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Unit 10 Personality.

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1 Unit 10 Personality

2 Personality Personality
an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking feeling and acting consistent behaviors Example – Homer Simpson’s personality is…


4 Personality Theories Historical Modern – based on scientific method
Psychoanalytic Theory Humanistic Theory Modern – based on scientific method Trait Theories Social Cognitive Theories

5 HistoricalTheories Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)
Theory of personality childhood sexuality and unconscious drives influence personality Included stage theory of psychosocial development Associated Treatment Techniques Humanistic Theory (Maslow, Rogers) focused on our inner capacities for growth and self-fulfillment Maslow’s hierarchy “Man is Good” philosophy

6 Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalysis – theory of personality Most important factor in personality development is unconscious impulses Techniques used to expose the unconscious included: Hypnosis Dreams – latent and manifest Free association – way of exploring unconscious by having person relax and say whatever comes to mind Example: write down what comes to your mind when I say bird, bath, mother (no seriously, right it down)

7 Our Personality Conscious- things we are aware of.
Preconscious- Forgotten memories that we can easily recall Unconscious- thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are largely unaware. Repression - thoughts that are too unsettling for people to acknowledge Example: Expressed in disguised forms Freudian slips – unconscious mistakes of the tongue or pen Jokes – expressions of repressed aggressive sexual tendencies Dreams Forgetting

8 Freud’s Idea of the Minds Structure

9 Parts of Personality Id - unconscious impulses that want to be satisfied, without regard to potential punishment Basic urges - reproduction, survival, aggression. pleasure principle – avoid pain and receive instant gratification Ex. Newborn Behavior (cry when want to be fed, want satisfaction now), alcoholics, drug addicts, impulsive behavior

10 Parts of Personality Ego– “executive” part of personality moderates the impulsive demands of id and restraining demands of superego. Reality principle – wants to satisfy IDs impulses in a realistic way (partly consciously) Health person’s ego is stronger than ID Examples Want to Blow savings on fancy car (ID) or Keeping all $ in savings (SUPER EGO), you buy a sensible car (EGO Chaste Jane (SUPER EGO) is sexually attracted to John (ID), so she joins volunteer organizations in which John is a member (EGO)

11 Parts of Personality Superego - tells us right from wrong and our ideal standards Moral principle – strives for perfection – the ideal of how we ought to behave Strong superego – virtuous but guilt ridden Weak Superego – self indulgent, remorseful Ex. Feel guilty for stealing


13 ID

14 ID leads us to eating and drinking

15 Superego

16 Ego

17 Id controlling Marge.

18 Psychoanalysis according to Freud: Cat in the Hat
Circle the part of the psychological self that best describes the character’s actions in each area of the plot (beginning, middle, and end). Write an argument in the last column that explains the psychological personality of the character, based on your observations. Psychoanalysis according to Freud: Cat in the Hat Beginning Middle End Identify one example for each change in the character’s self The Narrator and Sally id ego superego The Cat The Fish

19 Psychoanalysis according to Freud: Cat in the Hat
Circle the part of the psychological self that best describes the character’s actions in each area of the plot (beginning, middle, and end). Write an argument in the last column that explains the psychological personality of the character, based on your observations. Psychoanalysis according to Freud: Cat in the Hat Beginning Middle End Identify examples for each change in the character The Narrator and Sally id ego superego Sally and the narrator: ego - moderate between the , id and superego until the end when they allow the superego to take over. The Cat The cat: Dominated by his id at the beginning and middle but moves more to a balance between the superego and id, in other words, ego takes over at the end. The Fish Fish: Dominated by his superego throughout the story.

20 Freud’s Psychosexual stages
Psychosexual development – a series of developmental stages that an individual passes through and forms their personality erogenous zones – pleasure sensitive areas of the body Examples: mouth, anus, genitals Fixation – a conflict, or lasting focus on pleasure seeking energies of an earlier stage Examples: Oral Fixaton

21 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
Oral (0-18 months) Anal (18-36 months) Phallic (3-6 years) Latency (6-Puberty) Genital (Puberty on) Owen And Phillip Like Girls

22 Oral Stage Important erogenous zone = mouth Biting, sucking, chewing
Fixation Weaned too early = oral fixation passive dependence (dependence like a child) exaggerated denial – acting tough or sarcastic Smoker, excessive eating

