4 Personality Theories Historical Modern – based on scientific method Psychoanalytic TheoryHumanistic TheoryModern – based on scientific methodTrait TheoriesSocial Cognitive Theories
5 HistoricalTheories Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) Theory of personalitychildhood sexuality and unconscious drives influence personalityIncluded stage theory of psychosocial developmentAssociated Treatment TechniquesHumanistic Theory (Maslow, Rogers)focused on our inner capacities for growth and self-fulfillmentMaslow’s hierarchy“Man is Good” philosophy
6 Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalysis –theory of personalityMost important factor in personality development is unconscious impulsesTechniques used to expose the unconscious included:HypnosisDreams – latent and manifestFree association – way of exploring unconscious by having person relax and say whatever comes to mindExample: write down what comes to your mind when I say bird, bath, mother (no seriously, right it down)
7 Our Personality Conscious- things we are aware of. Preconscious- Forgotten memories that we can easily recallUnconscious- thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are largely unaware.Repression - thoughts that are too unsettling for people to acknowledgeExample:Expressed in disguised formsFreudian slips – unconscious mistakes of the tongue or penJokes – expressions of repressed aggressive sexual tendenciesDreamsForgetting
9 Parts of PersonalityId - unconscious impulses that want to be satisfied, without regard to potential punishmentBasic urges - reproduction, survival, aggression.pleasure principle – avoid pain and receive instant gratificationEx. Newborn Behavior (cry when want to be fed, want satisfaction now), alcoholics, drug addicts, impulsive behavior
10 Parts of PersonalityEgo– “executive” part of personality moderates the impulsive demands of id and restraining demands of superego.Reality principle – wants to satisfy IDs impulses in a realistic way (partly consciously)Health person’s ego is stronger than IDExamplesWant to Blow savings on fancy car (ID) or Keeping all $ in savings (SUPER EGO), you buy a sensible car (EGOChaste Jane (SUPER EGO) is sexually attracted to John (ID), so she joins volunteer organizations in which John is a member (EGO)
11 Parts of PersonalitySuperego - tells us right from wrong and our ideal standardsMoral principle – strives for perfection – the ideal of how we ought to behaveStrong superego – virtuous but guilt riddenWeak Superego – self indulgent, remorsefulEx. Feel guilty for stealing
18 Psychoanalysis according to Freud: Cat in the Hat Circle the part of the psychological self that best describes the character’s actions in each area of the plot (beginning, middle, and end).Write an argument in the last column that explains the psychological personality of the character, based on your observations.Psychoanalysis according to Freud: Cat in the HatBeginningMiddleEndIdentify one example for each change in the character’s selfThe Narrator and SallyidegosuperegoThe CatThe Fish
19 Psychoanalysis according to Freud: Cat in the Hat Circle the part of the psychological self that best describes the character’s actions in each area of the plot (beginning, middle, and end).Write an argument in the last column that explains the psychological personality of the character, based on your observations.Psychoanalysis according to Freud: Cat in the HatBeginningMiddleEndIdentify examples for each change in the characterThe Narrator and SallyidegosuperegoSally and the narrator: ego - moderate between the , id and superego until the end when they allow the superego to take over.The CatThe cat: Dominated by his id at the beginning and middle but moves more to a balance between the superego and id, in other words, ego takes over at the end.The FishFish: Dominated by his superego throughout the story.
