Presentation on theme: "PROPOSALS and PERSUASION A Guide for Creating Effective Proposals Based on Anderson, Paul V. Technical Writing: A Reader-Centered Approach, and Markel,"— Presentation transcript:
PROPOSALS and PERSUASION A Guide for Creating Effective Proposals Based on Anderson, Paul V. Technical Writing: A Reader-Centered Approach, and Markel, Mike. Technical Communication, 9 th ed ( ).
Proposal “A proposal is an offer to carry out research or to provide a product or service” (Markel 432). “In a proposal, you make an offer and try to persuade your readers to accept it” (Anderson 619).
Types of Proposals Internal –A request to carry out a plan within an organization (Markel 433) External –Solicited –Unsolicited
Deliverables What will the proposal deliver to the client? –A request to research will deliver information about a problem –A request to provide goods or services will meet a client’s need for those products
Proposal Elements Introduction –“The purpose of the introduction is to help the reader understand the context, scope, and organization of the proposal” (Markel 441) –“Briefly, we propose to … (Anderson 622)
Proposal Elements Problem –What is the problem? (clear statement) –Who is this a problem for? (client and others’ affected) –Why is this problem important to your target audience? (show the benefits to your client(s))
Proposal Elements Solution(s) / Proposed Program / Plan of Work –What exactly do you propose to do? How do your goals/objectives create a solution to your problem/project?
Proposal Elements Methodology –How do you plan to do those things? What method will you use? –What is your plan for completing this project? What is the division of labor? Resources –Do you have the materials you need? (Internet, library, experts, questionnaires, surveys?)
Proposal Elements Criteria –Provide features of a successful solution –State specific objectives of your project –Show how the objectives tie-in to the problem statement
Proposal Elements Qualifications and experience –Are you qualified to undertake this project? –How? Education Experience Look back to your job materials for useful information (skills, course work, employment)
Proposal Elements Budget –What will it cost to propose this project? –What will it cost to implement this proposal? (Do you need to estimate this in the proposal?) –How will you explain and justify these costs?
Proposal Elements Conclusion –Restate problem briefly –Restate objectives –Restate request to work on this project
Persuasion A proposal is a persuasive document (Markel 437 & Anderson 534). To be successful writers must do three things –Demonstrate they understand the readers’ needs –Convince the reader that they are able and willing to fulfill their own promises
Persuasion –Emphasize Benefits for your Readers Cost Benefits Time-Saving Measures Labor-Saving Devices Improve Public Relations
Persuasion Target Readers’ Concerns and Objections –Look at proposal from readers’ viewpoint –Provide details your audience needs –Anticipate possible objections –Counter those objections with strong arguments
Persuasion Demonstrate Sound Reasoning –Use a logical organization –Support all claims with reliable evidence
Persuasion Use Organization to Create a Favorable Response –Direct Pattern State main point directly –Indirect Pattern Holds off main point for the end Organization depends on purpose and audience
Proposals and Persuasion Each section of the proposal must be informative as well as persuasive Keep audience in mind throughout all sections Successful proposals “sell” ideas
Examples Handbook (“p” for proposals) Markel (447)