23 Anal Stage Develops during toilet training (2-4).
Important erogenous zone = anus Focused on controlling waste and expelling waste. Fixation anal-retentive = potty training too early Ex. Overly neat and fussy anal-expulsive = Potty training not encouraged or haphazard Ex. overly slovenly and messy

24 Phallic Stage Period of time when children first recognize their gender (4-7). Important erogenous zone = genitals Unconscious sexual desires for parent of the opposite sex Oedipus Complex – boys’ feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over sexual desire for mother and feelings of hostility toward father. Electra Complex – girls’ feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over sexual desire for their father and hostility toward mother Penis Envy(girls ) - realization that they don’t have a penis and blame Mom Castration Anxiety - boys fear of penis removal by father Identification – children incorporate same sex parents’ values into superego = successful conflict resolution in Phallic stage Fixation problems in relationships narcissistic--excessively vain and proud. afraid or incapable of close love homosexuality

25 Latency Stage Latency - Libido is hidden (7-11). Cooties stage
Dormant sexual feelings. Boys hang with Dad, Girls hang with mom Fixation - none

26 Genital Stage Genital Stage - Libido is focused on their genitals (12-death). Maturation of sexual interests All stages resolved = mentally healthy and sexually matured

27 Psychosexual Stages

28 Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms tactics of the ego to reduce anxiety by distorting reality Ex: Repression Rationalization Reaction formation Projection Regression Displacement Sublimation Denial

29 Scenario Quarterback of the high school football team, Brandon, is dating Jasmine. Jasmine dumps Brandon and starts dating Drew, president of the chess club. Jasmine Brandon Drew

30 Repression Repression - Pushing anxiety arousing thoughts into our unconscious. Underlies all other defense mechanisms Slips of the tongue are incomplete repressions When asked about Jasmine, Brandon may say “Who? Why don’t we remember our Oedipus and Electra complexes?

31 Denial Denial - Not accepting the ego-threatening truth.
Brandon may act like he is still together with Jasmine. He may hang out by her locker and plan dates with her. .

32 Displacement Displacement - Redirecting one’s feelings toward another person or object. Often displaced on less threatening things. Brandon may take his anger on another kid by bullying.

33 Projection Projection - Disguise unacceptable, unconscious impulses by attributing them to others. Believe that the feelings one has toward someone else are actually held by the other person and directed at oneself. Brandon insists that Jasmine still cares for him.

34 Reaction Formation Reaction Formation - Expressing the opposite of how one truly feels. Cootie stage in Freud’s Latent Development. Brandon claims he hates Jasmine when he really still loves her.

35 Regression Regression - Returning to an earlier, comforting, more infantile form of behavior. Excessive Fixation Brandon begins to sleep with his favorite childhood stuffed animal, Simba.

36 Rationalization Rationalization - Coming up with a beneficial result of an undesirable outcome. Brandon thinks he will find a better girlfriend. “Jasmine was not all that anyway!” I really did want to go to ……..anyway, it was too ……

37 Sublimation Sublimation - Channeling one’s frustration toward a different socially acceptable goal. Sometimes a healthy defense mechanism. Brandon starts to learn how to play the guitar and writing songs (or maybe starts to body build).

38 Think Pair Share During a heated argument with his father, 15-year-old Jason developed a paralysis of his right arm. Medical examinations can find no physical cause for the paralysis. Use the psychoanalytic perspective to explain how the paralysis may be Jason's attempt to deal with an unconscious conflict between his id and superego.

39 Think Pair Share According to a number of distinguished psychologists, a major purpose of the defense mechanisms described by Freud is the protection of self-esteem. Give an example of how repression, reaction formation, projection, rationalization, and displacement could each be used to protect or even enhance a positive self-image.

