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How to tackle the Cold War examination paper SHS MARCH 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "How to tackle the Cold War examination paper SHS MARCH 2010."— Presentation transcript:

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2 How to tackle the Cold War examination paper SHS MARCH 2010

3 There are THREE sections of knowledge to the Cold War paper

4 SECTION 1 HOW DID THE COLD WAR DEVELOP? What was the Cold War? Breakdown of the Grand Alliance How did Cold War begin? Truman Doctrine and Marshall Aid Soviet Satellite States Berlin Blockade/Airlift (NATO and Arms Race) Hungarian Uprising.

5 SECTION 2 THREE COLD WAR CRISES: BERLIN, CUBA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA Berlin Cuba Czechoslovakia

6 SECTION 3 WHY DID THE COLD WAR END? DETENTE Afghanistan and the collapse of Detente American reaction to the invasion of Afghanistan Ronald Regan and the Evil Empire / SDI Gorbachev and his new thinking Break up of Eastern Europe and the fall of the Berlin Wall Fall of the Soviet Union

7 EXAM PAPER Each of the three sections above will have an exam question on it. Each question will be broken down into THREE sub questions: Question A (2 marks) Question B (6 marks) Question C (12 marks)

8 TIME You have 1hr 15 mins to complete the WHOLE exam paper. That’s 25 mins for each of the three sections of exam questions. STICK TO THIS TIME ALLOCATION – YOU MUST ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS

9 A questions are worth 2 marks, so you should plan to spend 2–3 minutes on them. Part A questions will always ask you to DESCRIBE ONE piece of information. It may ask you to: describe an action taken by… describe one decision made by… describe one cause of etc

10 What you need to do… The best answers will always: STATE one relevant action, decision, reaction, cause etc. AND also describe it with extra information.

11 STATE = Stalin controlled communism outside the USSR using the Cominform (1) DESCRIBE= Cominform was an organisation which represented communist parties across Europe (1) Example question: Describe one way Stalin controlled communism outside the USSR

12 FOR QUESTION A THINK: STATE (1) DESCRIBE (1)

13 MORE EXAMPLES: Describe one issue discussed at the Tehran Conference (1943) STATE = At the Tehran Conference the big three discussed what to do when Hitler was defeated. (1) DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = They agreed on a Soviet ‘sphere of influence’ in Eastern Europe and a Capitalist one in Western Europe. They could not agree what to do with Germany (1) Describe one decision about governing Germany taken at the Potsdam Conference in 1945 STATE = At the Potsdam Conference the big three agreed to divide Germany and its capital Berlin. (1) DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = Germany and Berlin where divided into 4 zones run by the USA, USSR, Britain and France. (1)

14 EVEN MORE EXAMPLES: Describe one way the Marshall Plan helped Europe after 1947 STATE = The Marshall Plan aimed to reduce poverty to stop the spread of communism. (1) DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = The USA offered $13 billion to re- build Europe. (1) Describe one effect of MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) in the 1960’s STATE = MAD referred to the USA and the USSR both having enough weapons to destroy the other side (1) DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = Fear of being destroyed brought more stability to their relationship. (1)

15 EVEN MORE EXAMPLES: Describe one effect of communist rule in Czechoslovakia in the 1960’s STATE = Communist rule was unpopular in Czechoslovakia, a satellite of the USSR. (1) DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = The secret police crushed all political opposition and the economy suffered under the rule of the communist leader, Novotny. (1) Describe one international reaction to the invasion of Czechoslovakia STATE = Western powers condemned the USSR(1) DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = Some communists outside of Russia were angry at the USSR and turned to China for leadership. (1)

16 EVEN MORE EXAMPLES: Describe one example of détente in space in the 1960’s STATE = The Outer Space Treaty. (1) DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = The USA and the USSR banned nuclear arms in space. (1) Describe one outcome of the Karbul Revolution in 1978 STATE = Mohammed Taraki became the new communist leader and ally of the USSR (1) DESCRIBE WITH EXTRA INFORMATION = His communist government was unpopular and civil war broke out prompting the USSR to invade in 1979(1)

17 Part (b) is worth 6 marks so you should aim to spend about 7–8 minutes on it. Remember answer ONE of the Two questions available B questions will always ask you to briefly explain something

18 What you need to do… The best answers will always: IDENTIFY THREE key features (3) Give extra information/explain each of the three key features (3)

19 QUESTION B REQUIRES A THREE PARAGRAPH ANSWER Each paragraph dealing with ONE key feature and a sentence or two of detail/explanation PARAGRAPH ONE: The first key feature of …………… was……………………………... (1) Further details of this feature are that……………….(1) PARAGRAPH TWO: The second key feature of …………… was…………………………….. (1) Further details of this feature are that…………………………………..(1) PARAGRAPH THREE: The third key feature of …………… was…………………………….. (1) Further details of this feature are that……………………………………… (1)

20 Each of the THREE paragraphs should always begin as follows…. PARAGRAPH ONE: One key feature of…………. was ………….. PARAGRAPH TWO: A Second key feature of…………. was ………….. PARAGRAPH THREE: A third key feature of…………. was ………….. Each paragraph should then continue…. Further details of this feature are that…………….

