3Risk Factors Something external to the body that can cause injury Extrinsic Risk FactorsSomething external to the body that can cause injuryIntrinsicRisk FactorsA physical aspect of the athletes body that can cause injury
4Inappropriate coaching or instruction PgExtrinsic Risk FactorsInappropriate coaching or instructionCoaches:Give incorrect instructions - which lead to injury.Must have in-depth knowledge about sport & be up-to-date to maintain highest & safest standards.Must be able to communicate effectively.Current rules/regulations must be interpreted correctly & appropriately enforced.
5Incorrect Advice on Technique PgExtrinsic Risk FactorsIncorrect Advice on TechniquePE teacher/trainer/coach gives guidance on specific sport skills techniques.If coach does not correct technique at right time, sport participant will adopt bad habits (skill level & performance) = injury.Example: weightlifting & back injuries from poor technique.
6Environmental conditions PgExtrinsic Risk FactorsEnvironmental conditionsEnvironment: the area in which the sport is performed.Including: field/hall, playing surface, lighting & temperature.Environment in which sport is performed can have a big impact on sustaining injuries.Example:Poor lighting = player misjudging attacking/defensive moves & injuring themselves or another player.Wet surface = player more likely to slip = injury.
7Extrinsic Risk Factors PgExtrinsic Risk FactorsOther sports playersSome sports (contact sports) are more susceptible to incurring injuries as rules allow for tackles, scrums (rugby) etc.contact sports: few bruises from tackling or being tackled.Non-contact sports: injuries from a foul tackle (soccer) or accidental collisions.
8Equipment, clothing and footwear issues PgExtrinsic Risk FactorsEquipment, clothing and footwear issuesAlways use equipment needed to play sport correctly.Example: if javelin/shot-put/discus not held/thrown correctly = serious injury to themselves/other people.Some sports require protective clothing.Example: shin pads for football, gloves & helmet for cricket etc.Other sports need clothing which is very flexible and needs to allow full range of movement.Example: gymnastics. If restrictive clothing is used which limits movement, could cause injury.
9Equipment, clothing and footwear issues PgExtrinsic Risk FactorsEquipment, clothing and footwear issuesEssential to use correct footwear for correct surface.Specialized footwear for all sports, made to be supportive to player & totally suitable for surface required for sport
10Equipment, clothing and footwear issues PgExtrinsic Risk FactorsEquipment, clothing and footwear issuesHowever, footwear may still be the cause of injury.Example: studs plant the foot in the ground, so if the person is turning on a planted foot they can twist their knee.Incorrect footwear = injury.Example: marathon runner needs a very cushioned shoe to absorb impact of constant running.
11Intrinsic Risk Factors Inadequate warm-upVery common cause of sports injury.Warm-up prepares body & mind for exercise to come. Gradually takes body from non-active state to being ready for exercise.Will vary from person to person, level of fitness, and the environment (cold surroundings = longer warm-up).Pg
12Intrinsic Risk Factors Inadequate warm-up3 components of Warm-up:Get blood flowing more quickly around body to help warm-up muscles to make them more flexible.Mobiliser: joints taken through full range of motion.Main muscles to be used should be stretched.Pg
13Intrinsic Risk Factors Muscle ImbalanceOne muscle in an antagonistic pair is stronger than the other.Example: footballers who have strong quadriceps muscles, but weak hamstring muscles = knee injuries (when striker goes to score they over-kick which hyperextends knee = injury).Pg
14Intrinsic Risk Factors Poor PreparationPlayers’ fitness levels specific to sport.Poor fitness = increase risk of injury, as they become tired develop poor sport techniques.Must also acclimatize (train in) to environment in which competition will take place (hot/cold).Pg
15Intrinsic Risk Factors Postural DefectsSome people are born with postural defects e.g. one leg longer than the other, or their spine having the wrong curvature.= more strain on one side of the body = more susceptible to injuries after long periods of exercise.Postural defects can also occur due to incorrect training techniques over a long period of time.Pg
16Intrinsic Risk Factors Poor TechniqueRelated to an individual’s performance without the use of equipment (as opposed to incorrect techniques related to misuse of equipment).Using incorrect technique over a long period of time may lead to injuries.Example: swimming performing free-style incorrectly could be prone to shoulder or elbow injuries.Pg
17Intrinsic Risk Factors OveruseEvery time you exercise, you place your body under strain, thus the body needs time to repair itself afterwards.Overuse injury occurs when you don’t give your body enough recovery time.When you don’t rest & allow thebody to repair itself, it gets weaker& eventually gets injured.Pg
18Intrinsic Risk Factors AgeYoung children most common injuries occur due to falling.Older children the most common injuries result from collisions and violence.Older age groups and top-level sportsmen, there are fewer acute injuries and more overuse (chronic) injuries due to intrinsic factors.Pg
20Preventative Measures Improving & maintaining fitness.Adequate & appropriate warm-up.Wear protective clothing & appropriate shoes (stipulated by governing bodies).Always remove jewelry.Supervision by suitable qualified coach:Correct techniques.Design appropriate training programs for performers needs.Ensure equipment & environment appropriate for training.Pg
21Questions Differentiate between extrinsic & intrinsic risk factors. 4 Give examples of protective clothing used in sports. 4Name and briefly explain the 5 extrinsic risk factors. 20Name and briefly explain 5 intrinsic risk factors. 20What should a warm-up consist of? 6List and briefly explain three methods of preventing injuries. 6Why is the role of a coach so important? 2Why is it so important that your body gets enough rest after an exercise session?