique
Pg Extrinsic Risk Factors Incorrect Advice on Technique PE teacher/trainer/coach gives guidance on specific sport skills techniques. If coach does not correct technique at right time, sport participant will adopt bad habits (skill level & performance) = injury. Example: weightlifting & back injuries from poor technique.

6 Environmental conditions
Pg Extrinsic Risk Factors Environmental conditions Environment: the area in which the sport is performed. Including: field/hall, playing surface, lighting & temperature. Environment in which sport is performed can have a big impact on sustaining injuries. Example: Poor lighting = player misjudging attacking/defensive moves & injuring themselves or another player. Wet surface = player more likely to slip = injury.

7 Extrinsic Risk Factors
Pg Extrinsic Risk Factors Other sports players Some sports (contact sports) are more susceptible to incurring injuries as rules allow for tackles, scrums (rugby) etc. contact sports: few bruises from tackling or being tackled. Non-contact sports: injuries from a foul tackle (soccer) or accidental collisions.

8 Equipment, clothing and footwear issues
Pg Extrinsic Risk Factors Equipment, clothing and footwear issues Always use equipment needed to play sport correctly. Example: if javelin/shot-put/discus not held/thrown correctly = serious injury to themselves/other people. Some sports require protective clothing. Example: shin pads for football, gloves & helmet for cricket etc. Other sports need clothing which is very flexible and needs to allow full range of movement. Example: gymnastics. If restrictive clothing is used which limits movement, could cause injury.

9 Equipment, clothing and footwear issues
Pg Extrinsic Risk Factors Equipment, clothing and footwear issues Essential to use correct footwear for correct surface. Specialized footwear for all sports, made to be supportive to player & totally suitable for surface required for sport

10 Equipment, clothing and footwear issues
Pg Extrinsic Risk Factors Equipment, clothing and footwear issues However, footwear may still be the cause of injury. Example: studs plant the foot in the ground, so if the person is turning on a planted foot they can twist their knee. Incorrect footwear = injury. Example: marathon runner needs a very cushioned shoe to absorb impact of constant running.

11 Intrinsic Risk Factors
Inadequate warm-up Very common cause of sports injury. Warm-up prepares body & mind for exercise to come. Gradually takes body from non-active state to being ready for exercise. Will vary from person to person, level of fitness, and the environment (cold surroundings = longer warm-up). Pg

12 Intrinsic Risk Factors
Inadequate warm-up 3 components of Warm-up: Get blood flowing more quickly around body to help warm-up muscles to make them more flexible. Mobiliser: joints taken through full range of motion. Main muscles to be used should be stretched. Pg

13 Intrinsic Risk Factors
Muscle Imbalance One muscle in an antagonistic pair is stronger than the other. Example: footballers who have strong quadriceps muscles, but weak hamstring muscles = knee injuries (when striker goes to score they over-kick which hyperextends knee = injury). Pg

14 Intrinsic Risk Factors
Poor Preparation Players’ fitness levels specific to sport. Poor fitness = increase risk of injury, as they become tired develop poor sport techniques. Must also acclimatize (train in) to environment in which competition will take place (hot/cold). Pg

15 Intrinsic Risk Factors
Postural Defects Some people are born with postural defects e.g. one leg longer than the other, or their spine having the wrong curvature. = more strain on one side of the body = more susceptible to injuries after long periods of exercise. Postural defects can also occur due to incorrect training techniques over a long period of time. Pg

16 Intrinsic Risk Factors
Poor Technique Related to an individual’s performance without the use of equipment (as opposed to incorrect techniques related to misuse of equipment). Using incorrect technique over a long period of time may lead to injuries. Example: swimming performing free-style incorrectly could be prone to shoulder or elbow injuries. Pg

17 Intrinsic Risk Factors
Overuse Every time you exercise, you place your body under strain, thus the body needs time to repair itself afterwards. Overuse injury occurs when you don’t give your body enough recovery time. When you don’t rest & allow the body to repair itself, it gets weaker & eventually gets injured. Pg

18 Intrinsic Risk Factors
Age Young children most common injuries occur due to falling. Older children the most common injuries result from collisions and violence. Older age groups and top-level sportsmen, there are fewer acute injuries and more overuse (chronic) injuries due to intrinsic factors. Pg

19 ! ! ! PREVENTION ! ! !

20 Preventative Measures
Improving & maintaining fitness. Adequate & appropriate warm-up. Wear protective clothing & appropriate shoes (stipulated by governing bodies). Always remove jewelry. Supervision by suitable qualified coach: Correct techniques. Design appropriate training programs for performers needs. Ensure equipment & environment appropriate for training. Pg

21 Questions Differentiate between extrinsic & intrinsic risk factors. 4
Give examples of protective clothing used in sports. 4 Name and briefly explain the 5 extrinsic risk factors. 20 Name and briefly explain 5 intrinsic risk factors. 20 What should a warm-up consist of? 6 List and briefly explain three methods of preventing injuries. 6 Why is the role of a coach so important? 2 Why is it so important that your body gets enough rest after an exercise session?

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