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B Vitamins: B 1 and B 2 (Thiamin & Riboflavin) Elena B 3 and B 5 (Niacin & Pantothenic Acid) Kelly B 6 and B 7 (Pyridoxine & Biotin) Beth B 9 and B 12.

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Presentation on theme: "B Vitamins: B 1 and B 2 (Thiamin & Riboflavin) Elena B 3 and B 5 (Niacin & Pantothenic Acid) Kelly B 6 and B 7 (Pyridoxine & Biotin) Beth B 9 and B 12."— Presentation transcript:

1 B Vitamins: B 1 and B 2 (Thiamin & Riboflavin) Elena B 3 and B 5 (Niacin & Pantothenic Acid) Kelly B 6 and B 7 (Pyridoxine & Biotin) Beth B 9 and B 12 (Folate & Cobalamin) Margaret NUTR 150, Sciara, SP’07

2 B Vitamins All B vitamins help the body to convert carbohydrates into glucose (sugar), which is "burned" to produce energy They are essential in the breakdown of fats and proteins. They play an important role in maintaining muscle tone along the digestive tract and promoting the health of the nervous system, skin, hair, eyes, mouth, and liver.

3 Assignment: 1.Name of vitamin or mineral (briefly give chemical composition) 2.How it functions in the body—metabolism (just how it fits into the big picture, briefly) 3.Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)? 4.Food sources (if the vitamin or mineral cannot be synthesized by the body) 5.Daily requirement (RDA) 6.Deficiencies/disease, treatment 7.Fun facts (optional)

4 Elena B 1 and B 2 (Thiamin & Riboflavin)

5 B 1, Thiamin 1.Name of vitamin or mineral (briefly give chemical composition) I’ll start with B 1, Thiamin… C 12 H 17 N 4 OS +

6 B 1 Thiamin 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism Thiamin is a water-soluble vitamin involved in these body functions: nervous system and muscle functioning flow of electrolytes in and out of nerve and muscle cells (through ion channels) multiple enzyme processes (via the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate) (cont.’d) National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)

7 B 1, Thiamin 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism (cont.’d) carbohydrate metabolism production of hydrochloric acid (which is necessary for proper digestion) Note: Because there is very little thiamin stored in the body, depletion can occur as quickly as within 14 days. National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)

8 B 1, Thiamin 3. Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)? Humans are dependent on dietary intake to fulfill their thiamin requirements…very limited thiamin [is] stored in the body. Note: Some antibiotics destroy gastrointestinal flora (normal bacteria in the gut), which manufactures some B vitamins…[but again] the majority of thiamin is obtained through diet. National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)

9 B 1, Thiamin 4. Food sources: Dietary sources of thiamin include… beef Brewer’s yeast legumes (beans, lentils) milk nuts oats oranges pork rice seeds wheat whole grain cereals yeast National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)

10 B 1, Thiamin 5. Daily requirement (RDA) PopulationRDA For adult males 19 and older: 1.2 mg For adult females 19 and older: 1.1 mg For pregnant or breastfeeding women of any age: 1.4 mg (cont.’d) National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)

11 B 1, Thiamin 5. Daily requirement (RDA) PopulationRDA (cont.’d) For children 4-8 years old:0.6 mg For children 9-13 years old:1 mg For adolescent males 14-18: 1.2 mg For adolescent females 14-18:1 mg National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)

12 B 1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Severe chronic thiamin deficiency (beriberi) can result in potentially serious complications involving the nervous system/brain, muscles, heart, and gastrointestinal system. National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)

13 B 1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Deficiency symptoms and side effects include beriberi, anorexia and weight loss, apathy, decreased short-term memory, confusion and irritability, muscle weakness, and enlarged heart. (Textbook)

14 B 1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment The NLM & NIH provide a chart showing “uses [of thiamin] based on scientific evidence” for various conditions. They use the following grading scale: AStrong scientific evidence for this use BGood scientific evidence for this use CUnclear scientific evidence for this use DFair scientific evidence against this use FStrong scientific evidence against this use National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)

15 B 1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Here are some of the conditions listed on their chart—and their grade: National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Metabolic disorders (subacute necrotizing encephalopathy, maple syrup urine disease, pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, hyperalaninemia) A Thiamin deficiency (beriberi, Wernicke’s encephalopathy, Korsakoff’s psychosis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome) A Acute alcohol withdrawalB

