Presentation on theme: "B Vitamins: B1 and B2 (Thiamin & Riboflavin) Elena"— Presentation transcript:
1B Vitamins: B1 and B2 (Thiamin & Riboflavin) Elena B3 and B5 (Niacin & Pantothenic Acid) KellyB6 and B7 (Pyridoxine & Biotin) BethB9 and B12 (Folate & Cobalamin) MargaretNUTR 150 , Sciara, SP’07
2B VitaminsAll B vitamins help the body to convert carbohydrates into glucose (sugar), which is "burned" to produce energyThey are essential in the breakdown of fats and proteins.They play an important role in maintaining muscle tone along the digestive tract and promoting the health of the nervous system, skin, hair, eyes, mouth, and liver.
3Assignment:Name of vitamin or mineral (briefly give chemical composition)How it functions in the body—metabolism (just how it fits into the big picture, briefly)Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)?Food sources (if the vitamin or mineral cannot be synthesized by the body)Daily requirement (RDA)Deficiencies/disease, treatmentFun facts (optional)
4B1 and B2 (Thiamin & Riboflavin) ElenaB1 and B2 (Thiamin & Riboflavin)
5B1, ThiaminName of vitamin or mineral (briefly give chemical composition)I’ll start with B1 , Thiamin…C12H17N4OS+
6B1 Thiamin 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism Thiamin is a water-soluble vitamin involved in these body functions:nervous system and muscle functioningflow of electrolytes in and out of nerve and muscle cells (through ion channels)multiple enzyme processes (via the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate)(cont.’d)National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
7B1 , Thiamin 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism (cont.’d) carbohydrate metabolismproduction of hydrochloric acid (which is necessary for proper digestion)Note: Because there is very little thiamin stored in the body, depletion can occur as quickly as within 14 days.National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
8B1, Thiamin3. Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)?Humans are dependent on dietary intake to fulfill their thiamin requirements…very limited thiamin [is] stored in the body.Note: Some antibiotics destroy gastrointestinal flora (normal bacteria in the gut), which manufactures some B vitamins…[but again] the majority of thiamin is obtained through diet.National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
9B1, Thiamin 4. Food sources: Dietary sources of thiamin include… beef Brewer’s yeastlegumes (beans, lentils)milknutsoatsorangesporkriceseedswheatwhole grain cerealsyeastNational Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
10B1, Thiamin 5. Daily requirement (RDA) Population RDA For adult males 19 and older: mgFor adult females 19 and older: mgFor pregnant or breastfeeding women of any age: 1.4 mg(cont.’d)National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
11B1, Thiamin 5. Daily requirement (RDA) Population RDA (cont.’d) For children 4-8 years old: mgFor children 9-13 years old: 1 mgFor adolescent males 14-18: mgFor adolescent females 14-18: 1 mgNational Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
12B1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Severe chronic thiamin deficiency (beriberi) can result in potentially serious complications involving the nervous system/brain, muscles, heart, and gastrointestinal system.National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
13B1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Deficiency symptoms and side effects include beriberi, anorexia and weight loss, apathy, decreased short-term memory, confusion and irritability, muscle weakness, and enlarged heart.(Textbook)
14B1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment The NLM & NIH provide a chart showing “uses [of thiamin] based on scientific evidence” for various conditions. They use the following grading scale:A Strong scientific evidence for this useB Good scientific evidence for this useC Unclear scientific evidence for this useD Fair scientific evidence against this useF Strong scientific evidence against this useNational Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
15B1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Here are some of the conditions listed on their chart—and their grade:Metabolic disorders (subacute necrotizing encephalopathy, maple syrup urine disease, pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, hyperalaninemia)AThiamin deficiency (beriberi, Wernicke’s encephalopathy, Korsakoff’s psychosis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome)Acute alcohol withdrawalBNational Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
