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Globalization and its impacts Nuclear Issue Terrorism Religious Fundamentalism.

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1 Globalization and its impacts Nuclear Issue Terrorism Religious Fundamentalism

2 What is globalization? How has this affected the global politics, nuclear proliferation, and the world economy? Globalization is a building trend where all parts of the world in greater political, economic, and cultural integration and interaction. In the Post Cold War era, nation states have a great deal of freedom; however, there is a need for the international community to protect small or weak states from aggression without completely violating state autonomy. The efforts of major powers to “police” the world become complex while still respecting national autonomy. Intervention occurred through negotiation through the United Nations as well as military intervention. An example of this was NATO’s intervention in the Balkans in 1991 where warring states and separatism led to ethnic cleansing and other atrocities. Free trade in the Post Cold War era of globalization brought problems as well as economic growth. Cycles of “boom and bust” are endemic to free market capitalism carries. The economic expansion of the 1990’s led to the global recession after 2000. Many countries joined with their neighbors to create regional trade associations such as European Union to promote free trade and reduce tariffs. NAFTA, Mercosur, and the World Trade Organization are other such examples. Countries such as China, India, and Pakistan all tested nuclear weapons and North Korea continued to develop them as well. It is feared that Israel and Iran have nuclear programs as well.

3 What were the basis for and the contents of the Declaration of Human Rights of December 1948? Could all nations agree to it? The basis for the United Nations Resolution called the Universal Declaration of Human Rights lay in American and European history. Religious tolerance emerged from Europe’s experience with religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The concept of inalienable rights came from the United States Constitution and the French Revolution. Slavery, women’s suffrage, and racial tolerance were concepts the West had been wrestling with for years. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights in December 1948 included thirty articles and called for an end to slavery, torture, and exile and demanded freedom of movement and thought, as well as the rights to life, liberty, and security of person. However, being a product of Western ideology, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ignores many of the world’s non-Western cultures and religions. For example, did the assertion of total equality mean that traditional Hindu social distinctions were unacceptable?

4 What is the theory behind terrorism? Who is Usama bin Laden? Has it worked? Terrorism is a method of deploying violence to achieve a political end. The success of violent terrorist attacks was based on the belief that an act of horrendous violence would provoke a harsh reprisal or demonstrate government incompetence. These responses would then cause the existing regimes to lose legitimacy and the terrorists would appear to be strong, organized, and determined. This would legitimize the terrorists as a potential replacement for the existing regime. Terrorism is hard to combat and well adapted to television news coverage. Although terrorism is not a new historical phenomenon, the new networks, especially the one led by Usama bin Laden, have attracted followers throughout the Islamic world. The United States has responded harshly to the attacks of bin Laden’s followers, announcing a “war on terrorism” that led to the Second Persian Gulf War in Iraq the spring of 2003. The U.S. decision to invade Iraq was heavily criticized around the world and cost the United States the sympathy of the world. U.S. actions in Iraq and throughout the Muslim world reflect an anti-American point of view

5 What is Islamic militancy and why has it emerged at the turn of the millennium? The Muslim world has undergone enormous changes in the Post–World War I era. The decline of the Ottoman Empire led to the partition of the Middle East by the Western powers and the discovery of oil in the region led to economic as well as political and cultural imperialism of the region. Although many states became independent states in the 1950’s, the wealth derived from oil sales has not been shared with the general population. Students should also understand that globalization, particularly mass marketing and mass media, has exposed the Muslim world to the consumer culture of the developed world while they are aware of their inability to attain access to these goods. Modernization has is struggling in the Muslim world and has led many Muslims to turn to their faith and their sacred past. –Islam was a dominant civilization in the medieval period and fought the West. –The sacred past of Islam reminds them of past struggles against the west and that they were able to prevail. –Some Muslims blame their corrupt leaders and others focus on external enemies such as Israel and those who support Israel, the United States. –The United States also has financially and politically supported corrupt and repressive governments in the Muslim world like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, a fact that is unpopular with Muslims as well. –In the Persian Gulf War of 1990–1991, the United States stationed troops in Saudi Arabia, which is sacred territory for Muslims also was inflammatory.

