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The Post-Napoleonic Era

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Presentation on theme: "The Post-Napoleonic Era"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Post-Napoleonic Era
Conservatism Nationalism Liberalism Which shall prevail?

2 Post – NB European Borders
Given these borders, what do you anticipate will occur next?

3 What did the Congress of Vienna desire for Europe?
Restore ORDER & Security French Revolution was bloody, messy, OOC Restore BALANCE OF POWER PEACE via Cooperation, Consultation & Consent Restore LEGITIMATE rulers Return of Monarchy & Aristocracy… traditional society WHY?

4 However, other ideas also emerged…
Nationalism The desire to have your own nation and not be ruled by others Subjugated peoples wanted their own nations, no more empires Freedom Autonomy Liberalism The desire to reform the existing political, economic & social structures in order to create greater equity

5 What is a “NATION”? A composition of people who have common
Language Culture Customs History Roots to a location Nationalists opposed the principles of the Congress of Vienna, they desired popular sovereignty

6 What does it take to have a successful nation?
Established national language Print Culture Shared worldview based on common experience Workable economy Military Strength to defend itself Cultural Elite Perpetuation of the culture, language, customs & history

7 Who were the LIBERALS? What did they desire?
Educated Economically stable Professional or Commercial oriented Academics Excluded or limited by previous regime Believed in talent & achievement Legal Equality Religious Toleration Constitutional gov’t Freedom of Expression Consent of the governed Equitable economic opportunity

8 Where were the “hot spots”?
Ireland Poland Germany Hungary The Balkans Italy Greece

9 What were the components of Conservatism?
Legitimate monarchs Vs. Constitutions Landed Aristocracies Protection for property & privilege Established State Supported Churches Anti-Enlightenment or “new” religion Leadership K. von Metternich / Edmund Burke / Fr. Hegel

10 What actions did conservatives take to preserve the status quo?
Austria Dominates German Confederation Prussia No promised reforms Diets ruled by Junkers German States Limited self-government Carlsbad Decrees end Burschenschaften Final Act limits free speech in government Great Britain Corn Laws = tariff Combination Acts = no unions Coercion Acts = no habeas corpus or seditious meetings Peterloo Massacre Six Acts = ↑gov’t power ↓ rights for dissidents France Charter = limited change Ultra-royalist White Terror

11 How was conservative international order maintained?
Alliances Holy Alliance = R + Pr + A Quadruple Alliance = R + Pr + A + GB Concert of Europe No action w/o consent of other nations Congress System Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (aka Aachen) Troop withdrawal & re-admittance of France Congress of Troppau Protocol of Troppau = intervention OK to preserve regimes Congress of Verona = intervention in Spain Monroe Doctrine = GB seeks economic gain in Latin America

12 The Revolutionary Wave
The Balkans “Eastern Question” Conflict of Interest R & A >> Land F & GB >> Biz Christianity v. Islam Greece 1821 No initial direct intervention 1827 Treaty of London #1… naval support, demand independence Treaty of Adrianople 1829 R intervention >> allows GB / F / R decision making power 1830 Treaty of London #2 = Greek independence >> Otto I

13 The Revolutionary Wave Serbia
National Identity Slavic & Orthodox Guerilla War by Kara George Partial Autonomy Negotiated by Milos Obrenovitch Independence granted 1830 by Ottomans Territory, border & minority issues = tension Links to Russia Culture, Religion, Trade & Alliance

14 Latin America’s Revolutionary Wave
Haiti Slave revolt South America Creole revolts Venezuela New Granada Rio de la Plata & Chile New Spain(Mexico) Creole/Native revolt Brazil = non-violent

15 Russia: Failed Reforms
Alexander I: Rejects Change Suppression leads to secret reform societies S. Society (democracy) & N. Society (Con. Monarchy) Crisis: No Heir = Constantine? Nicholas? Decembrist Revolt 1825: Failed Coup d’Etat Nicholas I: Autocracy! Censorship + Secret Police + Russification “Orthodoxy, Autocracy and Nationalism” Poland revolts crushed >> Organic Statute 1832

16 Revolution in France… again (1830)
Louis XVIII (Bourbon CM) dies 1824 Charles X: Ultra-royalist + Divine Right $ to nobles + primogeniture + power grab! Four Ordinances: ↓ rights, ↓ power, ↓ gov’t Dissolved Chamber of Deputies   July Revolt 1830: “Les Miserables” Worker Revolt – Barricades in Parisian streets! Charles X abdicates Louis Philippe the “King of the French” CM, Tricolor, ↑rights, shared power, NO social Δ

17 British Government House of Lords House of Commons Parliament Monarch
Veto Power Head of State Parliament Laws + Policy Tory – Whig – Labor House of Lords Inherited / Appointed Nobles + Clergy House of Commons Elected Middle Class

18 Reforming Great Britain
Act of Union 1798 Protestant Irish reps to House of Commons Catholic Emancipation Act 1828 RCs could be members of Parliament Keeps peace in Ireland Great Reform Bill 1832 To solve “rotten borough” problem ↑ electorate by Re-drawing voting districts ↓ property qualifications

19 So what’s the point? New movements, new directions
Post- NB Europe had to adjust Nations & government styles Conservative vs. Liberal Social class issues Rising Middle Class seeks greater participation New movements, new directions Conservatism seeks to maintain control Nationalist groups seek recognition & new nation-states Liberalism seeks to reform European politics & society

20 All of the following were goals of 19th century liberals EXCEPT
Religious toleration Legal equality Free consent of the governed Democracy Limits to arbitrary power of government against the property of individuals D. They not advocate democracy, did not want to give power to lower classes

21 Nationalist generally contended that
Legitimate monarchs should be the basis of political unity Ethnic boundaries should be distinct from political boundaries Ethnic boundaries should coincide with political boundaries Official versions of language should come from the government rather than the people Multinational states were more desirable than single ethnic kingdoms C. Nations – ethnicity, common culture, etc. – should be the basis of political boundaries

22 Group Exercise Create a poster that explains the revolutionary process in your assigned country- Bullet Point Key Info + Visual + Present it Country Choices: Balkans / Spain / Haiti / New Spain / France / Russia / Great Britain / So America Think SPRITE… names, terms, events, laws, treaties, years, causes, effects… Flow Maps, Bubble Maps, etc.

23 The Concert of Europe refers to the
New informal arrangement for resolving mutual foreign policy issues New Russian, Austrian, Prussian and British alliance January 1820 outbreak of revolution in Spain Restoration of monarchy in France Combined effort to defeat Napoleon Bonaparte A. The system focused on continental issues and was based on cooperation, communication & consent

24 FRQ Practice Write an FRQ Quick (underline thesis) and an outline of a quality response to one of the prompts below: “The independence movements in Latin America were a direct consequence of European events.” Defend or refute this statement & justify your position. OR In what ways did the great powers of Europe stem the tide of revolution between ?

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