40 Neo-Freudian Theorists Psychodynamic Theory
Accept Freud’s basic ideas Struggle with inner conflicts (wishes, fears, values) Importance of unconscious Personality develops in childhood Different More emphasis on conscious mind Disagreed with the importance of childhood sexual instincts Adler and Horney – social not sexual tensions are important to personality development

41 The Neo-Freudian Theorists
Adler – inferiority complex – personality is influenced by efforts to conquer feelings inferiority Horney sense of helplessness – childhood anxiety is caused by the dependent child’s sense of helplessness Women’s superego is not weaker as Freud claimed Jung’s collective unconscious – reservoir of memory traces from species history Example: Different cultures share same legends All cultures have a hero, mother is symbol of nurture

42 Getting into the Unconscious
Psychodynamic Psychologist – contemporary Freudian Psychologist Projective Tests - personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli to trigger inner dynamics Examples Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – Identify inner feelings through stories made up from ambiguous pictures/scenes Rorschach Inkblot Tests - Identify inner feelings by analyzing interpretations of ink blots Criticized for lacking validity








50 Criticisms of Freud’s theory:
1.   No Scientific methods - no scientific data to support his theories. 2.   No observation - Freud’s theories (unconscious, libido, etc.) cannot be observed. 3.   Gender Identity Incorrect- Doubt that conscience and gender identity form as child resolves Oedipus complex at age 5-6—we gain gender identity early and become masculine or feminine even without a same sex parent 5. Repressed memories Incorrect– traumatic events not repressed, but persistent and vivid

51 Criticism’s of Freud 6. Dream Theory – New dream theories dispute Freud’s belief that dreams disguise and fulfill wishes. 7. Slips of tongue - can be explained through competition between similar verbal choices in our memory network 8. Post Hoc – after the fact explanations and fails to predict

52 Pros of Freud’s theory 1. Childhood experiences - important in personality development. 2. Unconscious Thought – does occur Examples: Procedural memory (implicit), parallel processing of movement, color, shape in a visual scene, Automatic processing – time, space, frequency, well-learned info. 3. Defense mechanisms - good descriptions of some of our behaviors. Examples: Projection (attributing your behaviors to others)= false consensus effect – people believe that others act and think the same as they do (I cheat on a test, everyone else does too) 4. Defense Against Anxiety Terror management theory – anxiety is triggered by awareness of impeding death Death anxiety increases prejudice

53 Humanistic Theory of Personality
Beliefs free will/self-determination - humans have ability to choose your own destiny, life is not predetermined Human’s innately good People strive for self-actualization


55 Abraham Maslow’s Self Actualizing Person
Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization - motivation to fulfilling our potential. Peak experiences - transcendent moments of pure joy and elation. Self-transcendence – meaning purpose and communion beyond the self Studied healthy people .

56 Who did Maslow study?

57 Self-Actualized People
Problem centered rather than self-centered. Focused their energies on a particular task. Few deep relationships, rather than many superficial ones.

58 Self-Actualized People
They also share these characteristics: They are self aware and self accepting Open and spontaneous Loving and caring Not paralyzed by others’ opinions. They are secure in who they are (high self-esteem).

59 Carl Rogers The objective of humans is to become self-actualized.
We are like Acorns What do Acorns need to grow? Water sun and soil. To grow into healthy humans we need interactions with others who are : Genuine – open about own feelings Accepting (Unconditional Positive Regard) – accept themselves and others, unconditionally including faults Empathetic – listen and understand what the other person is feeling

60 Roger’s Person-Centered Perspective
Unconditional positive regard – total acceptance of another person Ex. – Expressing empathy for one’s feelings no matter how bizarre or negative Value someone with all of their faults Self-concept – all of our thoughts about yourself– Who am I? Central feature of personality Promoted by unconditional positive regard Assessing Personal Growth Ideal self (who you want to be) vs. Actual self (Who you actually are) Congruency – Ideal Self = Actual Self Same when have positive self-concept, when actual falls short of ideal = negative self concept

61 Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective
Renewed interest in self-concept Criticisms Vague and subjective Individualistic and Western biased Naïve

62 Think Pair Share Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are both considered humanistic psychologists. Explain at least one core belief that Maslow and Rogers shared about human behavior and at least one criticism of their humanistic personality theory.

63 The Trait Perspective

64 Trait Theory Trait Theory (Gordon Allport) – describe personality in terms of traits Trait – a characteristic behaviors and conscious motives (self and peer reported) Describe rather than explain Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classifies people according to personality types identified by Carl Jung (flattering terms) Used in counseling and work development Not valid predictor of future job performance EX. Homer Simpson is extroverted .