16B1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Alzheimer’s disease C CancerCataract preventionCrohn’s diseaseHeart failureNational Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
17B1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (in children)CHip fracturesDNational Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
18B1,ThiaminFun factsThiamin was one of the first organic compounds to be recognized as a vitamin (It was isolated and characterized in the 1920’s.)Other than “thiamin,” vitamin B1 is known by 20 other names!National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)
19B2, RiboflavinName of vitamin or mineral (briefly give chemical composition)Now I’ll move on to Vitamin B2 , Riboflavin…C17H20N4O6
20B2, Riboflavin 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin that supports…energy metabolism (carbs & fats)biosynthesis of a number of compounds through its coenzyme forms, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN)It is also required for activation and support of activity of vitamin B6, folate, niacin, and vitamin K.Northwestern University
21B2, Riboflavin 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism In essence… It is necessary for normal cell function, growth, and energy production.And…according to our textbook, “supports normal vision and skin health” (p.218).Mayo Clinic
22B2, Riboflavin3. Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)?Small amounts of riboflavin are present in most animal and plant tissues.Healthy individuals who eat a balanced diet rarely need riboflavin supplements.Northwestern University
23B2, Riboflavin 4. Food sources: According to Northwestern University, liver, almonds, soy nuts, shellfish, milk and other dairy products, and eggs.The Mayo Clinic adds enriched cereals/grains, meats, and green vegetables (such as esparagus or broccoli) to the list.Mayo ClinicNorthwestern University
24B2, Riboflavin 5. Daily requirement (RDA) Population RDA For female adults (older than 18) 1.1 mgFor male adults (older than 18) 1.3 mgFor adolescent females (14-18) 1.0 mgFor adolescent males (14-18) 1.3 mgFor pregnant women (any age) 1.4 mgFor breastfeeding women (any age) 1.6 mgMayo Clinic
25B2, Riboflavin 5. Daily requirement (RDA) Population RDA For children (4-8) mgFor children ( 9-13) mgMayo Clinic
26B2, Riboflavin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Using the same grading scale as before, here are some examples of conditions related to riboflavin deficiency:Neonatal jaundiceARiboflavin deficiency (ariboflavinosis)AnemiaCMayo Clinic
29B2, Riboflavin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Deficiency symptoms and side effects include ariboflavinosis, sore throat, swelling of mouth and throat, cheilosis (dry, cracked lips), angular stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth), glossitis (magenta tongue), seborrheic dermatitis (inflammation of oil glands in the skin), and anemia (lower than normal amount of red blood cells).Northwestern University adds photophobia and burning, itching eyes to this list.(Textbook)
30B2, Riboflavin7. Fun factsAs with other B vitamins, riboflavin is lost by milling of grains. To compensate for these losses, white flour is enriched with this vitamin.Riboflavin is not part of the vitamin enrichment mixture added to white rice because the addition of this vitamin imparts a yellowish cast.Mayo Clinic
31B2, Riboflavin7. Fun factsRiboflavin is often used as a tracer of medication compliance in the treatment of patients with alcoholic dependence, mental disorders, and other conditions. Urinary riboflavin levels may be measured in order to determine level of compliance.Riboflavin is easily destroyed by exposure to light (for example, [if it is] in milk stored in clear glass bottles). It can also be destroyed in the presence of alkali such as baking soda.Mayo Clinic
32B3 and B5 (Niacin & Pantothenic Acid) KellyB3 and B5 (Niacin & Pantothenic Acid)
33NiacinAlso called nicotinic acid, niacinamide, nicotinamide or nicotinic acid and referred to as vitamin B 3Made up of niacin (nicotinic acid) and its amide, niacinamideCan be manufactured by the body
34Functions in Body Participates in more than 50 metabolic functions Plays an important role in ridding the body of toxic and harmful chemicalsHelps the body make various sex and stress-related hormones in the adrenal glands and other parts of the bodyIs effective in improving circulation and lowering cholesterol by preventing its buildup in the liver and arteriesDerivatives such as NADH are required for cell respiration; the release of energy and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteinsProper circulation and healthy skinFunctioning of the nervous systemNormal secretion of bile and stomach fluidsAids in the production of hydrochloric acid, needed for proper digestionThe health of the myelin sheath (the protective covering of the spinal nerves) which helps treat schizophrenia and other mental illnesses and works as a memory-enhancerAids in protecting the pancreas