21 KEY FEATURESUPPORTING DETAIL The first key feature was that the Grand Alliance was only formed to beat Hitler (1) Further details of this feature are that with him gone, it began to break up. Anyway, armed with atomic bombs the USA no longer needed the support of the USSR (1) A second key feature of the break up was the ideological differences (1) Further details of this feature are that …. (1) A third key feature of the break up was that disagreements led to growing suspicion (1) Further details of this feature are that …. (1) HOW WELL DID YOU DO? Example question: Briefly explain how the grand Alliance broke up after the Second World war

22 KEY FEATURESUPPORTING DETAIL The first key feature is that the Grand Alliance was only formed to beat Hitler (1) With him gone, it began to break up. Anyway, armed with atomic bombs the USA no longer needed the support of the USSR (1) A second feature of the break up was the ideological differences (1) The USSR believed in communism where the Communist Party dominated government and all aspects of the economy. The West believed in democracy with free elections, and capitalism with a free economy (1) A third feature of the break up was that disagreements led to growing suspicion (1) There were several things the Big Three could not agree on at Tehran and Yalta. By 1946, the ‘Long’ and Novikov telegrams showed that they were both very suspicious of each other (1)

23 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS…. Briefly explain how Germany was governed after the Second World War PARAGRAPH 1 One key feature of the way Germany was governed after the Second World War was that in 1945, at the Potsdam Conference, the big three agreed to divide Germany up. (1) Further details of this feature are Germany and its capital, Berlin were divided into 4 zones run by the USA, USSR, Britain and France (1)

24 PARAGRAPH 2 A second key feature key of the way Germany was governed after the Second World War was that the USA and Britain run their zones together, later the French joined(1) Further details of this feature are the three Western zones became known as Trizonia. Stalin did not like this development.(1)

25 PARAGRAPH 3 A third key feature key of the way Germany was governed after the Second World War was that in 1949, Germany was formally divided into two countries. (1) Further details of this feature are West Germany became known as the Federal Republic of Germany and East Germany became known as the German Democratic Republic (1)

26 REMEMBER MY SELECTION OF KEY FACTS IS NOT ‘CORRECT’. YOU CAN PICK KEY FACTS THAT ARE DIFFERENT – AS LONG AS YOU FOLLOW THE SAME PLAN IN TERMS OF WRITING THEM DOWN

27 MORE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS…. Briefly explain THE KEY FEATURES OF THE Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) PARAGRAPH 1 One key feature of the Cuban Missile Crisis was that Castro asked the USSR to help defend Cuba following the Bay of Pigs attempted invasion (1) Further details of this feature are that in response the USSR sent nuclear weapons to Cuba (1)

28 PARAGRAPH 2 A second key feature of the Cuban Missile Crisis was that Kennedy imposed a blockade to stop the USSR delivering any more nuclear weapons. (1) Further details of this feature are that the world was on the brink on nuclear war. Everyone was panicking. (1)

29 PARAGRAPH 3 A third key feature of the Cuban Missile Crisis was the long term effects. (1) Further details of this feature are that the USA and the USSR entered a period of peaceful co-existence. This included the signing of a nuclear test ban treaty, a hot line, trade agreements and SALT talks. (1)

30 EVEN MORE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS…. Briefly explain THE KEY FEATURES OF THE Berlin Crisis (1961) PARAGRAPH 1 One key feature of the Berlin Crisis was that refugees were moving from East (Communist) to West (Capitalist) Germany (1) Further details of this feature are that this was both an economic problem for the East as well as a propaganda embarrassment (1)

31 PARAGRAPH 2 A second key feature of the Berlin Crisis was in 1961 Khrushchev became angry and ordered the USA to leave Berlin. (1) Further details of this feature are that he told the USA that they had six months to get their troops out of Berlin. (1)

32 PARAGRAPH 3 A third key feature of the Berlin Crisis was that Khrushchev built the Berlin Wall. (1) Further details of this feature are that a wall was built separating East and West Berlin. The wall became a symbol of the division of Europe (1)

33 Question C is worth 12 marks so you should aim to spend about 15 minutes on it. Part C questions will always ask you to explain why the relationship between the USA and the USSR changed between given years. The years are the only thing that will change.

34 What you need to do… The best answers will always: Identify THREE causes or events Use detailed information to explain each of these causes/events Make a judgement about the three causes to show how they are linked State which of the three is most important.