16 B 1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Alzheimer’s diseaseC CancerC Cataract preventionC Crohn’s diseaseC Heart failureC

17 B 1, Thiamin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (in children) C Hip fracturesD

18 B 1,Thiamin 7.Fun facts Thiamin was one of the first organic compounds to be recognized as a vitamin (It was isolated and characterized in the 1920’s.) Other than “thiamin,” vitamin B 1 is known by 20 other names! National Library of Medicine (NLM) & The National Institutes of Health (NIH)

19 B 2, Riboflavin 1.Name of vitamin or mineral (briefly give chemical composition) Now I’ll move on to Vitamin B 2, Riboflavin… C 17 H 20 N 4 O 6

20 B 2, Riboflavin 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin that supports… energy metabolism (carbs & fats) biosynthesis of a number of compounds through its coenzyme forms, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) It is also required for activation and support of activity of vitamin B6, folate, niacin, and vitamin K. Northwestern University

21 B 2, Riboflavin 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism In essence… It is necessary for normal cell function, growth, and energy production. And…according to our textbook, “supports normal vision and skin health” (p.218). Mayo Clinic

22 B 2, Riboflavin 3. Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)? Small amounts of riboflavin are present in most animal and plant tissues. Healthy individuals who eat a balanced diet rarely need riboflavin supplements. Northwestern University

23 B 2, Riboflavin 4. Food sources: According to Northwestern University, liver, almonds, soy nuts, shellfish, milk and other dairy products, and eggs. The Mayo Clinic adds enriched cereals/grains, meats, and green vegetables (such as esparagus or broccoli) to the list. Northwestern University Mayo Clinic

24 B 2, Riboflavin 5. Daily requirement (RDA) PopulationRDA For female adults (older than 18)1.1 mg For male adults (older than 18)1.3 mg For adolescent females (14-18)1.0 mg For adolescent males (14-18)1.3 mg For pregnant women (any age)1.4 mg For breastfeeding women (any age)1.6 mg Mayo Clinic

25 B 2, Riboflavin 5. Daily requirement (RDA) PopulationRDA For children (4-8)0.6 mg For children ( 9-13)0.9 mg Mayo Clinic

26 B 2, Riboflavin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Using the same grading scale as before, here are some examples of conditions related to riboflavin deficiency: Neonatal jaundiceA Riboflavin deficiency (ariboflavinosis)A AnemiaC Mayo Clinic

27 B 2, Riboflavin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Anorexia / bulemiaC CataractsC Cognitive functionC DepressionC MalariaC Mayo Clinic

28 B 2, Riboflavin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Esophageal cancer (prevention & treatment)C Migraine headache preventionC Mayo Clinic

29 B 2, Riboflavin 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Deficiency symptoms and side effects include ariboflavinosis, sore throat, swelling of mouth and throat, cheilosis (dry, cracked lips), angular stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth), glossitis (magenta tongue), seborrheic dermatitis (inflammation of oil glands in the skin), and anemia (lower than normal amount of red blood cells). Northwestern University adds photophobia and burning, itching eyes to this list. (Textbook)

30 B 2, Riboflavin 7. Fun facts As with other B vitamins, riboflavin is lost by milling of grains. To compensate for these losses, white flour is enriched with this vitamin. Riboflavin is not part of the vitamin enrichment mixture added to white rice because the addition of this vitamin imparts a yellowish cast. Mayo Clinic

31 B 2, Riboflavin 7. Fun facts Riboflavin is often used as a tracer of medication compliance in the treatment of patients with alcoholic dependence, mental disorders, and other conditions. Urinary riboflavin levels may be measured in order to determine level of compliance. Riboflavin is easily destroyed by exposure to light (for example, [if it is] in milk stored in clear glass bottles). It can also be destroyed in the presence of alkali such as baking soda. Mayo Clinic

32 Kelly B 3 and B 5 (Niacin & Pantothenic Acid)

33 Niacin Also called nicotinic acid, niacinamide, nicotinamide or nicotinic acid and referred to as vitamin B 3 Made up of niacin (nicotinic acid) and its amide, niacinamide Can be manufactured by the body