36Tryptophan → Kynurenine → Niacin Niacin BiosynthesisThe liver can synthesize niacin from the essential amino acid tryptophanTryptophan → Kynurenine → NiacinCan also be consumed through foods
37Niacin in Foods Animal products: Seeds: The best dietary sources of vitamin B3 are found in beets, brewer's yeast, beef liver, beef kidney, pork, turkey, chicken, veal, fish, salmon, swordfish, tuna, sunflower seeds, and peanutsAnimal products:liver, heart and kidneychickenbeeffish: tuna, salmonmilkEggsSeeds:nutswhole grain productslegumesFruits and Vegetables:leaf vegetablesbroccolitomatoescarrotsdatessweet potatoesasparagusavocadosFungi:mushroomsbrewer's yeast
38Recommended Daily Requirements Niacin is available in several different supplement forms:NiacinamideNicotinic acidInositol hexaniacinateDaily requirements for niacin may be higher for those who have cancer, those who are being treated with isoniazid (for tuberculosis), and people with protein deficienciesInfants birth to 6 months: 2 mg (adequate intake)Infants 7 months to 1 year: 4 mg (adequate intake)Children 1 to 3 years: 6 mgChildren 4 to 8 years: 8 mgChildren 9 to 13 years: 12 mgMales 14 to 18 years: 16 mgFemales 14 to 18 years: 14 mgMales 19 years and older: 16 mgFemales 19 years and older: 14 mgPregnant females: 18 mgBreastfeeding females: 17 mg
39Side EffectsFlushing of the skin along with a strange itching sensation and a reddening of the skinHeadacheNauseaHyperuricemiaLiver toxicityWorsening of stomach ulcersAltered blood sugar or insulin levels or uric acid concentrationsIncreased liver enzyme levels in the bloodSkin yellowing (jaundice)Fluid in the abdomen (ascites)Lactic acidosis, muscle cell damage (myopathy) and increased blood levels of creatine kinase (a marker of muscle damage)Abnormal heart rhythms and heart palpitationsBlood clotting problemsLow white blood cell number (leukopenia)Tooth or gum painDizzinessBreathing difficultyIncreased anxietyPanic attacksDecreased thyroid function (hypothyroidism)Temporary side effects of the eye including macular swelling and blurred vision as well as toxic amblyopia ("lazy eye")Liver failureLow blood pressureStomach ulcers
40Niacin Deficiencies/Diseases Dietary deficiency of niacin tends to only occur in areas of the world where people eat corn as a staple and don't use lime in fertilization. Corn is the only grain that is low in niacin. Lime releases tryptophan which, again, can be converted to niacin in the bodySymptoms of deficiency:Generalized weakness or muscular weaknessLack of appetiteSkin infectionsDigestive problemsFatigueCanker soresVomitingDepressionDementiaBright red rash resembling sunburnIrritation of the mouthInflammation and ulceration of the tongueInsomniaHeadacheDizzinessDelusionsHallucinationsAnemiaPellagraThe term pellagra is derived from the Italian words pelle agra meaning rough or smarting skin.Severe deficiency of both niacin and tryptophanMost often seen in chronic alcoholism, malnutrition and people with multiple vitamin deficienciesCharacterized by cracked, scaly skin, dementia, and diarrhea
41Niacin Prevention and Treatment Used for prevention or treatment of:DiabetesOsteoarthritisCataractsBurnsHigh CholesterolAtherosclerosisHigh cholesterolPellagraAlzheimer's disease/ cognitive declineA recent study found that the combination of niacin and a cholesterol-lowering drug called simvastatin (which belongs to a class known as HmG CoA reductase inhibitors or statins) may dramatically slow the progression of heart disease, reducing risk of heart attack, and even death.An interesting area of research currently underway is the use of niacin skin care products as anti-aging agents, for treatment of acne, and, possibly, for prevention of skin cancer
42Fun Facts about NiacinWhen the properties of niacin were discovered, it was thought prudent to choose a common name other than nicotinic acid, for fear that it might be confused with nicotine, leading to the ideas that either smoking provided vitamins or that wholesome food contained a poison.The resulting name 'niacin' was derived from nicotinic acid + vitamin. Vitamin B3 is also referred to as "vitamin PP", a name derived from the obsolete term "pellagra-preventing factor."
