Presentation on theme: "Summaries and Abstracts CUFE, M. Sc. Che & MPM, 2010-2011."— Presentation transcript:
Summaries and Abstracts CUFE, M. Sc. Che & MPM, 2010-2011
When do people write abstracts? when submitting articles to journals when applying for research grants when writing a book proposal when completing the Ph.D. dissertation or M.A. thesis when writing a proposal for a conference paper When you want to summarize the contents of your work when you are asked to summarize a text. …
Summaries/Abstracts Are condensation of the text Are written for long reports/Articles aid to the memory Are read by everyone interested Have rules: Never use "I" or a figure in the abstracts
Content Includes thesis emphasizes what is new Stresses objectives, conclusions and recommendations. Introduction: one or two sentences Body: Briefly touch necessary details to clarify message Includes Conclusions/ recommendations Three forms: Informative, descriptive, and indicative (mixed).
Summarize The two processes, speaking and writing, are not identical. Writing is not simply speech written down on paper. Learning to write is not just a natural extension of learning to speak a language. We learned to speak our first language at home without systematic instruction; whereas, most of us had to be taught in school how to write that same language. Many adult native speakers of a language find writing difficult. A speaker speaks to a listener who is right there, nodding or frowning, or interrupting or questioning. For the writer, the reader's response is either delayed or nonexistent.
This paragraph advances differences between speaking and writing. (5 words) Speaking and writing, are not identical. The paragraph shows that writing is not speech; learning to write is not the same as learning to speak. It highlights difficulties of writing. Feedback obtained in both cases is different. All these differences plaid for teaching writing. 1- Descriptive Abstract 2- Informative Abstract
This paragraphs advances differences between speaking and writing. (5 words) Speaking and writing, are not identical. The paragraph shows that writing is not speech; learning to write is not the same as learning to speak. It highlights difficulties of writing. Feedback obtained in both cases is different. All these differences plaid for teaching writing. 2 1 This paragraphs advances differences between speaking and writing. It mentions three arguments: writing is not natural, is difficult, and is conventional. These arguments plaid for teaching how to write. 3 1- Descriptive Abstract 2- Informative Abstract 3- Indicative Abstract
Descriptive Abstracts Simply indicates the topics, Lists the topics without details Rarely exceeds few sentences Examples of Descriptive statements The essay lists the natures and functions of summaries. The ways the readers use summaries are mentioned briefly. A distinction between descriptive and informative is made, and the advantages and disadvantages are compared. This report discusses production problems, raw-material supply-difficulties, and changes in the sales.
Informative Abstracts (IS) should be independent by itself length is proportional to the form Examples of IS The cost of merchandise has been dependent on the cost of ingredients, cost of labor, availability of raw material, promptness of delivery, and demands. Aging of the foam reduces its thermal resistivity by 7%.
Samples of Descriptive/Informative Abstracts on “Abstracts”: Abstracts present the essential elements of a longer work in a short and powerful statement. The purpose of an abstract is to provide prospective readers the opportunity to judge the relevance of the longer work to their projects. Abstracts also include the key terms found in the longer work and the purpose and methods of the research. Authors abstract various longer works, including book proposals, dissertations, and online journal articles. There are two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. A descriptive abstract briefly describes the longer work, while an informative abstract presents the main arguments and important results. This talk provides examples of various types of abstracts and instructions on how to construct one.
The two most common abstract types — descriptive and informative — are described and examples of each are provided. An example of a Descriptive Abstract on “Abstracts”:
An Informative Abstract. The topic:“Abstracts” Abstracts present the essential elements of a longer work in a short and powerful statement. The purpose of an abstract is to provide prospective readers the opportunity to judge the relevance of the longer work to their projects. Abstracts also include the key terms found in the longer work and the purpose of the work and methods of the research. There are two main types of abstracts : descriptive and informative. A descriptive abstract briefly describes the longer work, while an informative abstract presents all the main arguments and important results. The paper evokes various types of abstracts and instructions on how to construct one. Style: listing, definition, combinations
Rules of Thumb for All Abstracts Summaries for Empirical Reports One or two sentences for the introduction, few sentences for the method, and the last half states the conclusions. Summaries for Action Reports First state recommendations and actions, give the main reasons for recommendations, follow with cost, savings, time, and evidence.
Use no formulas Tell what is new or to know Use direct, active sentences “International cooperation is important” not “The importance of the international cooperation is emphasized.” Do not write "The collapse of the element was for two reasons, of which the first was the increase in the pressure and the second was the increase in the temperature." But write "the element collapsed for two reasons: the pressure had increased over 1500 psi, and the temperature exceeded 325 degrees."
Part FUNCTION Introduction Establishes context of the paper and motivates the research Purpose Indicates purpose, thesis or hypothesis, outlines the intention behind the paper. Methods Provides information on design, procedures, assumptions, approach, data, etc. Product States main findings or results, the argument, or what was accomplished. Conclusion Summarizes results and extends them beyond the paper, draws inferences, points to applications/wider applications. Shows Impact and recommendations Contents of the Abstract
Another Abstract This paper describes a new downhole tool for ECD reduction run as an integral part of the drill string. A prototype tool has been built to operate inside 10-3/4" to 13- 3/8" casing. This tool has undergone laboratory testing; full-scale technology trials are in progress. The design features of this prototype are discussed along with the laboratory test results obtained to date.
Abstract A: An Overview of Rotating Stall and Surge Control for Axial Flow Compressors. Modeling and controlling axial flow compression systems have received attention to suppress rotating stall and surge, to extend the stable operating range of the compressor system, and to enlarge domains of attraction of stable equilibria using feedback control methods. This research field significantly improves compressor and future aero-engine performance. This paper surveys research literature and summarizes the major developments in this active research field, focusing on the modeling and control perspectives to for axial flow compressors. Keywords: axial flow compressor, rotating stall, surge Gu G., Sparks A. & Banda S. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology Vol 7 No 6 November 1999 p. 639-647.
Points to note is a descriptive abstract: tells what writers do with little details. Structure. begins with an explanation, its aims and potential outcome; it states authors’ intention of surveying literature and summarizing developments. Language use. * uses only present tenses and future. It contains generalized phrases
Abstract B CD46 is a Cellular Receptor for Human Herpesvirus 6 Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the etiologic agent of exanthum subitum, causes opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised patients, and has been implicated in multiple sclerosis and in the progression of AIDS. Here, we show that the two major HHV-6 subgroups (A and B) use human CD46 as a cellular receptor. Down regulation of surface CD46 was documented during the course of HHV-6 infection. Both acute infection and cell fusion mediated by HHV-6 were specifically inhibited by a monoclonal antibody to CD46; fusion was also blocked by soluble CD46. Nonhuman cells that were resistant to HHV-6 fusion and entry became susceptible upon expression of recombinant human CD46. The use of a ubiquitous immuno-regulatory receptor opens novel perspectives for understanding the tropism and pathogenicity of HHV-6. Santoro F., Kennedy P., Locatelli G., Maluati M., Berger E., Lusso P. Cell Vol 99 No 7 December 23, 1999
Abstract B: Points to note is an informative abstract: contains details. Structure. first defines HHV-6 and explains its importance; gives purpose, the method and results; concludes with a statement of future prospects as a result of the research. Language use. * It uses present tenses for general statements and explanation. * It uses past tenses to describe the procedure and results of the research. * It contains technical terms together with specific verbs to describe precisely what happened in the research (inhibited, blocked, etc.).