20 Freud’s Psychosexual stages Psychosexual development – a series of developmental stages that an individual passes through and forms their personalityerogenous zones – pleasure sensitive areas of the bodyExamples: mouth, anus, genitalsFixation – a conflict, or lasting focus on pleasure seeking energies of an earlier stageExamples:Oral Fixaton
21 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Oral (0-18 months)Anal (18-36 months)Phallic (3-6 years)Latency (6-Puberty)Genital (Puberty on)Owen And Phillip Like Girls
22 Oral Stage Important erogenous zone = mouth Biting, sucking, chewing FixationWeaned too early = oral fixationpassive dependence (dependence like a child)exaggerated denial – acting tough or sarcasticSmoker, excessive eating
23 Anal Stage Develops during toilet training (2-4). Important erogenous zone = anusFocused on controlling waste and expelling waste.Fixationanal-retentive = potty training too earlyEx. Overly neat and fussyanal-expulsive = Potty training not encouraged or haphazardEx. overly slovenly and messy
24 Phallic StagePeriod of time when children first recognize their gender (4-7).Important erogenous zone = genitalsUnconscious sexual desires for parent of the opposite sexOedipus Complex – boys’ feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over sexual desire for mother and feelings of hostility toward father.Electra Complex – girls’ feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over sexual desire for their father and hostility toward motherPenis Envy(girls ) - realization that they don’t have a penis and blame MomCastration Anxiety - boys fear of penis removal by fatherIdentification – children incorporate same sex parents’ values into superego = successful conflict resolution in Phallic stageFixationproblems in relationshipsnarcissistic--excessively vain and proud.afraid or incapable of close lovehomosexuality
25 Latency Stage Latency - Libido is hidden (7-11). Cooties stage Dormant sexual feelings.Boys hang with Dad, Girls hang with momFixation - none
26 Genital StageGenital Stage - Libido is focused on their genitals (12-death).Maturation of sexual interestsAll stages resolved = mentally healthy and sexually matured
28 Defense MechanismsDefense Mechanisms tactics of the ego to reduce anxiety by distorting realityEx:RepressionRationalizationReaction formationProjectionRegressionDisplacementSublimationDenial
29 ScenarioQuarterback of the high school football team, Brandon, is dating Jasmine. Jasmine dumps Brandon and starts dating Drew, president of the chess club.JasmineBrandonDrew
30 RepressionRepression - Pushing anxiety arousing thoughts into our unconscious.Underlies all other defense mechanismsSlips of the tongue are incomplete repressionsWhen asked about Jasmine, Brandon may say “Who?Why don’t we remember our Oedipus and Electra complexes?
31 Denial Denial - Not accepting the ego-threatening truth. Brandon may act like he is still together with Jasmine. He may hang out by her locker and plan dates with her..
32 DisplacementDisplacement - Redirecting one’s feelings toward another person or object.Often displaced on less threatening things.Brandon may take his anger on another kid by bullying.
33 ProjectionProjection - Disguise unacceptable, unconscious impulses by attributing them to others.Believe that the feelings one has toward someone else are actually held by the other person and directed at oneself.Brandon insists that Jasmine still cares for him.
34 Reaction FormationReaction Formation - Expressing the opposite of how one truly feels.Cootie stage in Freud’s Latent Development.Brandon claims he hates Jasmine when he really still loves her.
35 RegressionRegression - Returning to an earlier, comforting, more infantile form of behavior.Excessive FixationBrandon begins to sleep with his favorite childhood stuffed animal, Simba.
36 RationalizationRationalization - Coming up with a beneficial result of an undesirable outcome.Brandon thinks he will find a better girlfriend. “Jasmine was not all that anyway!”I really did want to go to ……..anyway, it was too ……
37 SublimationSublimation - Channeling one’s frustration toward a different socially acceptable goal.Sometimes a healthy defense mechanism.Brandon starts to learn how to play the guitar and writing songs (or maybe starts to body build).
38 Think Pair ShareDuring a heated argument with his father, 15-year-old Jason developed a paralysis of his right arm. Medical examinations can find no physical cause for the paralysis. Use the psychoanalytic perspective to explain how the paralysis may be Jason's attempt to deal with an unconscious conflict between his id and superego.
39 Think Pair ShareAccording to a number of distinguished psychologists, a major purpose of the defense mechanisms described by Freud is the protection of self-esteem. Give an example of how repression, reaction formation, projection, rationalization, and displacement could each be used to protect or even enhance a positive self-image.