65 Meyers-Briggs 16 types - typically referred to by an abbreviation of four letters extraversion (E), sensing (S), thinking (T), judgment (J) introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), perception (P)

66 Factor Analysis Eysenck and Eysenck
Factor analysis – statistical analysis used to identify the most basic personality traits Factor - cluster of behavior tendencies that occur together Ex. Outgoing, sociable, talkative, lively Eysenck and Eysenck 2 Dimensions Extroversion versus introversion Emotional stability versus instability Personality is on a continuum Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

67 Exploring Traits Factor Analysis

68 Exploring Traits Factor Analysis

69 Exploring Traits Factor Analysis

70 Exploring Traits Factor Analysis

71 Exploring Traits Factor Analysis

72 Exploring Traits Factor Analysis

73 Exploring Traits Factor Analysis
Shows personality as a continuim Martin is optimistic, impulsive, excitable, and restless. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions, he would be classified as unstable, extroverted Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions she would be classified as unstable introverted

74 Biology and Personality
Brain scans Brain arousal low in extroverts Frontal lobe activity low (less inhibition) Genetics Temperament Respond to stress with greater anxiety if have a reactive autonomic nervous system Greater anxiety, more inhibition

75 Assessing Traits Personality inventory – assess several personality traits at once Empirically derived test – tests a large ppol of items, then selects only those items that differentiate particular groups of people Example: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – objective test that assesses abnormal (clinical disorders) personality Example: assess whether person is suffering from depression or another emotional disorder Not always valid – people can give socially acceptable answers

76 Sample MMPI Questions True/ False
1.I like mechanics magazines 2.I have a good appetite 3.I wake up fresh & rested most mornings 4.I think I would like the work of a librarian 5.I am easily awakened by noise 6.I like to read newspaper articles on crime 7.My hands and feet are usually warm enough 8.My daily life is full of things that keep me interested 9.I am about as able to work as I ever was 10.There seems to be a lump in my throat much of the time 11.A person should try to understand his dreams and be guided by or take warning from them 12.I enjoy detective or mystery stories 13.I work under a great deal of tension 14.I have diarrhea once a month or more 15.Once in a while I think of things too bad to talk about 16.I am sure I get a raw deal from life 17.My father was a good man 18.I am very seldom troubled by constipation 19.When I take a new, I like to be tipped off on whom should be gotten next to 20.My sex life is satisfactory 21.At times I have very much wanted to leave home 22.At times I have fits of laughing & crying that I cannot control 23.I am troubled by attacks of nausea and vomiting 24.No one seems to understand me 25.I would like to be a singer 26.I feel that it is certainly best to keep my mouth shut when I’m in trouble 27.Evil spirits possess me at times 28.When someone does me a wrong I feel I should pay him back if I can, just for the principle of the thing. 29.I am bothered by acid stomach several times a week 30.At times I feel like swearing 31.I have nightmares every few nights 32.I find it hard to keep my mind on a task or job 33.I have had very peculiar and strange experiences 34.I have a cough most of the time 35.If people had not had it in for me I would have been much more successful 36.I seldom worry about my heath 37.I have never been in trouble because of my sex behavior 38.During one period when I was a youngster I engaged in petty thievery 39.At times I feel like smashing things 40.Most any time I would rather sit and daydream than to do anything else 41.I have had periods of days, weeks, or months when I couldn’t take care of things because I couldn’t “get going” 42.My family does not like the work I have chosen ( or the work I intend to choose for my life work) 43.My sleep is fitful and disturbed 44.Much of the time my head seems to hurt all over 45.I do not always tell the truth 46.My judgment is better than it ever was 47.Once a week or oftener I feel suddenly hot all over without apparent cause 48.When I am with people I am bothered by hearing very queer things 49.It would be better if almost all laws were thrown away 50.My soul sometimes leaves my body 51.I am in just as good physical health as most of my friends 52.I prefer to pass by school friends, or people I know but have not seen for a long time, unless they speak to me first 53.A minister can cure disease by praying and putting his hand on your head 54.I am liked by most people who know me 55.I am almost never bothered by pains over the heart or in my chest 56.As a youngster I was suspended from school one or more times for cutting up 57.I am a good mixer 58.Everything is turning out just like the prophets of the Bible said it would 59.I have often had to take orders from someone who did not know as much as I did 60.I do not read every editorial in the newspaper everyday 61.I have not lived the right kind of life 62.Parts of my body often have feeling like burning, tingling, crawling, or like “going to sleep” 63.I have had no difficulty in starting or holding my bowel movement 64.I sometimes keep on at a thing until others lose their patience with me 65.I loved my father 66.I see things or animals or people around me that others do not see 67.I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be 68.I hardly ever feel pain in the back of the neck 69.I am very strongly attracted by members of my own sex 70.I used to like drop-the-handkerchief 71.I think a great many people exaggerate their misfortunes in order to gain the sympathy and help of others 72.I am troubled by discomfort in the pit of my stomach every few days or oftener 73.I am an important person 74.I have often wished I were a girl.  (Or if you are a girl) I have never been sorry that I am a girl 75.I get angry sometimes

