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Exam  1.How to quantitatively detect the concentration of IgG in serum? Please list one method and describe the principle briefly.  2.How to detect the.

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Presentation on theme: "Exam  1.How to quantitatively detect the concentration of IgG in serum? Please list one method and describe the principle briefly.  2.How to detect the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exam  1.How to quantitatively detect the concentration of IgG in serum? Please list one method and describe the principle briefly.  2.How to detect the function of T cell? Describe the principle briefly.  3.Describe the principle of QHS briefly.

2  Phagocytosis of MacrophageMacrophage  Hypersensitivity Test of Guinea Pig Hypersensitivity Test of Guinea Pig  Introduction to biological products Introduction to biological products Exp 7

3 Introduction  Macrophage is the most important cell of the mononuclear phagocyte system.  It can be stimulated by antigen, and then activate. Phagocytosis of MacrophageMacrophage

4 Macrophages are 5- to 10-fold larger than monocytes and contain more organelles, especially lysosomes II. Mononuclear phagocytes

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6  The main function of Macrophage dispose of microbes and dead cells through the process of phagocytosis. antigen presentation Immunological regulation  It is important in the innate immune system and adaptive immune system

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8 3d later Inject chick RBC intraperitoneally 30min later The phagocytosis of Macrophage Kill the mouse and collect the fluid Observe under microscope Inject starch to recruit macrophage to the peritoneal cavity Place on a slide and stain Principle

9 Material (In vivo assay)  Mouse  Chick RBC (1×10 7 cells/ml)  6% sterile starch solution  0.03% methylene blue

10 Procedure Inject the mouse with 1ml of 6% sterile starch solution intraperitoneally 72 hr later, inject the mouse with 1ml of chick RBC massage the abdomen softly 30 min later, kill the mouse by cervical dislocation Expose the peritoneal cavity Take a drop of ascites and smear it on a slide Stain with 0.03% methylene blue Put on a cover slide and observe under the microscope

11 Results  Percentage of phagocytosis =  Phagocytosis Index = Phagocytosis happened in 100 MΦ 100 ×100% The number of RBCs phagocytosized by 100 Mφ 100 ×100%

12  Allergen-induced period  Allergen-stimulated period  Effect period Hypersensitivity Test of Guinea Pig

13 Allergen allergen binds to IgE on mast cell and basophil Individual FcR cross-linking degranulation release preformed mediator new synthezied mediator Production of IgE histamine leukotriences smooth muscle constriction increased vascular permeability Bind to the surface increased gland secretion of mast cell system/ respiratory tract /gastrointestinal tract /skin first 2nd

14 type I hypersensitivity Allergen-induced period Allergen-stimulated periodEffect period

15 Material  Adult healthy guinea pig  Fresh egg albumin: take albumin from fresh egg and dilute to the concentration of 1:10.  Sterile injector

16 Method  Allergen-induced period: inject diluted egg albumin 1ml to guinea pig subcutaneously.  Allergen-stimulated period(2 weeks later): Immobilize the guinea pig Give an intracardiac injection of 1 ml diluted egg albumin Release the guinea pig and observe its response.

17 Result  In a few minutes after the allergen-stimulated injection, a series of symptoms appear in the guinea pig.  Excitement  Scratching nose  Dyspnea  Hair standing  Convulsion  Even death

18 Artificial active immunity Artificial passive immunity Times1-3 times1 time (repeat) Onset time2-3 weeksAt once Duration timeMonths-years2-3 weeks ApplicationPreventionTreatment Introduction of bio-products

19 Live vaccineDead vaccines Featurelivedead Dosagelowhigh Vaccination times singlemultiple AdjuvantNoYes Durationseveral yearsShorter time Vaccination

20 Introduction of Vaccines  inactivated vaccine: typhoid, cholera, influenza virus, rabies virus, meningococcus B virus  live attenuated vaccine: poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, varicella-zoster, tuberculosis  Toxoid: exontoxin 0.3% formalin toxoid diphtheria, tetanus  subunit vaccine: HBsAg  gene vaccine (DNA vaccine)


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