34 Functions in Body Participates in more than 50 metabolic functions Plays an important role in ridding the body of toxic and harmful chemicals Helps the body make various sex and stress-related hormones in the adrenal glands and other parts of the body Is effective in improving circulation and lowering cholesterol by preventing its buildup in the liver and arteries Derivatives such as NADH are required for cell respiration; the release of energy and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins Proper circulation and healthy skin Functioning of the nervous system Normal secretion of bile and stomach fluids Aids in the production of hydrochloric acid, needed for proper digestion The health of the myelin sheath (the protective covering of the spinal nerves) which helps treat schizophrenia and other mental illnesses and works as a memory-enhancer Aids in protecting the pancreas

35

36 Niacin Biosynthesis The liver can synthesize niacin from the essential amino acid tryptophan Tryptophan → Kynurenine → Niacin Can also be consumed through foods

37 Niacin in Foods Animal products: –liver, heart and kidney –chicken –beef –fish: tuna, salmon –milk –Eggs Seeds: –nuts –whole grain products –legumes The best dietary sources of vitamin B3 are found in beets, brewer's yeast, beef liver, beef kidney, pork, turkey, chicken, veal, fish, salmon, swordfish, tuna, sunflower seeds, and peanuts Fruits and Vegetables: –leaf vegetables –broccoli –tomatoes –carrots –dates –sweet potatoes –asparagus –avocados Fungi: –mushrooms –brewer's yeast

38 Recommended Daily Requirements Niacin is available in several different supplement forms: –Niacinamide –Nicotinic acid –Inositol hexaniacinate Daily requirements for niacin may be higher for those who have cancer, those who are being treated with isoniazid (for tuberculosis), and people with protein deficiencies Infants birth to 6 months: 2 mg (adequate intake) Infants 7 months to 1 year: 4 mg (adequate intake) Children 1 to 3 years: 6 mg Children 4 to 8 years: 8 mg Children 9 to 13 years: 12 mg Males 14 to 18 years: 16 mg Females 14 to 18 years: 14 mg Males 19 years and older: 16 mg Females 19 years and older: 14 mg Pregnant females: 18 mg Breastfeeding females: 17 mg

39 Side Effects Flushing of the skin along with a strange itching sensation and a reddening of the skin Headache Nausea Hyperuricemia Liver toxicity Worsening of stomach ulcers Altered blood sugar or insulin levels or uric acid concentrations Increased liver enzyme levels in the blood Skin yellowing (jaundice) Fluid in the abdomen (ascites) Lactic acidosis, muscle cell damage (myopathy) and increased blood levels of creatine kinase (a marker of muscle damage) Abnormal heart rhythms and heart palpitations Blood clotting problems Low white blood cell number (leukopenia) Tooth or gum pain Dizziness Breathing difficulty Increased anxiety Panic attacks Decreased thyroid function (hypothyroidism) Temporary side effects of the eye including macular swelling and blurred vision as well as toxic amblyopia ("lazy eye") Liver failure Low blood pressure Stomach ulcers

40 Niacin Deficiencies/Diseases Symptoms of deficiency: Generalized weakness or muscular weakness Lack of appetite Skin infections Digestive problems Fatigue Canker sores Vomiting Depression Dementia Bright red rash resembling sunburn Irritation of the mouth Inflammation and ulceration of the tongue Insomnia Headache Dizziness Delusions Hallucinations Anemia Pellagra The term pellagra is derived from the Italian words pelle agra meaning rough or smarting skin. Severe deficiency of both niacin and tryptophan Most often seen in chronic alcoholism, malnutrition and people with multiple vitamin deficiencies Characterized by cracked, scaly skin, dementia, and diarrhea Dietary deficiency of niacin tends to only occur in areas of the world where people eat corn as a staple and don't use lime in fertilization. Corn is the only grain that is low in niacin. Lime releases tryptophan which, again, can be converted to niacin in the body

