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The Tools of Geography Anywhere Is Possible

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1 The Tools of Geography Anywhere Is Possible
Image: Anywhere Is Possible

2 The Geographic Setting
Green slides pages brown book.

3 Location Map Projections – a particular way of showing Earth on a flat map. All map projects have some kind of distortion.

4 Distortion Going from Globe to Map Interactive: Map Project: Distortion – since Earth is a sphere, all flat maps of Earth will have some distortion, for a sphere can never be converted to a flat map perfectly. Distortion is a false representation of distance or area.

5 Location Absolute Location – an exact location, can be a street address, address, or degrees in longitude and latitude. Relative Location – a location expressed in relation to something else, usually includes cardinal or intermediate directions. For example: United States is located south of Canada or the hospital is 3 miles north of Cookout Restaurant.

6 Map Titles and Symbols Orange slides pages brown book.

7 Titles and Symbols Explorer May Symbols:

8 Titles and Symbols

9 Titles and Symbols Army ROTC

10 Titles and Symbols Army ROTC

11 Map Legend (Map Key)– a key to all the symbols used on a map.
Titles and Symbols Map Legend (Map Key)– a key to all the symbols used on a map.

12 Titles and Symbols Direction Interaction:


14 Is this map upside down? See page 14
Image: See page 14

15 Map Grid

16 Map Titles and Symbols Tan slides pages brown book.

17 Longitude and Latitude


19 Longitude and Latitude
Latitude I'm climbing the Ladder of Latitudes, latitudes, latitudes. I'm climbing the ladder of latitudes, all around the world. Longitude It's a LONG LONG way from pole to pole, pole to pole, pole to pole. It's a LONG LONG way from pole to pole, so we call those LONGITUDES. Image:

20 Longitude and Latitude
Latitude measures distance in degrees and by North and South from the equator. Image: Longitude (meridians) measures distance in degrees and by East and West from the Prime Meridian .

21 Longitude and Latitude Latitude “Parallels”
When looking at a map, latitude lines run horizontally. Latitude lines are also known as parallels since they are parallel and are an equal distant from each other. Each degree of latitude is approximately 69 miles (111 km) apart; there is a variation due to the fact that the earth is not a perfect sphere but an oblate ellipsoid (slightly egg-shaped). For example, at 30° N and S, the approximate measure is 60 miles each degree. Zero degrees is the equator, the imaginary line which divides our planet into the northern and southern hemispheres. 90° north is the North Pole and 90° south is the South Pole. Lines of latitude or “parallels”

22 Longitude and Latitude Latitude “Parallels”
The equator is an imaginary line on Earth’s surface. It is numbered zero degrees latitude (0° latitude). It is approximately equal distant from the North Pole and South pole. It divides the earth into a Northern Hemisphere and a Southern Hemisphere. It is 24, miles (40, kilometers) long. Information: Wikipedia and

23 Longitude and Latitude Longitude
Lines of longitude are also called a meridian. Meri – Latin, meaning “middle” Diem – Latin, meaning “day” Meridian once meant “noon” or middle of the day. Therefore, “ante meridian” (A.M.) means time before noon and “post meridian” (P.M.), means time after noon. All points on the same line of longitude experienced noon (and every other hour) at the same time. It was said all these places were on the same “meridian line,” which became “meridian” for short. Information and Image: Longitude     lines or "meridians"

24 Absolute Location Answers
a. Arizona (answer: 35 degrees north and 110 degrees west) b. Wisconsin (answer: 45 degrees north and 90 degrees west) c. North Carolina (answer: 35 degrees north and 80 degrees west) d. 45 degrees north, and 70 degrees west (answer: Maine) e. 40 degrees north and 90 degrees west (answer: Illinois) f. 30 degrees north and 100 degrees west (answer: Texas) Answers