35 QUESTION C REQUIRES A FIVE PARAGRAPH ANSWER The first three paragraphs should all look the same. PARAGRAPH ONE: One cause which explains why relations changed between ……….. was…………... (1) Further details of this are……………….(1) This made relations worse (or better) because……………………….. (1) PARAGRAPH TWO: One cause which explains why relations changed between ……….. was…………... (1) Further details of this are……………….(1) This made relations worse (or better) because……………………….. (1) PARAGRAPH THREE: One cause which explains why relations changed between ……….. was…………... (1) Further details of this are……………….(1) This made relations worse (or better) because……………………….. (1)

36 Paragraph 4 – Link all the paragraphs together. How did one event lead to another. Or how did one event effect another (1) Paragraph 5 – Which of the three events/causes used in paragraphs 1-3 was most important and why? (2) Paragraph 5 should begin… The most important factor/event causing a change in the relationship between the USA and the USSR was………………… (1) because…………. (1)

37 The first three paragraphs should all look the same. PARAGRAPH ONE: One cause which explains why relations changed between 1943 and 1949 was the break up of the Grand Alliance (1) Further details of this are that the Grand Alliance had been formed between the USA, USSR and GB to defeat Hitler. When the war ended the threat of Hitler no longer kept the Allies together. When in 1945 the USA used the first Atomic bomb the USA no longer needed the support of the USSR. (1) This made relations worse because neither side needed the other and therefore they allowed their differences to surface (1) Example question: Explain why relations between the USA and the USSR got worse

38 PARAGRAPH TWO: A second cause which explains why relations changed between 1943 and 1949 was the ideological differences that existed between the USA and the USSR (1) Further details of this are that the USSR believed in communism where the Communist Party controlled the government and all aspects of the economy. The USA believed in democracy, with free elections, and capitalism, with a free market. (1) This made relations worse because both sides thought their way of doing things was right and they felt the other side wanted to destroy there was of being (1 )

39 PARAGRAPH THREE: A third cause which explains why relations changed between 1943 and 1949 was that disagreements led to growing suspicion. (1) Further details of this are that the two countries disagreed over practical issues There were several things that the big three could not agree on at Tehran and Yalta. By 1946, the ‘Long’ and Novikov Telegrams showed they were both suspicious of each other. (1) This made relations worse because both sides thought the other was thinking of trying to destroy the other(1)

40 PARAGRAPH FOUR (REMEMBER THIS IS THE LINKING PARAGRAPH): You now need to show how the three causes listed above are linked or connected or how one led to the other: The break-up of the Grand Alliance was linked to the differences in ideologies, because the two sides could not understand one another. The telegrams also led the two sides to start mistrusting each other. (1)

41 PARAGRAPH Five (REMEMBER THIS IS THE JUDGEMENT PARAGRAPH): You now need to state which one of the three causes was most important: Different ideologies were the most important reason for worsening relations. They helped to break up the Grand Alliance. And because the USSR wanted to spread communism and Truman wanted to stop it, there was never any trust between them. (1)

42 The first three paragraphs should all look the same. PARAGRAPH ONE: One cause which explains why there was a Cold War between 1947 and 1956 was any details about one of the following: the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Soviet satellite states, Cominform or Comecon (1) Further details of this are that (if you had used Truman Doctrine) US President Truman was worried that communism would spread in Europe, so he introduced his Truman Doctrine. (1) This made relations worse because (if you had used Truman Doctrine) Truman’s Doctrine said the USA would use military and economic means to stop communism spreading (1) MORE Example question: Explain why there was a Cold War between

43 The first three paragraphs should all look the same. PARAGRAPH TWO: A second cause which explains why there was a Cold War between 1947 and 1956 was any details about the government of Bizonia, Trizonia, the Belin Blockade or the Berlin Airlift(1) Further details of this are that (if you had used Trizonia) In 1948, the Western Allies put their three zones together. (1) This made relations worse because (if you had used Trizonia) When the Western Allies started to make Trizonia a democratic, capitalist state, this increased tension with the USSR. MORE Example question: Explain why there was a Cold War between

44 The first three paragraphs should all look the same. PARAGRAPH THREE: A third cause which explains why there was a Cold War between 1947 and 1956 was any details about NATO, Warsaw Pact or the Arms Race (1) Further details of this are that (if you had used NATO) The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was set up in It was made up of the USA and its allies. They promised to defend each other if attacked. (1) This made relations worse because (if you had used NATO) each side now tried to get as many weapons as possible (arms race). (1) MORE Example question: Explain why there was a Cold War between

45 PARAGRAPH FOUR (REMEMBER THIS IS THE LINKING PARAGRAPH): You now need to show how the three causes listed above are linked or connected or how one led to the other: The Truman Doctrine made sorting out problems in Berlin more difficult. As the relationship got worse both sides created military alliances to protect each other. (1)

46 PARAGRAPH Five (REMEMBER THIS IS THE JUDGEMENT PARAGRAPH): You now need to state which one of the three causes was most important: Different ideologies were the most important reason for worsening relations as trust was impossible. (1)


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