Presentation on theme: "The Tools of Geography Anywhere Is Possible"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Tools of Geography Anywhere Is Possible Image:Anywhere Is Possible
2 The Geographic Setting Green slides pages brown book.
3 LocationMap Projections – a particular way of showing Earth on a flat map. All map projects have some kind of distortion.
4 DistortionGoing from Globe to Map Interactive:Map Project:Distortion – since Earth is a sphere, all flat maps of Earth will have some distortion, for a sphere can never be converted to a flat map perfectly. Distortion is a false representation of distance or area.
5 LocationAbsolute Location – an exact location, can be a street address, address, or degrees in longitude and latitude.Relative Location – a location expressed in relation to something else, usually includes cardinal or intermediate directions. For example: United States is located south of Canada or the hospital is 3 miles north of Cookout Restaurant.
6 Map Titles and SymbolsOrange slides pages brown book.
19 Longitude and Latitude Latitude I'm climbing the Ladder of Latitudes, latitudes, latitudes.I'm climbing the ladder of latitudes, all around the world.Longitude It's a LONG LONG way from pole to pole, pole to pole, pole to pole.It's a LONG LONG way from pole to pole, so we call those LONGITUDES.Image:http://www.timegenie.com/latitude_and_longitude/
20 Longitude and Latitude Latitude measures distance in degrees and by North and South from the equator.Image:Longitude (meridians) measures distance in degrees and by East and West from the Prime Meridian .
21 Longitude and Latitude Latitude “Parallels” When looking at a map, latitude lines run horizontally. Latitude lines are also known as parallels since they are parallel and are an equal distant from each other. Each degree of latitude is approximately 69 miles (111 km) apart; there is a variation due to the fact that the earth is not a perfect sphere but an oblate ellipsoid (slightly egg-shaped).For example, at 30° N and S, the approximate measure is 60 miles each degree.Zero degrees is the equator, the imaginary line which divides our planet into the northern and southern hemispheres. 90° north is the North Pole and 90° south is the South Pole.Lines of latitudeor “parallels”
22 Longitude and Latitude Latitude “Parallels” The equator is an imaginary line on Earth’s surface. It is numbered zero degrees latitude (0° latitude).It is approximately equal distant from the North Pole and South pole. It divides the earth into a Northern Hemisphere and a Southern Hemisphere.It is 24, miles (40, kilometers) long.Information: Wikipedia and
23 Longitude and Latitude Longitude Lines of longitude are also called a meridian.Meri – Latin, meaning “middle”Diem – Latin, meaning “day”Meridian once meant “noon” or middle of the day.Therefore, “ante meridian” (A.M.) means time before noon and“post meridian” (P.M.), means time after noon.All points on the same line of longitude experienced noon (and every other hour) at the same time. It was said all these places were on the same “meridian line,” which became “meridian” for short.Information and Image:Longitude lines or "meridians"
24 Absolute Location Answers a. Arizona (answer: 35 degrees north and 110 degrees west)b. Wisconsin (answer: 45 degrees north and 90 degrees west)c. North Carolina (answer: 35 degrees north and 80 degrees west)d. 45 degrees north, and 70 degrees west (answer: Maine)e. 40 degrees north and 90 degrees west (answer: Illinois)f. 30 degrees north and 100 degrees west (answer: Texas)Answers
25 Longitude and Latitude Prime Meridian Image:Info:0° Longitude
26 Longitude and Latitude Prime Meridian The Prime Meridian and the opposite International Date Line (at 180° longitude), divides the Earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
27 Longitude and Latitude Longitude The vertical longitude lines are also known as meridians. They converge at the poles and are widest at the equator (about 69 miles or 111 km apart). Zero degrees longitude is located at Greenwich, England (0°). The degrees continue 180° east and 180° west where they meet and form the International Date Line in the Pacific Ocean. Greenwich, the site of the British Royal Greenwich Observatory, was established as the site of the Prime Meridian by an international conference in 1884.Information:Image:
28 Longitude and Latitude Prime Meridian With Latitude, the angular distance is measured from the equator. This is a natural place to begin. However, with longitude there is no natural beginning point. One of these lines must be designated as a prime meridian, or as the 0 ° mark, but which one? For many years, each country had its own prime meridian. France used a meridian passing through Paris, while England used a meridian passing through Greenwich, England. Either one worked just as well, as long as you were only communicating with people from the same country. But what happens as technologies improved, and travelers begin interacting with people from many different lands? If each country is using a different prime meridian to mark 0 ° longitude, than it would be impossible to give someone from another country a location, and have them be able to accurately find it.Image:
33 Measure distance North and South, from the Equator. LatitudeMeasure distance North and South, from the Equator.Run east and westTropic of Capricorn marks sun's most southerly location on about December 21.Tropic of Cancer marks sun's most northernly location on about June 21.Arctic Circle and Anarctic Circle marks beginning of polar region.Each degree = 69 miles at center of Earth.
34 Measure distance East and West from Prime Meridian LongitudeMeasure distance East and West from Prime MeridianRun north and south0° Longitude, the agreed upon “beginning” to mark longitudes east and west.Prime MeridianInternational Date Line 180° Longitude is where the date changes.Lines of Longitude, in addition to marking distance, mark the hours of the day. Every 15° = one hour.A degree of longitude is widest at the equator at miles and gradually shrinks to zero at the poles. At 40° north or south the distance between a degree of longitude is 53 miles.