41 Niacin Prevention and Treatment Used for prevention or treatment of: Diabetes Osteoarthritis Cataracts Burns High Cholesterol Atherosclerosis High cholesterol Pellagra Alzheimer's disease/ cognitive decline A recent study found that the combination of niacin and a cholesterol- lowering drug called simvastatin (which belongs to a class known as HmG CoA reductase inhibitors or statins) may dramatically slow the progression of heart disease, reducing risk of heart attack, and even death. An interesting area of research currently underway is the use of niacin skin care products as anti-aging agents, for treatment of acne, and, possibly, for prevention of skin cancer

42 Fun Facts about Niacin When the properties of niacin were discovered, it was thought prudent to choose a common name other than nicotinic acid, for fear that it might be confused with nicotine, leading to the ideas that either smoking provided vitamins or that wholesome food contained a poison. The resulting name 'niacin' was derived from nicotinic acid + vitamin. Vitamin B3 is also referred to as "vitamin PP", a name derived from the obsolete term "pellagra- preventing factor."

43 Pantothenic acid Also called vitamin B5 Its name is derived from the Greek pantothen meaning "from everywhere" and small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food

44 Function in Body Essential to all forms of life Critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats Needed to form coenzyme-A (CoA); this is a way to transport carbon atoms within the cell. The transfer of carbon atoms by coenzyme A is important in cellular respiration Secretion of hormones that assist metabolism, help to fight allergies and are beneficial in the maintenance of healthy skin, muscles and nerves. Used in the creation of lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones and hemoglobin Some are of the opinion that pantothenic acid is also helpful to fight wrinkles as well as graying of the hair Critical to the manufacture of red blood cells Important in maintaining a healthy digestive tract Helps the body to use other vitamins more effectively

45 Pantothenic Acid Biosynthesis Must be consumed through food! Gut bacteria in humans can generate pantothenic acid, although we may or may not be able to absorb it

46 Pantolithic Acid in Foods Small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in most foods, with high quantities found in whole grain and eggs Can also be found in many dietary supplements (as calcium-D- pantothenate), and some energy drink companies are now adding pantothenic acid to their beverages A lot of vitamin B5 is lost in processing; 35%-75%

47 Adequate Intake Levels Does not appear to be toxic in high dosage Infants 0 to 6 months: 1.7 mg/day Infants 7 to 12 months: 1.8 mg/day Children 1 to 3 years: 2 mg/day Children 4 to 8 years: 3 mg/day Males 9 to 13 years: 4 mg/day Males 14 to 18 years: 5 mg/day Males 19 years and older: 5 mg/day Females 9 to 13 years: 4 mg/day Females 14 to 18 years: 5 mg/day Females 19 years and older: 5 mg/day Pregnant Females 14 to 50 years: 6 mg/day Breastfeeding Females 14 to 50 years: 7 mg/day

48 Pantothenic Acid Deficiencies Pantothenic acid deficiency is exceptionally rare –Victims of starvation –Prisoners of war Most information regarding the effects of pantothenic acid deficiency comes from experimental research in animals Fatigue Allergies Nausea Abdominal pain. Adrenal insufficiency Hepatic encephalopathy Painful burning sensations of the feet and hands Headaches Depression Personality changes Cardiac instability Frequent infection

49 Pantothenic Acid Treatments Hair care Acne Anti-inflammatory Antiviral Wound Healing Burns High Cholesterol May have antioxidant and radioprotective activities Rheumatoid arthritis

50 Fun Facts about Pantothenic Acid It is sometimes referred to as the "anti- stress" vitamin because it is believed to enhance the activity of the immune system and improve the body's ability to withstand stressful conditions

51 Beth B 6 and B 7 (Pyridoxine & Biotin)

52 Vitamin B 6 (Pyridoxine) Vitamin Name and Chemical Composition Vitamin B 6, Pyridoxine C 8 H 11 NO 3

53 Vitamin B 6 (Pyridoxine) How it functions in the body Assists in balance of sodium and potassium Promotes red blood cell production Increases the amount of oxygen carried by hemoglobin Linked to cardiovascular health by decreasing the formation of homocysteine Essential for the nervous system –Needed to synthesize neurotransmitters- serotonin & dopamine Helps balance hormonal changes in women Helps regulate blood glucose by converting stored nutrients into glucose. Helps the immune system –Promotes growth of WBCs and helps maintain lymphoid organs that make them.

