Presentation on theme: "Product and Distribution Strategies"— Presentation transcript:
1Product and Distribution Strategies Chapter 13Product and Distribution Strategies
2Learning Goals1Explain marketing’s definition of a product and list the components of the product strategy.Describe the classification system for consumer and business goods and services.Distinguish between a product mix and a product line.Briefly describe each of the four stages of the product life cycle.List the stages of the new-product development process.Explain how firms identify their products.Outline and briefly describe each of the major components of an effective distribution strategy.Identify the various categories of distribution channels and discus the factors that influence channel selection.5627384
3Product StrategyProduct - bundle of physical, service, and symbolic attributes.Convenience products - items the consumer seeks to purchase frequently, immediately, and with little effort.Shopping products - typically purchased only after the buyer has compared competing products in competing stores.Specialty products - items that a purchaser is willing to make a special effort to obtain.
5Classifying Business Goods Installations - major capital items, such as new factories, heavy equipment and machinery, and custom-made equipment.Accessory equipment - includes less expensive and shorter- lived capital items than installations and involves fewer decision makers.Component parts and materials - become part of a final product.Raw materials - farm and natural products used in producing other final products.Supplies - expense items used in a firm’s daily operation that do not become part of the final product.
6Marketing Strategy Implications In B2B, greater emphasis on personal selling for installations and many component parts.May involve customers in new-product development.Advertising more commonly used to sell supplies and accessory equipment.Also a greater emphasis on competitive pricing strategies.
7Product Lines and Product Mix Product line - group of related products that are physically similar or are intended for the same market.Product mix – a company’s assortment of product lines and individual offerings.
8Product Life CycleProduct life - four basic stages—introduction, growth, maturity, and decline—through which a successful product progresses.
9Stages of the Product Life Cycle Introduction stage – firm promotes demand for its new offering, informs the market about it, gives free samples to entice consumers to make a trial purchase, and explains its features, uses, and benefits.Growth stage - sales climb quickly as new customers join early users who are repurchasing the item. Company begins to earn profits on the new product.Maturity stage - industry sales eventually reach a saturation level at which further expansion is difficult.Decline stage - sales fall and profits decline.
10Implications of the Product Life Cycle Marketer’s objective is to extend the life cycle as long as product is profitable. Marketers’ goals:Increasing customers’ frequency of useAdding customersFinding new uses for productChanging package sizes, labels, and product designs
11Stages in New Product Development Expensive, time-consuming, and risky.Only 1/3 of new products become success stories.Each step requires a “go or no-go” decision.
12Product Development Stages Stage 1: Generating ideas for new offeringsStage 2: ScreeningStage 3: Concept development and business analysis phaseStage 4: Product developmentStage 5: Test marketingStage 6: Commercialization
14Product Identification Brand - name, term, sign, symbol, design, or some combination that identifies the products of one firm and differentiates them from competitors’ offerings.Brand name - part of the brand consisting of words or letters included in a name used to identify and distinguish the firm’s offerings from those of competitors.Trademark - brand that has been given legal protection granted solely to the brand’s owner.
15Brand CategoriesManufacturer’s brand - brand offered and promoted by a manufacturer. Examples: Tide, Jockey, Gatorade, Swatch, and Reebok.Private or store brand - brand that is not linked to the manufacturer but instead carries a wholesaler’s or retailer’s label. Examples: Sears’ DieHard batteries and Wal-Mart’s Ol’Roy dog food & Member’s Mark brandFamily branding strategy - a single brand name used for several related products. Examples: KitchenAid, Johnson & Johnson, Hewlett-Packard, and DoleIndividual branding strategy - giving each product within a line a different name. Examples: Procter & Gamble products Tide, Cheer, and Dash.
16Brand LoyaltyBrand recognition - consumer is aware of the brand but does not have a preference for it over other brands.Brand preference - consumer chooses one firm’s brand over a competitor’s.Brand insistence - consumer will seek out preferred brand and accept no substitute for it.
17Brand EquityBrand equity - added value that a respected and successful name gives to a product.Brand awareness - product is the first one that comes to mind when a product category is mentioned.
19Packages and LabelsImportant in product identification and play an important role in a firm’s overall product strategy.Choosing right package is especially important in international marketing.Must meet legal requirements of all countries in which product is sold.Universal Product Code - bar code read by optical scanner.
20Distribution Strategy Distribution channel - path through which products—and legal ownership of them—flow from producer to consumers or business users.Physical distribution - actual movement of products from producer to consumers or business users.
22Distribution Channels using Marketing Intermediaries Direct DistributionDirect contact between producer and customer.Most common in B2B markets.Often found in the marketing of relatively expensive, complex products that may require demonstrations.Internet is helping companies distribute directly to consumer market.Distribution Channels Using Marketing IntermediariesProducers distribute products through wholesalers and retailers.Inexpensive products sold to thousands of consumers in widely scattered locations.Lowers costs of goods to consumers by creating market utility.
24WholesalingWholesaler - distribution channel member that sells primarily to retailers, other wholesalers, or business users.Manufacturer-Owned Wholesaling IntermediariesOwned by the manufacturer of the good.Sales branch which stocks products and fills orders from inventories.Sales office which takes orders but does not stock the product.
25RetailersRetailer - channel member that sells goods and services to individuals for their own use rather than for resale.Final link of the distribution channel.Two types: store and non-store.
26Non-Store Retailing Direct response retailing Internet retailing Automatic merchandisingDirect selling
29How Retailers Compete Identifying a Target Market Selecting a Product StrategySelecting a Customer Service StrategySelecting a Pricing StrategyChoosing a LocationBuilding a Promotional StrategyCreating a Store Atmosphere
31Distribution Channel Decisions and Logistics What specific channel will it use?What will be the level of distribution intensity?Selecting Distribution ChannelsComplex, expensive, custom-made, or perishable products move through shorter distribution channels involving few—or no—intermediaries.Standardized products or items with low unit values usually pass through relatively long distribution channels.Start-up companies often use direct channels because they can’t persuade intermediaries to carry their products.
32Distribution Intensity Intensive distribution - firm’s products in nearly every available outlet. Requires cooperation of many intermediaries.Selective distribution - limited number of retailers to distribute its product lines.Exclusive distribution - limits market coverage in a specific geographical region.
33Logistics and Physical Distribution Supply chain – complete sequence of suppliers that contribute to creating a good or service and delivering it to business users and final consumers.Logistics – the activities involved in controlling the flow of goods, services, and information among members of the supply chain.Physical Distribution – the activities aimed at efficiently moving finished goods from the production line to the consumer or business buyer.
35Customer ServiceCustomer service standards measure the quality of service a firm provides for its customers.Warranties are a firm’s promises to repair a defective product, refund money paid, or replace a product if it proves unsatisfactory.Internet retailers have worked to humanize their customer interactions and deal with complaints more effectively.