6 Technology has not only helped spread Western culture around the world, but has also changed perceptions of culture. How has the perception of popular culture changed in the twentieth century as a result of new technologies? Popular culture was perceived as localized and vulgar entertainment for the masses. Peoples who were politically and economically dominated by the West—particularly in overseas colonies—subordinated their own cultures and imitated Europe’s “high culture.” European theater, music, and art were seen as the epitome of high culture. Interest in popular culture revived with the advent of new technologies. Folk music and dance began to affect European culture, and the phonograph in particular became the instrument that brought popular culture to a world audience. The advertising industry, which has spread cultural imperialism, has also been responsible for disseminating popular culture. Ever on the lookout for new products and markets, advertising has brought local culture to national and international attention.

7 How did people of different faiths view the events at the turn of the millennium? The millennium meant different things to the different faiths Some Christians viewed the end of the millennium through the writing of the Prophets in the last book of the New Testament where Christ would return to Earth and the world would come to an end. Christians also converted more enthusiastically. Other groups such as the Branch Davidians and Heaven’s Gate and the Members of the Solar Temple in France were inspired in part by the millennium. A Buddhist sect in Japan also believed in the end of the world in 1999 and attempted terrorist attacks in Japan. Some Jews view the struggle for the survival of Israel as part of their God-given right to rule all the land of the ancient state of Israel. Although Muslims are mostly moderate in their views, some have become frustrated with global events. The dominance of their resources and economy by the West in addition to corrupt repressive governments in the Muslim World has fostered Islam militancy

8 What is the impact of the expansion of democracy? Why does it spread and where? There has been a general spread of democracy. Democratic governments have survived where they previously existed in the Americas and new ones have emerged in Asia and Eastern Europe. Democratic governments tend to encourage political moderation. In Africa there has been mixed results but there is hope of more democratic rule with the election of Nelson Mandela in South Africa in 1994 and the election of Olusegun Obasanjo in Nigeria. The Middle East also has had a mixture of democratic governments as well as autocratic rule and the rise Islamic parties.

9 What events took place on September 11, 2001? How did these events reflect a rejection of American domination at the end of the millennium? Why was terrorism the chosen method for this rejection? The events of September 11, 2001, include the hi-jacking of the planes and the mission to crash into American landmarks. These landmarks were chosen as they represent the economic invasion and the military used to protect these interests. al Qaeda, as all terrorist, desired to hit strong points to provide maximum terror value – the more horrific and unexpected – the greater the terror Usama bin Laden, a rich Saudi, was angry with the United States for its interference in the political, economic, and cultural affairs of the Middle East. By using terrorism as a method to attack the United States, al Qaeda hoped to bring a violent retaliation that would draw the world’s attention, sympathy, and the overthrow of repressive Middle Eastern governments.

10 Since the end of the Cold War, cultural imperialism has replaced overt political imperialism as a worldwide issue. Briefly explain cultural imperialism and how it has spread. Cultural imperialism is the spread of Western styles and tastes in areas such as food, music, clothing, movies, and television. Critics view cultural imperialism as an attempt to dominate the world with a Western capitalist ideology, while suppressing local cultures. Technology has been primarily responsible for the spread of Western culture. –Audio recordings on vinyl records, magnetic tape, and digitized discs have help spread Western music. –Motion pictures and television have allowed global audiences to glimpse cultures almost entirely Western, and predominantly American. –The advertising industry has used sight and sound to promote Western food and clothing styles to new world markets. Some nations have acted to protect their indigenous cultures from cultural imperialism. However, as the people of other countries continued to criticize America and its policies, it is clear that the effect of cultural imperialism is certainly more ambiguous than the traditional European imperialism. Cultural hegemony –MacDonalization of the World MacWorld vs. Jihad

11 Thomas Friedman’s assessment of the millennium found in analysis of his The Lexus and the Olive Tree Thomas Friedman presents an optimistic view of the “new age” at the turn of the millennium. He views the changes, including the collapse of the Soviet Union and the expansion of technology as an opportunity for increased global prosperity, peace, and democracy as symbolized by the Japanese car, the Lexus, and the Middle Eastern symbol, the olive tree. But there is also apessimistic view of globalization as well. This view is reflected in the writings of Samuel P. Huntington, who states that the world has become more divided along regional, religious, and cultural lines, not more integrated as Friedman suggests. Convergence vs. Divergence Culture wars?

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