40 Neo-Freudian Theorists Psychodynamic Theory Accept Freud’s basic ideasStruggle with inner conflicts (wishes, fears, values)Importance of unconsciousPersonality develops in childhoodDifferentMore emphasis on conscious mindDisagreed with the importance of childhood sexual instinctsAdler and Horney – social not sexual tensions are important to personality development
41 The Neo-Freudian Theorists Adler –inferiority complex – personality is influenced by efforts to conquer feelings inferiorityHorneysense of helplessness – childhood anxiety is caused by the dependent child’s sense of helplessnessWomen’s superego is not weaker as Freud claimedJung’scollective unconscious – reservoir of memory traces from species historyExample: Different cultures share same legendsAll cultures have a hero, mother is symbol of nurture
42 Getting into the Unconscious Psychodynamic Psychologist – contemporary Freudian PsychologistProjective Tests - personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli to trigger inner dynamicsExamplesThematic Apperception Test (TAT) – Identify inner feelings through stories made up from ambiguous pictures/scenesRorschach Inkblot Tests -Identify inner feelings by analyzing interpretations of ink blotsCriticized for lacking validity
50 Criticisms of Freud’s theory: 1. No Scientific methods - no scientific data to support his theories.2. No observation - Freud’s theories (unconscious, libido, etc.) cannot be observed.3. Gender Identity Incorrect- Doubt that conscience and gender identity form as child resolves Oedipus complex at age 5-6—we gain gender identity early and become masculine or feminine even without a same sex parent5. Repressed memories Incorrect– traumatic events not repressed, but persistent and vivid
51 Criticism’s of Freud6. Dream Theory – New dream theories dispute Freud’s belief that dreams disguise and fulfill wishes. 7. Slips of tongue - can be explained through competition between similar verbal choices in our memory network 8. Post Hoc – after the fact explanations and fails to predict
52 Pros of Freud’s theory1. Childhood experiences - important in personality development.2. Unconscious Thought – does occurExamples: Procedural memory (implicit), parallel processing of movement, color, shape in a visual scene, Automatic processing – time, space, frequency, well-learned info.3. Defense mechanisms - good descriptions of some of our behaviors.Examples: Projection (attributing your behaviors to others)= false consensus effect – people believe that others act and think the same as they do (I cheat on a test, everyone else does too)4. Defense Against AnxietyTerror management theory – anxiety is triggered by awareness of impeding deathDeath anxiety increases prejudice
53 Humanistic Theory of Personality Beliefsfree will/self-determination - humans have ability to choose your own destiny, life is not predeterminedHuman’s innately goodPeople strive for self-actualization
55 Abraham Maslow’s Self Actualizing Person Hierarchy of NeedsSelf- actualization - motivation to fulfilling our potential.Peak experiences - transcendent moments of pure joy and elation.Self-transcendence – meaning purpose and communion beyond the selfStudied healthy people.
57 Self-Actualized People Problem centered rather than self-centered.Focused their energies on a particular task.Few deep relationships, rather than many superficial ones.
58 Self-Actualized People They also share these characteristics:They are self aware and self acceptingOpen and spontaneousLoving and caringNot paralyzed by others’ opinions.They are secure in who they are (high self-esteem).
59 Carl Rogers The objective of humans is to become self-actualized. We are like AcornsWhat do Acorns need to grow?Water sun and soil.To grow into healthy humans we need interactions with others who are :Genuine – open about own feelingsAccepting (Unconditional Positive Regard) – accept themselves and others, unconditionally including faultsEmpathetic – listen and understand what the other person is feeling
60 Roger’s Person-Centered Perspective Unconditional positive regard – total acceptance of another personEx. –Expressing empathy for one’s feelings no matter how bizarre or negativeValue someone with all of their faultsSelf-concept – all of our thoughts about yourself– Who am I?Central feature of personalityPromoted by unconditional positive regardAssessing Personal GrowthIdeal self (who you want to be) vs. Actual self (Who you actually are)Congruency – Ideal Self = Actual SelfSame when have positive self-concept, when actual falls short of ideal = negative self concept
61 Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective Renewed interest in self-conceptCriticismsVague and subjectiveIndividualistic and Western biasedNaïve
62 Think Pair ShareAbraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are both considered humanistic psychologists. Explain at least one core belief that Maslow and Rogers shared about human behavior and at least one criticism of their humanistic personality theory.
64 Trait TheoryTrait Theory (Gordon Allport) – describe personality in terms of traitsTrait – a characteristic behaviors and conscious motives (self and peer reported)Describe rather than explainMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)classifies people according to personality types identified by Carl Jung (flattering terms)Used in counseling and work developmentNot valid predictor of future job performanceEX. Homer Simpson is extroverted.