77 The Big Five Factors The Big Five – evaluates personality on 5 dimensions (more comprehensive) Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness to experience Extraversion Helping and trusting = high on agreeableness Highly imaginative = high on openess Emotional instability = neuroticism = highly anxious and insecure Organized and disciplined in work = conscientiousness Sociable and fun-loving = extraversion Advantage – more comprehensive personality assessment

78 The Big Five Factors

79 The Big Five Factors Stability – Big 5 stable over time
Heritablity – 50%+ on each dimension Predictability – Yes Conscientious people earn better grades and are more likely morning types Extroverts – evening types

80 Traits and the Stars Aries (March 21-April 19): Do some detective work so that you can better understand those you love. Figure out what the other person is going through. Only then will you find out how you can help. Taurus (April 20-May 20): In your midst, there's a person intent on the worst-case scenario. He or she is a valuable ally today. You'll find humor in the exaggeration, and your laughter is healing. Gemini (May 21-June 21): Go out of your way to add elements of absurdity to your day. Your quality of life will be increased immeasurably. Cancer (June 22-July 22): A strength exaggerated becomes a weakness. But does a weakness exaggerated become a strength? Highlight a limitation and you'll find you're better off for having this flaw. Leo (July 23-Aug. 22): People pay attention when you walk into the room today. Make your exit with equal grace. Leave before they want you to and they'll want more. Virgo (Aug. 23-Sept. 22): Show up in person. You have more than your fair share of charisma today. Noting your winning presence, others will want to help you succeed. Libra (Sept. 23-Oct. 23): You have a talent for making relationships work. You're full of solutions, but it's important to know which problem is the most pressing. Pump the other person for information. Scorpio (Oct. 24-Nov. 21): There is a fine line between sharing and over-sharing. Give others the sense of who you are. But do it briefly. Sagittarius (Nov. 22-Dec. 21): Relating to others has very little to do with what or who you know. Most people are thinking about themselves and what you can do for them. If you make them feel good about themselves, they'll like you. Capricorn (Dec. 22-Jan. 19): You're in danger of being too thrifty. Show some disregard for the rules of frugal finance. As you spend, you'll widen the channel for greater earning. Aquarius (Jan. 20-Feb. 18): It would benefit you to get involved in a group effort. There is much you could contribute, and you have much to gain. You'll ask excellent questions and learn all you need to know to fit in nicely. Pisces (Feb. 19-March 20): You will be certain of your course. But that alone will not be enough to make it go the way you want. Whatever happens, don't complain or explain. Stock spiel – builds on the observation that each of us is in some ways like no one else and in other ways just like everyone Barnum effect – Peoples tendency to accept stock positive descriptions. “There’s a sucker born every minute”

81 Somatotype Theory A biological Theory by William Sheldon.
Endomorphs (Fat) - friendly and outgoing. Mesomorphs (muscular) - more aggressive. Ectomorphs (thin) - shy and secretive. Study has not been replicated.

82 The Person-Situation Controversy
Person-situation controversy – debate regarding consistency of personality traits across situations Traits are stable over time People don’t act consistently in all situations (Walter Mischel studies) Scores on Personality Tests fail to predict behavior in real-life situations Ave. outgoingness (expressive style), happiness or carelessness over many situations is predictable Extraversion correlated with number of social interactions in 1 month Classical, jazz, blues, and folk music lovers - Open Country, pop and religious – Extroverts and Conscientious

83 Think Pair Share Briefly explain how trait theorists develop and test theories such as the “Big Five” personality factors.