43Pantothenic acid Also called vitamin B5 Its name is derived from the Greek pantothen meaning "from everywhere" and small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food
44Function in Body Essential to all forms of life Critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatsNeeded to form coenzyme-A (CoA); this is a way to transport carbon atoms within the cell. The transfer of carbon atoms by coenzyme A is important in cellular respirationSecretion of hormones that assistmetabolism, help to fight allergiesand are beneficial in the maintenanceof healthy skin, muscles and nerves.Used in the creation of lipids,neurotransmitters, steroid hormones and hemoglobinSome are of the opinion that pantothenic acid is also helpful to fight wrinkles as well as graying of the hairCritical to the manufacture of red blood cellsImportant in maintaining a healthy digestive tractHelps the body to use other vitamins more effectively
45Pantothenic Acid Biosynthesis Must be consumed through food!Gut bacteria in humans can generate pantothenic acid, although we may or may not be able to absorb it
46Pantolithic Acid in Foods Small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in most foods, with high quantities found in whole grain and eggsCan also be found in many dietary supplements (as calcium-D-pantothenate), and some energy drink companies are now adding pantothenic acid to their beveragesA lot of vitamin B5 is lost in processing; 35%-75%
47Adequate Intake Levels Infants 0 to 6 months: 1.7 mg/dayInfants 7 to 12 months: 1.8 mg/dayChildren 1 to 3 years: 2 mg/dayChildren 4 to 8 years: 3 mg/dayMales 9 to 13 years: 4 mg/dayMales 14 to 18 years: 5 mg/dayMales 19 years and older: 5 mg/dayFemales 9 to 13 years: 4 mg/dayFemales 14 to 18 years: 5 mg/dayFemales 19 years and older: 5 mg/dayPregnant Females 14 to 50 years: 6 mg/dayBreastfeeding Females 14 to 50 years: 7 mg/dayDoes not appear to be toxic in high dosage
48Pantothenic Acid Deficiencies Pantothenic acid deficiency is exceptionally rareVictims of starvationPrisoners of warMost information regarding the effects of pantothenic acid deficiency comes from experimental research in animalsFatigueAllergiesNauseaAbdominal pain.Adrenal insufficiencyHepatic encephalopathyPainful burning sensations of the feet and handsHeadachesDepressionPersonality changesCardiac instabilityFrequent infection
49Pantothenic Acid Treatments Hair careAcneAnti-inflammatoryAntiviralWound HealingBurnsHigh CholesterolMay have antioxidant and radioprotective activitiesRheumatoid arthritis
50Fun Facts about Pantothenic Acid It is sometimes referred to as the "anti-stress" vitamin because it is believed to enhance the activity of the immune system and improve the body's ability to withstand stressful conditions
51B6 and B7 (Pyridoxine & Biotin) BethB6 and B7 (Pyridoxine & Biotin)
52Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Vitamin Name and Chemical Composition C8H11NO3
53Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) How it functions in the body Assists in balance of sodium and potassiumPromotes red blood cell productionIncreases the amount of oxygen carried by hemoglobinLinked to cardiovascular health by decreasing the formation of homocysteineEssential for the nervous systemNeeded to synthesize neurotransmitters- serotonin & dopamineHelps balance hormonal changes in womenHelps regulate blood glucose by converting stored nutrients into glucose.Helps the immune systemPromotes growth of WBCs and helps maintain lymphoid organs that make them.