65 Meyers-Briggs16 types - typically referred to by an abbreviation of four lettersextraversion (E), sensing (S), thinking (T), judgment (J)introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), perception (P)
66 Factor Analysis Eysenck and Eysenck Factor analysis – statistical analysis used to identify the most basic personality traitsFactor - cluster of behavior tendencies that occur togetherEx. Outgoing, sociable, talkative, livelyEysenck and Eysenck2 DimensionsExtroversion versus introversionEmotional stability versus instabilityPersonality is on a continuumEysenck Personality Questionnaire
73 Exploring Traits Factor Analysis Shows personality as a continuimMartin is optimistic, impulsive, excitable, and restless. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions, he would be classified as unstable, extrovertedCoretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions she would be classified as unstable introverted
74 Biology and Personality Brain scansBrain arousal low in extrovertsFrontal lobe activity low (less inhibition)GeneticsTemperamentRespond to stress with greater anxiety if have a reactive autonomic nervous systemGreater anxiety, more inhibition
75 Assessing TraitsPersonality inventory – assess several personality traits at onceEmpirically derived test – tests a large ppol of items, then selects only those items that differentiate particular groups of peopleExample:Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – objective test that assesses abnormal (clinical disorders) personalityExample: assess whether person is suffering from depression or another emotional disorderNot always valid – people can give socially acceptable answers
76 Sample MMPI Questions True/ False 1.I like mechanics magazines 2.I have a good appetite 3.I wake up fresh & rested most mornings 4.I think I would like the work of a librarian 5.I am easily awakened by noise 6.I like to read newspaper articles on crime 7.My hands and feet are usually warm enough 8.My daily life is full of things that keep me interested 9.I am about as able to work as I ever was 10.There seems to be a lump in my throat much of the time 11.A person should try to understand his dreams and be guided by or take warning from them 12.I enjoy detective or mystery stories 13.I work under a great deal of tension 14.I have diarrhea once a month or more 15.Once in a while I think of things too bad to talk about 16.I am sure I get a raw deal from life 17.My father was a good man 18.I am very seldom troubled by constipation 19.When I take a new, I like to be tipped off on whom should be gotten next to 20.My sex life is satisfactory 21.At times I have very much wanted to leave home 22.At times I have fits of laughing & crying that I cannot control 23.I am troubled by attacks of nausea and vomiting 24.No one seems to understand me 25.I would like to be a singer 26.I feel that it is certainly best to keep my mouth shut when I’m in trouble 27.Evil spirits possess me at times 28.When someone does me a wrong I feel I should pay him back if I can, just for the principle of the thing. 29.I am bothered by acid stomach several times a week 30.At times I feel like swearing 31.I have nightmares every few nights 32.I find it hard to keep my mind on a task or job 33.I have had very peculiar and strange experiences 34.I have a cough most of the time 35.If people had not had it in for me I would have been much more successful 36.I seldom worry about my heath 37.I have never been in trouble because of my sex behavior 38.During one period when I was a youngster I engaged in petty thievery39.At times I feel like smashing things 40.Most any time I would rather sit and daydream than to do anything else 41.I have had periods of days, weeks, or months when I couldn’t take care of things because I couldn’t “get going” 42.My family does not like the work I have chosen ( or the work I intend to choose for my life work) 43.My sleep is fitful and disturbed 44.Much of the time my head seems to hurt all over 45.I do not always tell the truth 46.My judgment is better than it ever was 47.Once a week or oftener I feel suddenly hot all over without apparent cause 48.When I am with people I am bothered by hearing very queer things 49.It would be better if almost all laws were thrown away 50.My soul sometimes leaves my body 51.I am in just as good physical health as most of my friends 52.I prefer to pass by school friends, or people I know but have not seen for a long time, unless they speak to me first 53.A minister can cure disease by praying and putting his hand on your head 54.I am liked by most people who know me 55.I am almost never bothered by pains over the heart or in my chest 56.As a youngster I was suspended from school one or more times for cutting up 57.I am a good mixer 58.Everything is turning out just like the prophets of the Bible said it would 59.I have often had to take orders from someone who did not know as much as I did 60.I do not read every editorial in the newspaper