25 Longitude and Latitude Prime Meridian
Image: Info: 0° Longitude

26 Longitude and Latitude Prime Meridian
The Prime Meridian and the opposite International Date Line (at 180° longitude), divides the Earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

27 Longitude and Latitude Longitude
The vertical longitude lines are also known as meridians. They converge at the poles and are widest at the equator (about 69 miles or 111 km apart). Zero degrees longitude is located at Greenwich, England (0°). The degrees continue 180° east and 180° west where they meet and form the International Date Line in the Pacific Ocean. Greenwich, the site of the British Royal Greenwich Observatory, was established as the site of the Prime Meridian by an international conference in 1884. Information: Image:

28 Longitude and Latitude Prime Meridian
With Latitude, the angular distance is measured from the equator. This is a natural place to begin. However, with longitude there is no natural beginning point. One of these lines must be designated as a prime meridian, or as the 0 ° mark, but which one? For many years, each country had its own prime meridian. France used a meridian passing through Paris, while England used a meridian passing through Greenwich, England. Either one worked just as well, as long as you were only communicating with people from the same country. But what happens as technologies improved, and travelers begin interacting with people from many different lands? If each country is using a different prime meridian to mark 0 ° longitude, than it would be impossible to give someone from another country a location, and have them be able to accurately find it. Image:

29 Longitude and Latitude International Date Line

30 Longitude and Latitude ETSU
Latitude ° North and Longitude ° East Image:

31 Longitude and Latitude

32 Longitude and Latitude

33 Measure distance North and South, from the Equator.
Latitude Measure distance North and South, from the Equator. Run east and west Tropic of Capricorn marks sun's most southerly location on about December 21. Tropic of Cancer marks sun's most northernly location on about June 21. Arctic Circle and Anarctic Circle marks beginning of polar region. Each degree = 69 miles at center of Earth.

34 Measure distance East and West from Prime Meridian
Longitude Measure distance East and West from Prime Meridian Run north and south 0° Longitude, the agreed upon “beginning” to mark longitudes east and west. Prime Meridian International Date Line 180° Longitude is where the date changes. Lines of Longitude, in addition to marking distance, mark the hours of the day. Every 15° = one hour. A degree of longitude is widest at the equator at miles and gradually shrinks to zero at the poles. At 40° north or south the distance between a degree of longitude is 53 miles.

35 Longitude and Latitude Prime Meridian
Interactive Location Game: Image:

36 Map Scale Blue-Green slides paged brown book.

37 Scale A model of an A380 at 1:200 scale. An A380
An A380

38 Scale Long Reef Point from a 1:25 000 map
A large scale map refers to one which shows greater detail because the representative fraction (e.g. 1/25,000) is a larger fraction than a small scale map which would have an RF of 1/250,000 to 1/7,500,000. Large scale maps will have a RF of 1:50,000 or greater (i.e. 1:10,000). Those between 1:50,000 to 1:250,000 are maps with an intermediate scale. Maps of the world which fit on two 8 1/2 by 11 inch pages are very small scale, about 1 to 100 million. A Long Reef Point taken from a 1: Notes: Images: B

39 Hemispheres Prefix “hemi-” means “half”
Notes: Images: Prefix “hemi-” means “half”

40 The largest landmasses on Earth are divided into continents.

41 Oceans Geographer’s also divide Earth’s oceans into areas. Ocean water covers more than 70% of Earth. This ocean is really one big body of water. But geographers usually divide it into four oceans. Image:

42 Oceans Continents Oceans and Landforms

43 Review Interactive Presentation:

44 Map Titles and Symbols Purple slides paged brown book.

45 Earth and the Sun

46 Earth and the Sun TILT CAUSES SEASONS!!!!!

47 Earth and the Sun

48 Climate Zones Image: The three major climate zones on the Earth are the polar, temperate, and tropical zones. Temperatures in these three climate zones are determined by angle of sun’s rays and are marked by latitudes into zones.