54Must come from dietary intake through food or supplements Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Can it be synthesized in the human body or must it come from other sources? (e.g. food)Must come from dietary intake through food or supplements
57Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Deficiencies, Disease, Treatment Deficiencies are rare but can occur in certain cases:In individuals with very poor quality diets – elderly, alcoholicsIn cases where the individual is on certain medications: oral contraceptives, theophyllineSymptoms: dermatitis, sore tongue, depression, confusion, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, paresthesias, & myalgia.Can lead to anemia and nerve damage.Treatment: Vitamin B6 Supplements!
58Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Fun Facts! One study showed that B6 may increase dream vividness or the ability to recall dreams.May alleviate some symptoms of an alcoholic hangover.May decrease the risk of Parkinson’s Disease by 50%Being studied as treatment for PMS, carpal tunnel syndrome, depression, migraines, heart disease, and learning disabilities in children.
59Name of vitamin and chemical composition Vitamin B7 (Biotin)Name of vitamin and chemical compositionVitamin B7, Biotin, Vitamin HC10H16N2O3S
60How it functions in the body Vitamin B7 (Biotin)How it functions in the bodyUsed in cell growthProduction of fatty acids, and gluconeogenesisMetabolism of leucinePlays a role in the Krebs CycleHelps with the transfer of carbon dioxideHelpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar levelEssential for red blood cell metabolismNeeded for the conversion of tryptophan to niacin
61Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)?Intestinal bacteria can synthesize small amountsThe body recycles biotin from bodily wasteMany foods contain adequate amounts as our daily requirement is very low
63Daily requirement (RDA) (No upper limit restriction) Vitamin B7 (Biotin)Daily requirement (RDA)300 mcg daily(No upper limit restriction)
64Deficiencies, disease, treatment Vitamin B7 (Biotin)Deficiencies, disease, treatmentDeficiencies are rarely seen in healthy individuals- Can occur in people with diabetes or hereditary disordersLong term use of antibiotics can decrease the biotin production in the small intestineCertain medications can interfere with ability to absorb B7Excessive consumption of raw egg whites can also cause deficiency.(Egg whites contain a protein, avidin that binds strongly to biotin)Symptoms include: Dry scaly skin, tongue inflammation, fatigue, loss of appetite, mental depression, high cholesterol, hair loss, brittle fingernails, hypertension, and paresthesias.Treatment: Biotin Supplements!Deficiencies can be fatal without treatment
65Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Fun facts! Some shampoos contain Biotin as a natural way to treat hair loss – sadly, Biotin is not absorbed well through the skin.Biotin is used in the lab to study various processes including DNA transcription and replicationIts used to tag or bond to molecules that can then be extracted from a sample.
66B9 and B12 (Folate & Cobalamin) MargaretB9 and B12 (Folate & Cobalamin)
67B9 (Folate)1. Name of vitamin or mineral (briefly give chemical composition)B9 is also known as folate, folacin, or in its synthetic form, as folic acid.Derived from the Latin word folium, “leaf.”
68B9 (Folate) 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism Folate acts as a coenzyme in DNA synthesis and thus is essential to the healthy division of cells.Folate aids in the metabolism of amino acids, and is vital to the metabolism of homocysteine.Folate is especially needed during periods of rapid cell division, particularly during the first few weeks of pregnancy.Folate is crucial for healthy neural development of infants during the first weeks after conception (even before the mother knows she is pregnant!)
69B9 (Folate)3. Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)?Folate is not synthesized in the human body, and thus must be consumed on a daily basis.
70Micrograms (µg) per serving B9 (Folate)4. Food sources (if the vitamin or mineral cannot be synthesized by the body)FoodMicrograms (µg) per servingFortified Breakfast cerealsvariableCowpeas (blackeyes), cooked, ½ cup105Spinach, cooked, ½ cupSpinach, raw, 1 cup10060Other legumes and green vegetables such as asparagus, green peas, broccoli, romaine, and avocado are good sources of folate as well.