84 The Social-Cognitive Perspective

85 The Social- Cognitive Perspective
Social-cognitive perspective (Bandura) – behavior is influenced by interactions between people’s traits and situations learn many of our behaviors either through conditioning or observing others (social part) Emphasize the importance of mental processes (cognitive part) – what we think about affects behavior Focus on our interaction with the environment (interpretation and response to external events)

86 Social-Cognitive Theories on Personality
Reciprocal Determinism – personalities are shaped by the interaction of 3 things that interact and influence each other: internal cognitive factors environmental factors, the behaviors Example: Behavior = playing chess Social = friends who play chess Cognition = “I think playing chess is cool”, “I need friends who play chess” Environment and Cognition are both a cause and a consequence of the behavior Behavior Cognition Social Playing Chess “Playing chess is cool” friends who play chess

87 Think Pair Share The personality traits that Tonya demonstrates at parties with her friends are very different from those she exhibits when she participates in class activities. Using your knowledge of reciprocal determinism to explain why the variability of Tonya's behavior in different situations is not surprising. 2. Johnny has been acting out at school. Explain Johnny’s behavior it terms of reciprocal determinism Students should explain that the concept of reciprocal determinism predicts that internal cognitive factors, environmental factors, and our behavior all interact and influence each other. The different environmental factors present at a party and in a class influence both Tonya's behavior and how Tonya thinks about the social context and her own behavior. Each of the three elements influences the other two, so it is not surprising that Tonya's personality traits seem to change in different social contexts.

88 Reciprocal Influences
Ways individuals and the environment interact Different people choose different environments Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events Our personalities help create situations to which we react Example: Behavior – learning to bungee jump Internal cognition – “I like the excitement of new activities” Environment – Bungee jumping friends

89 The Biopsychosocial Approach to the Study of Personality

90 Personal Control Personal control – extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless Two ways to study personal control Correlate people’s feelings of control with their behaviors and achievements Experiment by raising and lowering people’s sense of control and noting the effects

91 Internal and External Locus of Control
External locus of control – the perception that one's fate is determined by luck Can lead to a state of learned helplessness. Ex. Dan feels that questions on the AP Psych test are unrelated to the assignments so he thinks studying and homework are pointless Internal locus of control – the perception that you control your own fate Ex. Bobby believes that if he studies hard and completes his work on time, he will get a good grade in AP Psych

92 Self-Control Self-control – ability to control impulses and delay gratification Predicts good adjustment, better grades, social success Requires attention and energy

93 Benefits of Personal Control
Rodin’s study of Nursing Home Patients Personal control = alert, active happy, lived longer Learned helplessness – people feel powerless to change their situation Tyranny of choice – information overload from too many choices

94 Optimism Versus Pessimism
Optimism and Health Excessive Optimism Blindness to one’s own incompetence Positive psychology (Seligman) - uses the scientific method (different from Humanistic Psych) to study the positive aspects of human behavior (similar to Humanistic Psych)

95 Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective
Based on research Focuses too much on the situation

96 Comparing Research Methods

97 Exploring the Self

98 Self Self – center of our personality, organizer of our thoughts, feelings and actions Possible selves – who we hope to become and fear becoming Motivates us to achieve success and avoid failure Ex. Fear of not being able to get into college Spotlight effect – overestimate others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance Adolescents Ex. Jessica is always concerned that everyone is looking at the clothes she wears everyday

99 The Benefits of Self-Esteem
Self-esteem – one’s feeling of high or low self worth High = succumb less to peer pressure, less shy/anxious/lonely, less insomnia, more persistent, HAPPIER Low = more disparaging and prejudiced

100 Self-Serving Bias Self-serving bias – readiness to perceive yourself favorably People accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad, successes than failures Most people see themselves as better than average Defensive self-esteem - Self-confidence that is easily punctured by criticism Correlates with aggression and antisocial behaviors Secure self esteem – self confidence that is not easily threatened Not dependent on external evaluations Focuses beyond one’s self

101 Mr. Brunsman asks his students to self-assess their own studying and retention abilities as students and asks about how often they think other students imitate their studying behaviors. Explain how the spotlight effect and the self-serving bias may influence Mr. Brunsman's results.

102 Culture and the Self Individualism – priority to one’s own goals and defining ones identity in terms of personal attributes Collectivism – priority to the goals of the group and defining one’s identity by the group

103 Individualism versus Collectivism

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