2Guiding QuestionsHow did Andrew Jackson the man and president, reflect the change in political ideology of the ’s?How did political parties meet the needs/wants of the people?Is the argument for the powers of nullification a valid democratic argument? Does the constitution justify such powers implicationally?
3The Expanding Electorate Jacksonian America saw…No growth in economic equalityNo redistribution of wealthBUT voter’s rights were expandedHow?States had been restricted voting to…White, property owning, taxpayersVoter suffrage (rights) expanded first in the WestThe number of total voters doubled from , then almost doubled again the next decade.
4The Dorr RebellionThomas Dorr (a local leader in Rhode Island) didn’t like the voter restrictions so he drafted a new Constitution for his state.It is put to a state wide vote and Dorr’s Constitution wins popular support.2 governments operated at the same time.Dorr acting as Governor tries to take the state arsenal and is arrested and imprisoned.Power is restored to the legitimate legislator but they are forced to expand voter rights.
5Legitimization of the Party Martin Van Buren starts first established political party in New York: The Albany RegencyParty votes for their candidatesThey value party loyalty over all elseThey claim that party loyalty ensures that elected officials follow the will of the people.Party needs permanent opposition to surviveThis is the birth of the Second Party System (1828)Anti-Jacksonians=Whigs Pro-Jackson=Democrats
6Did these changes give power to the people? Jacksonian Democracy“President for the Common Man”“Equal protection and equal benefits.”Jackson goes after “entrenched officeholders”Puts in its place new elected officials who appoint supporters to government positions=The Spoils System (To the victor goes the spoils)Party convention replaces the caucusKitchen Cabinet replaces real CabinetDid these changes give power to the people?
7Our Federal UnionJackson weakens the function of the Federal Government but strengthens the powers of the presidentHe believes in Jefferson’s strong state rights with strong farmersJohn C. Calhoun is Vice PresidentHe believes that the Tariff of Abominations has caused economic turmoil in the South
8NullificationCalhoun proposes that the state of South Carolina has the power to Nullify the tariff because it is the state that gives the federal government power.Jackson disagrees with nullificationCalhoun resignsVan Buren is appointed VPWebster-Hayne Debate rages in congress arguing whether the states have the right to ignore a federal law—NULLIFICATION
9NullificationIn November of 1832 South Carolina votes to nullify the tariffJackson, fearing an end to the Union, sends in troops to collect the tariff—Force ActCongress trying to avoid civil war passes a bill at the last minute to gradually lower the tariff over the next ten years (till 1842) to pre-1816 levels.This calms the nullification debate…for now.Proves that states can’t go it alone and that secession is possible.
13APUSH Short Answer Questions Short-answer questions will directly address one or more of the thematic learning objectives for the course.At least two of the four questions will have elements of internal choice, providing opportunities for students to demonstrate what they know best. Number of QuestionsTimePercentage450 Minutes20%Thematic Learning Objectives1Identify2Work, Exchange and Technology3Peopling4Politics and Power5America and the World6Environment and geography7Ideas, Beliefs, and Culture
14Short Answer Question Example 1. Answer a, b, and c.a) Briefly explain ONE example of how contact between Native Americans and Europeans brought changes to Native American societies in the periodb) Briefly explain a SECOND example of how contact between Native Americans and Europeans brought changes to Native American societies in the same period.c) Briefly explain ONE example of how Native American societies resisted change brought by contact with Europeans in the same period.
15Example of an AnswerC)Tribes sometimes worked to preserve their traditional tribal culture, beliefs, language, and worldviews rather than accept or adapt to European ways and beliefs.Some Native American people responded to European contact with violence and warfare, as in Metacom’s Rebellion (King Philip’sWar) and the Pueblo Revolt (Popé’s Rebellion).Some Native Americans maintained their traditional religions rather than converting to Christianity.Native Americans sometimes chose to flee rather than accept enslavement by Europeans.Tribes sometimes formed alliances with one another, such asMetacom’s alliance of tribes in New England, in order to resistencroaching European colonial societies.• Some tribes formed alliances with some Europeans to resist andwage war on other Europeans (or to play one European nation
16Example of an Answer A) and B) Native American population declined as a result of disease and warfare (leading to “mourning wars” between Native American tribes).Many Native Americans were enslaved and/or subjected to forced labor.Traditional tribal economies changed as a result of increased trade with Europeans.Native Americans and Europeans began to intermarry in Spanish and French colonies, producing racially mixed populations and caste systems.Some Native Americans converted to Christianity.The introduction of new crops and livestock into Native American societies changed settlement patterns.Domestic animals brought by Europeans changed the environment and destroyed Native American crops.Views on gender roles, family, and property changed as a result of European influence.The introduction of guns, other weapons, and alcohol stimulated cultural and demographic changes in some Native American societies.Alliances with European nations changed politics and policies within and among tribes.
17Oh Yeah…!We will be holding our first “OH YEAH!” debate today based on your Jackson: $20 Projects. Here are the rules.We will start with a random person. That person will stand and give a reason why President Jackson should be on the $20 Bill.When they are finished a historical figure with an OPPOSING view will stand and say “OH YEAH!...” then give one of their reasons my Jackson SHOULDN’T be in the $20.When they are finish a person with an opposing view of the second person will stand and say “OH YEAH!...” and give their reason why Jackson SHOULD be on the $20.And so on…Pay attention so that you don’t repeat someone else’s reason.