Presentation on theme: "The Post-Napoleonic Era Conservatism Nationalism Liberalism Which shall prevail?"— Presentation transcript:
The Post-Napoleonic Era Conservatism Nationalism Liberalism Which shall prevail?
Post – NB European Borders Given these borders, what do you anticipate will occur next?
What did the Congress of Vienna desire for Europe? Restore ORDER & Security –French Revolution was bloody, messy, OOC Restore BALANCE OF POWER –PEACE via Cooperation, Consultation & Consent Restore LEGITIMATE rulers –Return of Monarchy & Aristocracy… traditional society WHY?
However, other ideas also emerged… Nationalism –The desire to have your own nation and not be ruled by others –Subjugated peoples wanted their own nations, no more empires –Freedom –Autonomy Liberalism –The desire to reform the existing political, economic & social structures in order to create greater equity
What is a “NATION”? A composition of people who have common –Language –Culture –Customs –History –Roots to a location Nationalists opposed the principles of the Congress of Vienna, they desired popular sovereignty
What does it take to have a successful nation? Established national language –Print Culture Shared worldview based on common experience Workable economy Military Strength to defend itself Cultural Elite –Perpetuation of the culture, language, customs & history
Who were the LIBERALS? What did they desire? Educated Economically stable Professional or Commercial oriented Academics Excluded or limited by previous regime Believed in talent & achievement Legal Equality Religious Toleration Constitutional gov’t Freedom of Expression Consent of the governed Equitable economic opportunity
Where were the “hot spots”? Ireland Poland Germany Hungary The Balkans Italy Greece
What were the components of Conservatism? Legitimate monarchs –Vs. Constitutions Landed Aristocracies –Protection for property & privilege Established State Supported Churches –Anti-Enlightenment or “new” religion Leadership –K. von Metternich / Edmund Burke / Fr. Hegel
What actions did conservatives take to preserve the status quo? Austria –Dominates German Confederation Prussia –No promised reforms –Diets ruled by Junkers German States –Limited self-government –Carlsbad Decrees end Burschenschaften –Final Act limits free speech in government Great Britain –Corn Laws = tariff –Combination Acts = no unions –Coercion Acts = no habeas corpus or seditious meetings –Peterloo Massacre –Six Acts = ↑gov’t power ↓ rights for dissidents France –Charter = limited change –Ultra-royalist White Terror
How was conservative international order maintained? Alliances –Holy Alliance = R + Pr + A –Quadruple Alliance = R + Pr + A + GB Concert of Europe –No action w/o consent of other nations Congress System –Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (aka Aachen) Troop withdrawal & re-admittance of France –Congress of Troppau Protocol of Troppau = intervention OK to preserve regimes –Congress of Verona = intervention in Spain Monroe Doctrine = GB seeks economic gain in Latin America
The Revolutionary Wave The Balkans –“Eastern Question” Conflict of Interest –R & A >> Land –F & GB >> Biz –Christianity v. Islam –Greece 1821 No initial direct intervention 1827 Treaty of London #1… naval support, demand independence Treaty of Adrianople 1829 –R intervention >> allows GB / F / R decision making power 1830 Treaty of London #2 = Greek independence >> Otto I
The Revolutionary Wave Serbia National Identity –Slavic & Orthodox –Guerilla War by Kara George Partial Autonomy –Negotiated by Milos Obrenovitch Independence granted 1830 by Ottomans –Territory, border & minority issues = tension Links to Russia –Culture, Religion, Trade & Alliance
Latin America’s Revolutionary Wave Haiti –Slave revolt South America –Creole revolts –Venezuela –New Granada –Rio de la Plata & Chile New Spain(Mexico) –Creole/Native revolt Brazil = non-violent
Russia: Failed Reforms Alexander I: Rejects Change –Suppression leads to secret reform societies –S. Society (democracy) & N. Society (Con. Monarchy) Crisis: No Heir = Constantine? Nicholas? Decembrist Revolt 1825: Failed Coup d’Etat Nicholas I: Autocracy! –Censorship + Secret Police + Russification –“Orthodoxy, Autocracy and Nationalism” –Poland revolts crushed >> Organic Statute 1832
Revolution in France… again (1830) Louis XVIII (Bourbon CM) dies 1824 Charles X: Ultra-royalist + Divine Right –$ to nobles + primogeniture + power grab! –Four Ordinances: ↓ rights, ↓ power, ↓ gov’t Dissolved Chamber of Deputies July Revolt 1830: “Les Miserables” –Worker Revolt – Barricades in Parisian streets! –Charles X abdicates Louis Philippe the “King of the French” –CM, Tricolor, ↑rights, shared power, NO social Δ
British Government Monarch Veto Power Head of State Parliament Laws + Policy Tory – Whig – Labor House of Lords Inherited / Appointed Nobles + Clergy Veto Power House of Commons Elected Middle Class
Reforming Great Britain Act of Union 1798 –Protestant Irish reps to House of Commons Catholic Emancipation Act 1828 –RCs could be members of Parliament –Keeps peace in Ireland Great Reform Bill 1832 –To solve “rotten borough” problem –↑ electorate by Re-drawing voting districts ↓ property qualifications
So what’s the point? Post- NB Europe had to adjust –Nations & government styles Conservative vs. Liberal –Social class issues Rising Middle Class seeks greater participation New movements, new directions –Conservatism seeks to maintain control –Nationalist groups seek recognition & new nation-states –Liberalism seeks to reform European politics & society
All of the following were goals of 19 th century liberals EXCEPT A.Religious toleration B.Legal equality C.Free consent of the governed D.Democracy E.Limits to arbitrary power of government against the property of individuals D. They not advocate democracy, did not want to give power to lower classes
Nationalist generally contended that A.Legitimate monarchs should be the basis of political unity B.Ethnic boundaries should be distinct from political boundaries C.Ethnic boundaries should coincide with political boundaries D.Official versions of language should come from the government rather than the people E.Multinational states were more desirable than single ethnic kingdoms C. Nations – ethnicity, common culture, etc. – should be the basis of political boundaries
Group Exercise Create a poster that explains the revolutionary process in your assigned country- –Bullet Point Key Info + Visual + Present it Country Choices: –Balkans / Spain / Haiti / New Spain / France / Russia / Great Britain / So America Think SPRITE… names, terms, events, laws, treaties, years, causes, effects… Flow Maps, Bubble Maps, etc.
The Concert of Europe refers to the A.New informal arrangement for resolving mutual foreign policy issues B.New Russian, Austrian, Prussian and British alliance C.January 1820 outbreak of revolution in Spain D.Restoration of monarchy in France E.Combined effort to defeat Napoleon Bonaparte A. The system focused on continental issues and was based on cooperation, communication & consent
FRQ Practice Write an FRQ Quick (underline thesis) and an outline of a quality response to one of the prompts below: “The independence movements in Latin America were a direct consequence of European events.” Defend or refute this statement & justify your position. OR In what ways did the great powers of Europe stem the tide of revolution between ?