54 Vitamin B 6 (Pyridoxine) Can it be synthesized in the human body or must it come from other sources? (e.g. food) Must come from dietary intake through food or supplements

55 Vitamin B 6 (Pyridoxine) Food Sources Fortified cereals Beans Meat Poultry Fish Avocado Bananas Nuts Potato Spinach Nutritional yeast Wheat germ

56 Vitamin B 6 (Pyridoxine) Daily Requirement (RDA) MenWomen Ages mg1.3mg Ages mg1.5mg Pregnancy1.9mg Lactation2.0mg

57 Vitamin B 6 (Pyridoxine) Deficiencies, Disease, Treatment Deficiencies are rare but can occur in certain cases: In individuals with very poor quality diets – elderly, alcoholics In cases where the individual is on certain medications: oral contraceptives, theophylline Symptoms: dermatitis, sore tongue, depression, confusion, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, paresthesias, & myalgia. Can lead to anemia and nerve damage. Treatment: Vitamin B 6 Supplements!

58 Vitamin B 6 (Pyridoxine) Fun Facts! One study showed that B6 may increase dream vividness or the ability to recall dreams. May alleviate some symptoms of an alcoholic hangover. May decrease the risk of Parkinson’s Disease by 50% Being studied as treatment for PMS, carpal tunnel syndrome, depression, migraines, heart disease, and learning disabilities in children.

59 Vitamin B 7 (Biotin) Name of vitamin and chemical composition Vitamin B 7, Biotin, Vitamin H C 10 H 16 N 2 O 3 S

60 Vitamin B 7 (Biotin) How it functions in the body Used in cell growth Production of fatty acids, and gluconeogenesis Metabolism of leucine Plays a role in the Krebs Cycle Helps with the transfer of carbon dioxide Helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level Essential for red blood cell metabolism Needed for the conversion of tryptophan to niacin

61 Vitamin B 7 (Biotin) Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)? Intestinal bacteria can synthesize small amounts The body recycles biotin from bodily waste Many foods contain adequate amounts as our daily requirement is very low

62 Vitamin B 7 (Biotin) Food sources Beans Breads Brewer’s yeast Cauliflower Chocolate Liver Legumes Meat Egg yolk Soy Bananas Mushrooms

63 Vitamin B 7 (Biotin) Daily requirement (RDA) 300 mcg daily (No upper limit restriction)

64 Vitamin B 7 (Biotin) Deficiencies, disease, treatment  Deficiencies are rarely seen in healthy individuals - Can occur in people with diabetes or hereditary disorders  Long term use of antibiotics can decrease the biotin production in the small intestine  Certain medications can interfere with ability to absorb B 7  Excessive consumption of raw egg whites can also cause deficiency. (Egg whites contain a protein, avidin that binds strongly to biotin) Symptoms include: Dry scaly skin, tongue inflammation, fatigue, loss of appetite, mental depression, high cholesterol, hair loss, brittle fingernails, hypertension, and paresthesias. Treatment: Biotin Supplements! Deficiencies can be fatal without treatment

65 Vitamin B 7 (Biotin) Fun facts! Some shampoos contain Biotin as a natural way to treat hair loss – sadly, Biotin is not absorbed well through the skin. Biotin is used in the lab to study various processes including DNA transcription and replication Its used to tag or bond to molecules that can then be extracted from a sample.

66 Margaret B 9 and B 12 (Folate & Cobalamin)

67 B 9 (Folate) 1. Name of vitamin or mineral (briefly give chemical composition) B9 is also known as folate, folacin, or in its synthetic form, as folic acid. Derived from the Latin word folium, “leaf.”

68 B 9 (Folate) 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism Folate acts as a coenzyme in DNA synthesis and thus is essential to the healthy division of cells. Folate aids in the metabolism of amino acids, and is vital to the metabolism of homocysteine. Folate is especially needed during periods of rapid cell division, particularly during the first few weeks of pregnancy. Folate is crucial for healthy neural development of infants during the first weeks after conception (even before the mother knows she is pregnant!)

69 B 9 (Folate) 3. Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)? Folate is not synthesized in the human body, and thus must be consumed on a daily basis.

