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Digital Forensic Readiness in Megacities TOKI, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Digital Forensic Readiness in Megacities TOKI, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digital Forensic Readiness in Megacities TOKI, 2014

2 Authors Jelili Oyelade 1, Alaba Ojediran 2,3 * and Itunu Isewon 1 1 Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Covenant University, PMB 1023, Ota, Nigeria. 2 School of Science and Technology National Open University, Nigeria. 3 Data Processing Unit, Lagos State University, PMB 00001,LASU Post Office, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria. * Corresponding Author :

3 Definitions  What is a Megacity?  What is Digital Forensics?  What is Digital Forensic Readiness?  What is a Digital Evidence?  What are some of the sources of Digital Evidences?

4  A Megacity is usually defined as a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing with a total population in excess of ten million people.urban coreindustryinfrastructurehousingpopulation  As at July,2014 there are about 28 megacities in the world.

5 The United Nations (UN) estimâtes that at its present growth rate, Lagos State will be third largest mega city in the world by 2015 after Tokyo in Japan and Bombay in India.

6  Digital Forensic is the use of scientifically derived and proven methods toward the preservation, collection, validation, identification, analysis, interpretation, documentation and presentation of digital evidence derived from digital sources.  This is for the purpose of facilitating or furthering the reconstruction of events found to be criminal, or helping to anticipate unauthorized actions shown to be disruptive to planned operations.

7 Digital Forensic Readiness  Digital Forensic Readiness (DFR) is the ability of an organization to maximize its potential to use digital evidence while minimizing the cost of an investigation.

8 Digital Evidence  Digital evidences are electronically stored records, facts, signs, information of probative value that shows clearly that an event occurred or that a crime has been committed.

9 Sources of Digital Evidences Phones, tablets, iPads, E-mails, Digital photographs, ATM transaction logs, Word processing documents, Instant message histories, Files saved from accounting programs and Spreadsheets, Internet browser histories, Databases, The contents of computer memory, Computer backups, Computer printouts, Global positioning system tracks, Logs from a hotel’s electronic door locks, and Digital video or audio files.

10 Uses of Digital Evidences  The use of digital evidence has increased in the past few decades. These include :  Decision Making  Crime Investigation  Legal Actions  Disaster Recovery Planning  Megacity Planning

11 Introduction  Megacities may be congested and complex, but they are also among the planet’s most exciting places to live. They have proven effective in stimulating creativity, innovation and economic development; factors that often lead to improved quality of life. (Ericsson, 2013).  However, they have there own challenges too.

12 Megacities; Mega Challenges  Of the divers’ threats to the existence of mega cities, a recent research on Megacity Challenges by GlobeScan and MRC McLean (2010) found the leading ones to be:  Organized Crime (put first by 24%),  Corruption or Incompetent Law Enforcement (15%)  Poor Planning and Poor City management (10%)  Terrorism (9%)  Natural Disasters (9%)

13 This paper decides to beam more light on Organized Crime, which is the highest threat to the existence of mega cities. Organized Crime is a disruption to planned operations, and it is undesirable in megacities administration. Organized Crime: The Major Threat.


15  In other words, the causes of crime, terrorism and natural disasters are criminals, terrorists, and natural disasters, or incompetence in fighting them”(Siemens, 2010).Siemens, 2010  Consequently, if we can’t eliminate criminals, terrorist and natural disasters from occurring, we should be able to competently fight them.

16 Cost of Megacities Challenges Economic Cost Social Cost Environmental Financial

17 ICT cum CRIME

18 The Need  Digital Technology, ICT &Computers has become an important part of our lives and as such will play a pivotal role in building and managing megacities. As digital data are consistently growing in size and complexity, and the amount of stored digital records is doubling at an estimated rate of every 18 to 24 months, the majority of crimes committed today has digital component.

19 Where Do We Go From Here?  This then leads us to the main issues of this paper, which is, how can we ensure that the systems in an emerging megacity, are digital- forensic ready to tackle its challenges?

20 ParadIgmParadIgm

21  As the paradigm shifts from reacting to problems to predicting & prevention of problems, we hereby propose a model that seeks to solve these problems proactively.

22 Proposed Megacity Digital Forensic Readiness Model (MEDFORM)

23 Phases of MEDFORM 1.Identification of Possible Sources of Evidence 2.System Modelling for Admissible Evidence Preservation and Retrieval 3.Systems Automation and Integration 4.Policy Analysis and Policy Formation 5.Systems Presentation (Education and Usage) 6.Monitoring and Review

24 Benefits of the Proposed MEDFORM Proactive actions Ready source of evidence for real-time decisions Prevention of Disruptions Reduction in administrative cost, on the long run. Fortified systems

25 Lagos as Case Study  Lagos state has made great strides in the area of data gathering for decision support in developing and sustaining her megacity status. These include:  Lagos State Residents Registration Initiative  Deployment of fiber optics  Digitalization of operation  Operating and sustaining Lagos State security command.  Initiating the establishment of a world class forensic lab in Badagry

26  As megacities management seeks to digitize their operations, they must also ensure that the data acquired from different facets are integrated and are appropriately utilized in effective decision making. A typical example of this need and use of data for effective megacity management is transportation and traffic congestion, accident management, crime mapping, health, housing and education.  If Lagos would successfully attain and maintain the predicted third largest mega city in the world by 2015, it would have to do more in the area of DFR by working on building a Connected System that is Digital Forensic-Ready.  Consequently, Lagos must maximize it use of digital evidences collected, at a minimum operations cost. Observations

27 Conclusion 1.Technology is pivotal in effectively curbing crime and effective management of megacities. 2.DFR is a must in megacities. 3. Reactive crime fighting is costly and disruptive to megacity management. 4.The privacy of megacity citizens might be compromised for security 5.Forensic-Ready Systems are necessary in order to effectively model and predict security concerns and address them even before they prime, or reduce their impact if they eventually happen.

28 Further Research  Using the proposed model (MEDFORM) above, in an emerging megacity like Lagos as a case study, further research should seek to i.aggregate and integrated data from the diverse sources in the city; ii.predict and model an events or threats, using the data; and iii.test the predicted event for validation.  When this is done, it will help to ascertain the reliability of the data(digital evidences) collected, as well as prove, how is was collected, stored and retrieved for use.

29 Corresponding Author Ojediran Alaba Bolaji System Analyst at the Data Processing Unit of the Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria. & M.Sc. Student at the National Open University, Nigeria. Email:

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