Presentation on theme: "How To Write a Lab Report"— Presentation transcript:
1 How To Write a Lab Report Updated: 2011 with facts from
2 The Parts Cover Sheet Abstract- not included in ours Introduction (Objective/Purpose/ Hypothesis)MaterialsMethodsResults (data tables, graphs)Discussion/AnalysisConclusion
3 Cover Sheet This is the first page of your lab. It should contain lab titleyour name, and lab partner’s namethe date due,your class periodTeacher nameXC Opp #1 – high-quality, relevant, hand-drawn illustration
4 Example Effect of Sunlight on Photosynthesis Rate in Coleus Ms. Glor Lab Partner: NameEnvironmental Science Period 11October 30, 2010
5 Introduction (Objective/Purpose) Intro: Brief summary of experiment (purpose, what you found, conclusion)Objective:Usually given to you..What are you doing in this lab… why are you doing it?Example:The purpose of the “Effect of Sunlight on Photosynthesis Rate in Coleus” lab was to demonstrate understanding of the parts of the microscope by measuring sugar production in coleus plants kept in the light and in the dark.What are you doing…How are you doing it…
6 Introduction cont. (Hypothesis) What you “predict” will happen based on factExample:If the application of how to use the microscope is understood then the illustrations will be accurately drawn.NOT I will be able to draw the slides well because I know how to use the microscope.What you are testing…Prediction
7 IntroAlso contains research about the topics… use citations to support what you are sayingThis is textbook information not narrative!
8 Format of Intro Paragraph 1- purpose and objectives Next few paragraphs: background info on sensory information and how the body transmits and processes it. Use citations here.Next paragraph: briefly what you did in part A and hypothesisNext para: briefly what you did in part B and hypothesisNext para: briefly what you did in part C and hypothesisSecond to last para: tell me the what you found for each part (meaning which was most sensitive for each part)Last para: restate purpose and objective.
9 Materials Usually given to you on lab sheet Example: What you needed for the labIn list formationExample:Materials:Human tissue slides (bone, skin, squamous, muscle, blood, hair)Compound microscopeLab sheetColored Pencils
10 MATERIALS Make sure that materials are very specific Poor Example : Roses, soil, water, fertilizerGood Example:red rose plants (same species) each 2 feet tallidentical 5 gal buckets with 3 holes in the bottom3. 10 bags of Home Depot brand potting soil (20 lbs.)4. Miracle Grow fertilizer5. VitaGrow fertilizer6. Water7. Graduated cylinder to measure water8. Grow lights or green house9. Yard stick
11 Methods (procedure) Step by step, numeric Exactly what you did Be able to copy your design with same resultsNo analysis or results, just what you didYou can list them, but in numeric orderWhat YOU didSomeone else should be able to copy experiment with same results
12 GoodExample: Poor Example: 1. Fill 150 buckets with potting soil to within one inch of the top.2. Plant one plant in each bucket so that all of its roots are covered with potting soil.3. Water each plant with 1 liter of tap water.4. Divide the plants into 3 equal groups of 50 plants each, groups A, B and CPoor Example:1.Plant roses, some with fertilizer, some without2.Water roses3.Set plants under grow light4.Count number of flowers
13 Results This is your raw material Do not say why you think something happenedTables, charts (title them, refer to them and describe them)Calculations (samples of how data was analyzed)Example: The bone tissue was found to have a purple tint and have a circular pattern with various striations.
14 DETERMINE the VARIABLES: Variables (in general)– the parts of an experiment that could vary or CHANGE.1. Independent Variable (the cause)Dependent Variable (the effect)Controlled Variables or Constants (stay the same)
15 Graphing DataEach graph should have a title that describes what the graph is aboutWhen graphing data, the independent variable always goes on the X axis, and the dependent variable always goes on the Y axis. .Each axis of the graph should be marked off in equal units and properly labeled.In general, use a line graph when both axes are the set of real numbers. Ex. Time, temperature, height, weight.In general, use a bar graph when one or both of the axes are not the set of real numbers. Ex. Different kinds of roach spray, people.
16 Discussion Interpret your results – what do they mean? Reflect back to hypothesisSupported or rejected? How?Any mistakes?How could the lab have been improved?
17 Conclusion First Paragraph Second Paragraph + Contains your purpose for labHypothesisResultsShort and sweetSecond Paragraph +Thorough analysis of your collected data should be made. Any comparisons should be analyzed here. Discuss findings and describe any observations.Answer the pre and/or post lab questions in paragraph formDo so when explaining your results… not just answering them in sentences
18 ConclusionSecond to last paragraphWhat went wrong?Why? Mechanical? Human error?Last paragraphBrief summaryDo NOT restate procedures but EXPLAIN what you observed/data.
19 ConclusionSOURCES OF ERROR: Every time that you do an experiment, errors may occur. It is more important that you identify errors that you think could have affected the conclusion that you drew.Poor Example: I didn’t always measure accurately. Some plants may have gotten a little more water that the others. We had a lot of cloudy days which meant less light.Good Example: It was discovered that in the greenhouse, some of the plants were shaded for part of the day while others got full sun. Those that got full sun produced more flowers.Some of the plants became infested with tiny insects. These plants did not produce as many flowers as the others. Spraying with an insecticide could prevent this issue from occurring.
20 ConclusionThe purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate understanding of the parts of the microscope by observing/illustrating human tissue samples. It was found that accurately drawing images found in the F.O.V. was possible using proper microscope techniques.In the analysis of the human bone tissue it was found that the sample was purple with long striations. This may be due to the coloring the manufacture used when staining. The striations may be evidence of areas of growth.The hair sample was not accurately drawn because the fine adjuster was sticking and it was not possible to adjust it any better.The lab, Using a Microscope, made evident that proper lab techniques provide insight into the microscopic details of living things. This allows scientists to explore living things in ways that would not have been possible before VanLeewenhoek’s time.