Presentation on theme: "The Post-Napoleonic Era"— Presentation transcript:
1The Post-Napoleonic Era ConservatismNationalismLiberalismWhich shall prevail?
2Post – NB European Borders Given these borders, what do you anticipate will occur next?
3What did the Congress of Vienna desire for Europe? Restore ORDER & SecurityFrench Revolution was bloody, messy, OOCRestore BALANCE OF POWERPEACE viaCooperation, Consultation & ConsentRestore LEGITIMATE rulersReturn of Monarchy & Aristocracy… traditional societyWHY?
4However, other ideas also emerged… NationalismThe desire to have your own nation and not be ruled by othersSubjugated peoples wanted their own nations, no more empiresFreedomAutonomyLiberalismThe desire to reform the existing political, economic & social structures in order to create greater equity
5What is a “NATION”? A composition of people who have common LanguageCultureCustomsHistoryRoots to a locationNationalists opposed the principles of the Congress of Vienna, they desired popular sovereignty
6What does it take to have a successful nation? Established national languagePrint CultureShared worldview based on common experienceWorkable economyMilitary Strength to defend itselfCultural ElitePerpetuation of the culture, language, customs & history
7Who were the LIBERALS? What did they desire? EducatedEconomically stableProfessional or Commercial orientedAcademicsExcluded or limited by previous regimeBelieved in talent & achievementLegal EqualityReligious TolerationConstitutional gov’tFreedom of ExpressionConsent of the governedEquitable economic opportunity
8Where were the “hot spots”? IrelandPolandGermanyHungaryThe BalkansItalyGreece
9What were the components of Conservatism? Legitimate monarchsVs. ConstitutionsLanded AristocraciesProtection for property & privilegeEstablished State Supported ChurchesAnti-Enlightenment or “new” religionLeadershipK. von Metternich / Edmund Burke / Fr. Hegel
10What actions did conservatives take to preserve the status quo? AustriaDominatesGerman ConfederationPrussiaNo promised reformsDiets ruled by JunkersGerman StatesLimited self-governmentCarlsbad Decrees end BurschenschaftenFinal Act limits free speech in governmentGreat BritainCorn Laws = tariffCombination Acts = no unionsCoercion Acts = no habeas corpus or seditious meetingsPeterloo MassacreSix Acts = ↑gov’t power↓ rights for dissidentsFranceCharter = limited changeUltra-royalist White Terror
11How was conservative international order maintained? AlliancesHoly Alliance = R + Pr + AQuadruple Alliance = R + Pr + A + GBConcert of EuropeNo action w/o consent of other nationsCongress SystemTreaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (aka Aachen)Troop withdrawal & re-admittance of FranceCongress of TroppauProtocol of Troppau = intervention OK to preserve regimesCongress of Verona = intervention in SpainMonroe Doctrine = GB seeks economic gain in Latin America
12The Revolutionary Wave The Balkans“Eastern Question”Conflict of InterestR & A >> LandF & GB >> BizChristianity v. IslamGreece 1821No initial direct intervention1827 Treaty of London #1… naval support, demand independenceTreaty of Adrianople 1829R intervention >> allows GB / F / R decision making power1830 Treaty of London #2 = Greek independence >> Otto I
13The Revolutionary Wave Serbia National IdentitySlavic & OrthodoxGuerilla War by Kara GeorgePartial AutonomyNegotiated by Milos ObrenovitchIndependence granted 1830 by OttomansTerritory, border & minority issues = tensionLinks to RussiaCulture, Religion, Trade & Alliance
14Latin America’s Revolutionary Wave HaitiSlave revoltSouth AmericaCreole revoltsVenezuelaNew GranadaRio de la Plata & ChileNew Spain(Mexico)Creole/Native revoltBrazil = non-violent
15Russia: Failed Reforms Alexander I: Rejects ChangeSuppression leads to secret reform societiesS. Society (democracy) & N. Society (Con. Monarchy)Crisis: No Heir = Constantine? Nicholas?Decembrist Revolt 1825: Failed Coup d’EtatNicholas I: Autocracy!Censorship + Secret Police + Russification“Orthodoxy, Autocracy and Nationalism”Poland revolts crushed >> Organic Statute 1832
16Revolution in France… again (1830) Louis XVIII (Bourbon CM) dies 1824Charles X: Ultra-royalist + Divine Right$ to nobles + primogeniture + power grab!Four Ordinances: ↓ rights, ↓ power, ↓ gov’tDissolved Chamber of Deputies July Revolt 1830: “Les Miserables”Worker Revolt – Barricades in Parisian streets!Charles X abdicatesLouis Philippe the “King of the French”CM, Tricolor, ↑rights, shared power, NO social Δ
17British Government House of Lords House of Commons Parliament Monarch Veto PowerHead of StateParliamentLaws + PolicyTory – Whig – LaborHouse of LordsInherited / AppointedNobles + ClergyHouse of CommonsElectedMiddle Class
18Reforming Great Britain Act of Union 1798Protestant Irish reps to House of CommonsCatholic Emancipation Act 1828RCs could be members of ParliamentKeeps peace in IrelandGreat Reform Bill 1832To solve “rotten borough” problem↑ electorate byRe-drawing voting districts↓ property qualifications
19So what’s the point? New movements, new directions Post- NB Europe had to adjustNations & government stylesConservative vs. LiberalSocial class issuesRising Middle Class seeks greater participationNew movements, new directionsConservatism seeks to maintain controlNationalist groups seek recognition & new nation-statesLiberalism seeks to reform European politics & society
20All of the following were goals of 19th century liberals EXCEPT Religious tolerationLegal equalityFree consent of the governedDemocracyLimits to arbitrary power of government against the property of individualsD. They not advocate democracy, did not want to give power to lower classes
21Nationalist generally contended that Legitimate monarchs should be the basis of political unityEthnic boundaries should be distinct from political boundariesEthnic boundaries should coincide with political boundariesOfficial versions of language should come from the government rather than the peopleMultinational states were more desirable than single ethnic kingdomsC. Nations – ethnicity, common culture, etc. – should be the basis of political boundaries
22Group ExerciseCreate a poster that explains the revolutionary process in your assigned country-Bullet Point Key Info + Visual + Present itCountry Choices:Balkans / Spain / Haiti / New Spain / France / Russia / Great Britain / So AmericaThink SPRITE… names, terms, events, laws, treaties, years, causes, effects…Flow Maps, Bubble Maps, etc.
23The Concert of Europe refers to the New informal arrangement for resolving mutual foreign policy issuesNew Russian, Austrian, Prussian and British allianceJanuary 1820 outbreak of revolution in SpainRestoration of monarchy in FranceCombined effort to defeat Napoleon BonaparteA. The system focused on continental issues and was based on cooperation, communication & consent
24FRQ PracticeWrite an FRQ Quick (underline thesis) and an outline of a quality response to one of the prompts below:“The independence movements in Latin America were a direct consequence of European events.” Defend or refute this statement & justify your position. ORIn what ways did the great powers of Europe stem the tide of revolution between ?