everyday 61.I have not lived the right kind of life 62.Parts of my body often have feeling like burning, tingling, crawling, or like “going to sleep” 63.I have had no difficulty in starting or holding my bowel movement 64.I sometimes keep on at a thing until others lose their patience with me 65.I loved my father 66.I see things or animals or people around me that others do not see 67.I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be 68.I hardly ever feel pain in the back of the neck 69.I am very strongly attracted by members of my own sex 70.I used to like drop-the-handkerchief 71.I think a great many people exaggerate their misfortunes in order to gain the sympathy and help of others 72.I am troubled by discomfort in the pit of my stomach every few days or oftener 73.I am an important person 74.I have often wished I were a girl. (Or if you are a girl) I have never been sorry that I am a girl 75.I get angry sometimes
77 The Big Five FactorsThe Big Five – evaluates personality on 5 dimensions (more comprehensive)ConscientiousnessAgreeablenessNeuroticismOpenness to experienceExtraversionHelping and trusting = high on agreeablenessHighly imaginative = high on openessEmotional instability = neuroticism = highly anxious and insecureOrganized and disciplined in work = conscientiousnessSociable and fun-loving = extraversionAdvantage – more comprehensive personality assessment
79 The Big Five Factors Stability – Big 5 stable over time Heritablity – 50%+ on each dimensionPredictability – YesConscientious people earn better grades and are more likely morning typesExtroverts – evening types
80 Traits and the StarsAries (March 21-April 19): Do some detective work so that you can better understand those you love. Figure out what the other person is going through. Only then will you find out how you can help. Taurus (April 20-May 20): In your midst, there's a person intent on the worst-case scenario. He or she is a valuable ally today. You'll find humor in the exaggeration, and your laughter is healing. Gemini (May 21-June 21): Go out of your way to add elements of absurdity to your day. Your quality of life will be increased immeasurably. Cancer (June 22-July 22): A strength exaggerated becomes a weakness. But does a weakness exaggerated become a strength? Highlight a limitation and you'll find you're better off for having this flaw. Leo (July 23-Aug. 22): People pay attention when you walk into the room today. Make your exit with equal grace. Leave before they want you to and they'll want more. Virgo (Aug. 23-Sept. 22): Show up in person. You have more than your fair share of charisma today. Noting your winning presence, others will want to help you succeed. Libra (Sept. 23-Oct. 23): You have a talent for making relationships work. You're full of solutions, but it's important to know which problem is the most pressing. Pump the other person for information. Scorpio (Oct. 24-Nov. 21): There is a fine line between sharing and over-sharing. Give others the sense of who you are. But do it briefly. Sagittarius (Nov. 22-Dec. 21): Relating to others has very little to do with what or who you know. Most people are thinking about themselves and what you can do for them. If you make them feel good about themselves, they'll like you. Capricorn (Dec. 22-Jan. 19): You're in danger of being too thrifty. Show some disregard for the rules of frugal finance. As you spend, you'll widen the channel for greater earning. Aquarius (Jan. 20-Feb. 18): It would benefit you to get involved in a group effort. There is much you could contribute, and you have much to gain. You'll ask excellent questions and learn all you need to know to fit in nicely. Pisces (Feb. 19-March 20): You will be certain of your course. But that alone will not be enough to make it go the way you want. Whatever happens, don't complain or explain.Stock spiel – builds on the observation that each of us is in some ways like no one else and in other ways just like everyoneBarnum effect – Peoples tendency to accept stock positive descriptions. “There’s a sucker born every minute”
81 Somatotype Theory A biological Theory by William Sheldon. Endomorphs (Fat) - friendly and outgoing.Mesomorphs (muscular) - more aggressive.Ectomorphs (thin) - shy and secretive.Study has not been replicated.
82 The Person-Situation Controversy Person-situation controversy – debate regarding consistency of personality traits across situationsTraits are stable over timePeople don’t act consistently in all situations (Walter Mischel studies)Scores on Personality Tests fail to predict behavior in real-life situationsAve. outgoingness (expressive style), happiness or carelessness over many situations is predictableExtraversion correlated with number of social interactions in 1 monthClassical, jazz, blues, and folk music lovers - OpenCountry, pop and religious – Extroverts and Conscientious
83 Think Pair ShareBriefly explain how trait theorists develop and test theories such as the “Big Five” personality factors.