71B9 (Folate) 5. Daily requirement (RDA) For men and women 19 years and older:400 µgFor pregnant women:600 µgFor lactating women:500 µgToxicity can occur when consuming excessive amounts of folic acid, but the most significant danger is that it can make it difficult to detect B12 deficiency
72B9 (Folate) 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Symptoms of folate deficiency may include: diarrhea, loss of appetite, sore tongue, headaches, heart palpitations, irritability, forgetfulness, and behavioral disorders.Most Americans do not consume adequate levels of folate, but those particularly at risk for deficiency are pregnant and lactating women, alcohol abusers, those on dialysis, with liver disease, malabsorption, and certain anemias.Pregnant women who have low folate levels in their blood are more likely to give birth to babies with neural tube defects, have low birth weight babies and to miscarry during the first months of pregnancy.Prolonged deficiency of folic acid can lead to elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood, which has been correlated with an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Some evidence links low levels of folate with depression.
73B9 (Folate) 7. Fun facts (optional) Folate is great! It is so great that in 1998 the United States government began to require food makers to fortify refined grain products to make sure that all women of childbearing age consume adequate amounts of folate. Since then, the rate of neural tube defects in infants has dropped by 25%!
74B12 (Cobalamin)1. Name of vitamin or mineral (briefly give chemical composition)Vitamin B12, aka cobalamin, aka cyanocobalamin, aka C63H88CoN14O14PB12 is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins.
75B12 (Cobalamin) 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism Vitamin B12 is bound to protein in foodHydrochloric acid in the stomach releases B12 from the proteins during digestion.In the duodenum, B12 combines with intrinsic factor (IF), which is a protein secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach.The B12-IF complex is absorbed in the ileum.B12 helps to maintain healthy nerve cells because it helps to maintain the sheath that coats nerve fibers.B12, along with B6 and folate, is essential to break down homocysteine.
76B12 (Cobalamin)3. Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)?B12 cannot be synthesized by animals or plants. Only bacteria and archaea possess the enzymes required. This bacteria, however, can be found in animals
77Micrograms (µg) per serving B12 (Cobalamin)4. Food sources (if the vitamin or mineral cannot be synthesized by the body)FoodMicrograms (µg) per servingMollusks, clams, 3 ounces (cooked)84.1Fortified breakfast cerealsVariableSalmon, 3 ounces (cooked)4.9Cheeseburger, double patty, 1 sandwich1.9Milk, 1 cup0.9Chicken breast, ½ breast0.3
78B12 (Cobalamin) 5. Daily requirement (RDA) For men and women 19 years and older:2.4 µgFor pregnant women:2.6 µgFor lactating women:2.8 µgWestern diets typically supply 5 to 15 (µg/day). In addition, humans typically maintain a large vitamin B12 reserve that may last anywhere from two to five years.
79B12 (Cobalamin) 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Strict vegetarians are at risk due to nutritional deficiency.People over 50 years of age, alcoholics, those with gastrointestinal disorders, or those with pernicious anemia are at risk due to poor absorption.Symptoms of B12 deficiency include anemia, fatigue, weakness, constipation, loss of appetite, weight loss, depression, confusion, soreness in the mouth or tongue, and dementia.Neurological symptoms may include numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.B12 deficiency can also be associated with elevated levels of homocysteineB12 deficiency can be treated with deep subcutaneous injections. Treatment can assuage physical symptoms, but neurological damage can be permanent, and cognitive function may not return to normal.
80B12 (Cobalamin) 7. Fun facts (optional) One form of B12 (hydroxycobalamin) can be used as a treatment for cyanide poisoning.Hydroxycobalamin binds with the toxic cyanide ion, resulting in a harmless B12 complex. It is then excreted in the urine.