35 Longitude and Latitude Prime Meridian Interactive Location Game:Image:
37 Scale A model of an A380 at 1:200 scale. An A380 An A380
38 Scale Long Reef Point from a 1:25 000 map A large scale map refers to one which shows greater detail because the representative fraction (e.g. 1/25,000) is a larger fraction than a small scale map which would have an RF of 1/250,000 to 1/7,500,000. Large scale maps will have a RF of 1:50,000 or greater (i.e. 1:10,000). Those between 1:50,000 to 1:250,000 are maps with an intermediate scale. Maps of the world which fit on two 8 1/2 by 11 inch pages are very small scale, about 1 to 100 million.ALong Reef Point taken from a 1:Notes:Images:B
39 Hemispheres Prefix “hemi-” means “half” Notes:Images:Prefix “hemi-” means “half”
40 The largest landmasses on Earth are divided into continents. Image:
41 OceansGeographer’s also divide Earth’s oceans into areas. Ocean water covers more than 70% of Earth. This ocean is really one big body of water. But geographers usually divide it into four oceans.Image:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Oceans.png/300px-Oceans.png
48 Climate ZonesImage:The three major climate zones on the Earth are the polar, temperate, and tropical zones. Temperatures in these three climate zones are determined by angle of sun’s rays and are marked by latitudes into zones.
52 Climate Zones Tropic Zone The tropical zones, which extend from 30 degrees north and south latitude to the equator (0 degrees) have high temperatures and high humidity. Precipitation in the tropical zones is usually very heavy during part of the year. Tropical zones are also known as low latitude climates.Tropical climates have the warmest average yearly temperatures. There is no winter in tropical climates. In a tropical climate, the average temperature during the coldest month of the year does not fall below 18 degrees C.Information:Image:
53 Climate Zones Temperate Zones In each hemisphere, the temperate zone is found between 60 and 30 degrees latitude. In the areas of the temperate zones farther from the equator, snow is common in the winter. In the areas of the temperate zones closer to the equator, rain normally falls all year round. But the average amount of precipitation is about the same throughout the temperate zones. Average temperatures in the temperate zones vary greatly. They range from about 5 C to more than 20 C. These temperatures fall between those of the polar and the tropical zones.Information:Image:
54 Climate Zones Polar Zone Polar Zones In each hemisphere, the polar zone extends from the pole (90) to about 60 degrees latitude. Polar climates have the coldest average temperatures. Within the polar zones, the average yearly temperature remains below freezing (below O degrees C). Polar climates have no summer. Even during the warmest months of the year, the average temperature does not rise above 10 degrees C. There is little precipitation in the polar zones.Information:Image:
59 Map Projections Size or shape of landmasses may be distorted. Distances between places may be distorted
60 Map Projections Lambert Projection This Lambert Projection is also called an azimuthal projection.Shows size accurately only from the center to where the central parallel and meridian cross around the center of the projections.Otherwise, it distorts distance, size and shape.Good for showing areas around North or South Pole and the shortest distance between two points.Image:Notes: Geography Alive!
61 Map Projections Mercator Projections Shows directions between places accurately between equator.But distorts sizes of continents, especially near the North and South poles. For example, the island of Greenland is really one-eighth the size of South America.Used for navigation.
62 Map Projections Robinson Map Projection This map is commonly used in textbooks. It shows the entire earth with nearly true sizes and shapes of the continents and oceans.However, the shapes of the landforms near the poles are distorted.Image and description:Explanation: World Geography, McDougal
63 Map Projections Goode’s Homolosine Projections Uses cuts to show how the continents compare in size. It cuts pieces out of the oceans. This allows the continents to stretch without distorting their shape. But it distorts the shape and size of the oceans.Image:Notes: Geography Alive!
64 ReviewWrite the definition and briefly explain the importance of each of the following.Geography longitudeHemisphere globeEquator mapPrime meridian cartographerLatitude map projectionAnswer the questions in complete sentences:Which of the above terms indicate imaginary parallel lines that circle the earth east to west and measure north to south from Equator?Which term marks the beginning of longitude?Which term is also known as a meridian?Would a cartographer work on a map or a globe?
65 ReviewAnswer:15. Name the four hemispheres. What are the boundaries for each one of them?How is the use of small-scale maps different from the use of large-scale maps?Compare and contrast a Mercator Projection Map and a Robinson Map.Why is the Goode’s Homolosine Projection Map have slices cut out of the oceans?Who might use a Lambert Projection Map and why?What is relative location?What continents are in the western hemisphere? Eastern hemisphere?
66 ReviewAnswer:Why can’t flat map represent the exact size, shape or distance like a globe?We use street address to represent absolute location. What do geographers use?Meridians or Longitudes run from _____ to ______.What is the main advantages of the Goode’s Homolosine Projection Map?
67 Review Answer: What is the reason for the seasons? What is a map scale?What does the map’s title tell us?What does latitude tell us?What does the compass tell us?What does the key tell us?