49 Climate Zones

50 Climate Zones Tropic Zone

51 Climate Zones Tropic Zone

52 Climate Zones Tropic Zone
The tropical zones, which extend from 30 degrees north and south latitude to the equator (0 degrees) have high temperatures and high humidity. Precipitation in the tropical zones is usually very heavy during part of the year. Tropical zones are also known as low latitude climates. Tropical climates have the warmest average yearly temperatures. There is no winter in tropical climates. In a tropical climate, the average temperature during the coldest month of the year does not fall below 18 degrees C. Information: Image:

53 Climate Zones Temperate Zones
In each hemisphere, the temperate zone is found between 60 and 30 degrees latitude. In the areas of the temperate zones farther from the equator, snow is common in the winter. In the areas of the temperate zones closer to the equator, rain normally falls all year round. But the average amount of precipitation is about the same throughout the temperate zones. Average temperatures in the temperate zones vary greatly. They range from about 5 C to more than 20 C. These temperatures fall between those of the polar and the tropical zones. Information: Image:

54 Climate Zones Polar Zone
Polar Zones In each hemisphere, the polar zone extends from the pole (90) to about 60 degrees latitude. Polar climates have the coldest average temperatures. Within the polar zones, the average yearly temperature remains below freezing (below O degrees C). Polar climates have no summer. Even during the warmest months of the year, the average temperature does not rise above 10 degrees C. There is little precipitation in the polar zones. Information: Image:

55 Climate Zones Image;

56 Climate Zones

57 Climate Zones Image: Daily Map:

58 Map Projections

59 Map Projections Size or shape of landmasses may be distorted.
Distances between places may be distorted

60 Map Projections Lambert Projection
This Lambert Projection is also called an azimuthal projection. Shows size accurately only from the center to where the central parallel and meridian cross around the center of the projections. Otherwise, it distorts distance, size and shape. Good for showing areas around North or South Pole and the shortest distance between two points. Image: Notes: Geography Alive!

61 Map Projections Mercator Projections
Shows directions between places accurately between equator. But distorts sizes of continents, especially near the North and South poles. For example, the island of Greenland is really one-eighth the size of South America. Used for navigation.

62 Map Projections Robinson Map Projection
This map is commonly used in textbooks. It shows the entire earth with nearly true sizes and shapes of the continents and oceans. However, the shapes of the landforms near the poles are distorted. Image and description: Explanation: World Geography, McDougal

63 Map Projections Goode’s Homolosine Projections
Uses cuts to show how the continents compare in size. It cuts pieces out of the oceans. This allows the continents to stretch without distorting their shape. But it distorts the shape and size of the oceans. Image: Notes: Geography Alive!

64 Review Write the definition and briefly explain the importance of each of the following. Geography longitude Hemisphere globe Equator map Prime meridian cartographer Latitude map projection Answer the questions in complete sentences: Which of the above terms indicate imaginary parallel lines that circle the earth east to west and measure north to south from Equator? Which term marks the beginning of longitude? Which term is also known as a meridian? Would a cartographer work on a map or a globe?

65 Review Answer: 15. Name the four hemispheres. What are the boundaries for each one of them? How is the use of small-scale maps different from the use of large-scale maps? Compare and contrast a Mercator Projection Map and a Robinson Map. Why is the Goode’s Homolosine Projection Map have slices cut out of the oceans? Who might use a Lambert Projection Map and why? What is relative location? What continents are in the western hemisphere? Eastern hemisphere?

66 Review Answer: Why can’t flat map represent the exact size, shape or distance like a globe? We use street address to represent absolute location. What do geographers use? Meridians or Longitudes run from _____ to ______. What is the main advantages of the Goode’s Homolosine Projection Map?

67 Review Answer: What is the reason for the seasons?
What is a map scale? What does the map’s title tell us? What does latitude tell us? What does the compass tell us? What does the key tell us?

68 Review Chapter 1

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