85 The Social- Cognitive Perspective Social-cognitive perspective (Bandura) – behavior is influenced by interactions between people’s traits and situationslearn many of our behaviors either through conditioning or observing others (social part)Emphasize the importance of mental processes (cognitive part) – what we think about affects behaviorFocus on our interaction with the environment (interpretation and response to external events)
86 Social-Cognitive Theories on Personality Reciprocal Determinism – personalities are shaped by the interaction of 3 things that interact and influence each other:internal cognitive factorsenvironmental factors,the behaviorsExample:Behavior = playing chessSocial = friends who play chessCognition = “I think playing chess is cool”, “I need friends who play chess”Environment and Cognition are both a cause and a consequence of the behaviorBehaviorCognition SocialPlaying Chess“Playing chess is cool” friends whoplay chess
87 Think Pair ShareThe personality traits that Tonya demonstrates at parties with her friends are very different from those she exhibits when she participates in class activities. Using your knowledge of reciprocal determinism to explain why the variability of Tonya's behavior in different situations is not surprising.2. Johnny has been acting out at school. Explain Johnny’s behavior it terms of reciprocal determinismStudents should explain that the concept of reciprocal determinism predicts that internal cognitive factors, environmental factors, and our behavior all interact and influence each other. The different environmental factors present at a party and in a class influence both Tonya's behavior and how Tonya thinks about the social context and her own behavior. Each of the three elements influences the other two, so it is not surprising that Tonya's personality traits seem to change in different social contexts.
88 Reciprocal Influences Ways individuals and the environment interactDifferent people choose different environmentsOur personalities shape how we interpret and react to eventsOur personalities help create situations to which we reactExample:Behavior – learning to bungee jumpInternal cognition – “I like the excitement of new activities”Environment – Bungee jumping friends
89 The Biopsychosocial Approach to the Study of Personality
90 Personal ControlPersonal control – extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helplessTwo ways to study personal controlCorrelate people’s feelings of control with their behaviors and achievementsExperiment by raising and lowering people’s sense of control and noting the effects
91 Internal and External Locus of Control External locus of control – the perception that one's fate is determined by luckCan lead to a state of learned helplessness.Ex. Dan feels that questions on the AP Psych test are unrelated to the assignments so he thinks studying and homework are pointlessInternal locus of control – the perception that you control your own fateEx. Bobby believes that if he studies hard and completes his work on time, he will get a good grade in AP Psych
92 Self-ControlSelf-control – ability to control impulses and delay gratificationPredicts good adjustment, better grades, social successRequires attention and energy
93 Benefits of Personal Control Rodin’s study of Nursing Home PatientsPersonal control = alert, active happy, lived longerLearned helplessness – people feel powerless to change their situationTyranny of choice – information overload from too many choices
94 Optimism Versus Pessimism Optimism and HealthExcessive OptimismBlindness to one’s own incompetencePositive psychology (Seligman) - uses the scientific method (different from Humanistic Psych) to study the positive aspects of human behavior (similar to Humanistic Psych)
95 Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective Based on researchFocuses too much on the situation
98 SelfSelf – center of our personality, organizer of our thoughts, feelings and actionsPossible selves – who we hope to become and fear becomingMotivates us to achieve success and avoid failureEx. Fear of not being able to get into collegeSpotlight effect – overestimate others’ noticing and evaluating our appearanceAdolescentsEx. Jessica is always concerned that everyone is looking at the clothes she wears everyday
99 The Benefits of Self-Esteem Self-esteem – one’s feeling of high or low self worthHigh = succumb less to peer pressure, less shy/anxious/lonely, less insomnia, more persistent, HAPPIERLow = more disparaging and prejudiced
100 Self-Serving BiasSelf-serving bias – readiness to perceive yourself favorablyPeople accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad, successes than failuresMost people see themselves as better than averageDefensive self-esteem - Self-confidence that is easily punctured by criticismCorrelates with aggression and antisocial behaviorsSecure self esteem – self confidence that is not easily threatenedNot dependent on external evaluationsFocuses beyond one’s self
101 Mr. Brunsman asks his students to self-assess their own studying and retention abilities as students and asks about how often they think other students imitate their studying behaviors. Explain how the spotlight effect and the self-serving bias may influence Mr. Brunsman's results.
102 Culture and the SelfIndividualism – priority to one’s own goals and defining ones identity in terms of personal attributesCollectivism – priority to the goals of the group and defining one’s identity by the group