70 B 9 (Folate) 4. Food sources (if the vitamin or mineral cannot be synthesized by the body) FoodMicrograms (µg) per serving Fortified Breakfast cerealsvariable Cowpeas (blackeyes), cooked, ½ cup105 Spinach, cooked, ½ cup Spinach, raw, 1 cup Other legumes and green vegetables such as asparagus, green peas, broccoli, romaine, and avocado are good sources of folate as well.

71 B 9 (Folate) 5. Daily requirement (RDA) For men and women 19 years and older: 400 µg For pregnant women: 600 µg For lactating women: 500 µg Toxicity can occur when consuming excessive amounts of folic acid, but the most significant danger is that it can make it difficult to detect B12 deficiency

72 B 9 (Folate) 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Symptoms of folate deficiency may include: diarrhea, loss of appetite, sore tongue, headaches, heart palpitations, irritability, forgetfulness, and behavioral disorders. Most Americans do not consume adequate levels of folate, but those particularly at risk for deficiency are pregnant and lactating women, alcohol abusers, those on dialysis, with liver disease, malabsorption, and certain anemias. Pregnant women who have low folate levels in their blood are more likely to give birth to babies with neural tube defects, have low birth weight babies and to miscarry during the first months of pregnancy. Prolonged deficiency of folic acid can lead to elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood, which has been correlated with an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Some evidence links low levels of folate with depression.

73 B 9 (Folate) 7. Fun facts (optional) Folate is great! It is so great that in 1998 the United States government began to require food makers to fortify refined grain products to make sure that all women of childbearing age consume adequate amounts of folate. Since then, the rate of neural tube defects in infants has dropped by 25%!

74 B 12 (Cobalamin) 1. Name of vitamin or mineral (briefly give chemical composition) Vitamin B 12, aka cobalamin, aka cyanocobalamin, aka C 63 H 88 CoN 14 O 14 P B 12 is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins.

75 B 12 (Cobalamin) 2. How it functions in the body—metabolism Vitamin B 12 is bound to protein in food Hydrochloric acid in the stomach releases B 12 from the proteins during digestion. In the duodenum, B 12 combines with intrinsic factor (IF), which is a protein secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach. The B 12 -IF complex is absorbed in the ileum. B 12 helps to maintain healthy nerve cells because it helps to maintain the sheath that coats nerve fibers. B 12, along with B 6 and folate, is essential to break down homocysteine.

76 B 12 (Cobalamin) 3. Can it be synthesized by the human body or must it come from other sources (e.g., food)? B 12 cannot be synthesized by animals or plants. Only bacteria and archaea possess the enzymes required. This bacteria, however, can be found in animals

77 B 12 (Cobalamin) 4. Food sources (if the vitamin or mineral cannot be synthesized by the body) FoodMicrograms (µg) per serving Mollusks, clams, 3 ounces (cooked)84.1 Fortified breakfast cerealsVariable Salmon, 3 ounces (cooked)4.9 Cheeseburger, double patty, 1 sandwich1.9 Milk, 1 cup0.9 Chicken breast, ½ breast0.3

78 B 12 (Cobalamin) 5. Daily requirement (RDA) For men and women 19 years and older: o 2.4 µg For pregnant women: o 2.6 µg For lactating women: o 2.8 µg Western diets typically supply 5 to 15 (µg/day). In addition, humans typically maintain a large vitamin B 12 reserve that may last anywhere from two to five years.

79 B 12 (Cobalamin) 6. Deficiencies/disease, treatment Strict vegetarians are at risk due to nutritional deficiency. People over 50 years of age, alcoholics, those with gastrointestinal disorders, or those with pernicious anemia are at risk due to poor absorption. Symptoms of B 12 deficiency include anemia, fatigue, weakness, constipation, loss of appetite, weight loss, depression, confusion, soreness in the mouth or tongue, and dementia. Neurological symptoms may include numbness and tingling in the hands and feet. B 12 deficiency can also be associated with elevated levels of homocysteine B 12 deficiency can be treated with deep subcutaneous injections. Treatment can assuage physical symptoms, but neurological damage can be permanent, and cognitive function may not return to normal.

80 B 12 (Cobalamin) 7. Fun facts (optional) One form of B 12 (hydroxycobalamin) can be used as a treatment for cyanide poisoning. Hydroxycobalamin binds with the toxic cyanide ion, resulting in a harmless B 12 complex. It is then excreted in the urine.


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