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HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The Great Depression and the Rise of Totalitarianism Section 1:The Postwar.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The Great Depression and the Rise of Totalitarianism Section 1:The Postwar."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The Great Depression and the Rise of Totalitarianism Section 1:The Postwar Era Section 2:Postwar Prosperity Crumbles Section 3:Political Tensions After World War I Section 4:Fascist Dictatorships Section 5:Dictatorship in the Soviet Union CHAPTER 28

2 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Objectives: Explain how scientific theories affected thinking in other areas of life. Explain how scientific theories affected thinking in other areas of life. Identify ways in which writers, musicians, painters, and architects experimented with new forms. Identify ways in which writers, musicians, painters, and architects experimented with new forms. Describe how popular culture and consumerism affected societies. Describe how popular culture and consumerism affected societies. Section 1: The Postwar Era

3 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 The Effects of Scientific Events and Ideas A global epidemic A global epidemic Scientific and social theories Scientific and social theories Section 1: The Postwar Era

4 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 New Directions in Literature Dissatisfaction with traditional ideas, disillusionment Dissatisfaction with traditional ideas, disillusionment Examination of unconscious motivations Examination of unconscious motivations Surrealism Surrealism Poetry without rhyme with lines of varying lengths Poetry without rhyme with lines of varying lengths Section 1: The Postwar Era

5 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 New Directions in Music, Painting, and Architecture Music – Stravinsky, Schoenberg; radio gave rise to jazz Music – Stravinsky, Schoenberg; radio gave rise to jazz Painting – Picasso created cubism; Dali used surrealism Painting – Picasso created cubism; Dali used surrealism Architecture – Sullivan used functionalism, developed skyscraper; Frank Lloyd Wright influenced international style Architecture – Sullivan used functionalism, developed skyscraper; Frank Lloyd Wright influenced international style Section 1: The Postwar Era

6 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Popular Culture and Consumerism Entertainment – motion pictures, sports Entertainment – motion pictures, sports Consumer culture – more luxury items purchased, radio advertising, buying on credit, prohibition Consumer culture – more luxury items purchased, radio advertising, buying on credit, prohibition Section 1: The Postwar Era

7 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Objectives: Identify the weaknesses that appeared in the global economy during the postwar era. Identify the weaknesses that appeared in the global economy during the postwar era. Describe how nations initially responded to the Great Depression. Describe how nations initially responded to the Great Depression. Explain how the New Deal marked a shift in the U.S. government’s relationship with its citizens and the economy. Explain how the New Deal marked a shift in the U.S. government’s relationship with its citizens and the economy. Section 2: Postwar Prosperity Crumbles

8 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 Signs of Economic Troubles Farmers – farmers struggled while industry prospered Farmers – farmers struggled while industry prospered Protectionism – economic nationalism Protectionism – economic nationalism Speculation and panic – risky investments in stock market, Black Tuesday occurred when stock market crashed Speculation and panic – risky investments in stock market, Black Tuesday occurred when stock market crashed Section 2: Postwar Prosperity Crumbles

9 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 The Great Depression Destroyed surpluses Destroyed surpluses Tried economic nationalism Tried economic nationalism Section 2: Postwar Prosperity Crumbles

10 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 The New Deal Program of relief and reform Program of relief and reform Social Security Act provided for unemployment and old-age benefits Social Security Act provided for unemployment and old-age benefits Section 2: Postwar Prosperity Crumbles

11 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 Objectives: Describe the difficulties that France faced during the postwar years. Describe the difficulties that France faced during the postwar years. Explain how the British government dealt with its domestic problems. Explain how the British government dealt with its domestic problems. Identify the problems that weakened eastern European governments. Identify the problems that weakened eastern European governments. Section 3: Political Tensions After World War I

12 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 France’s Postwar Difficulties The economy – government and individuals were in debt The economy – government and individuals were in debt International affairs – Locarno Pact pledged that countries would peacefully settle all future disputes International affairs – Locarno Pact pledged that countries would peacefully settle all future disputes Political unrest – strikes in various industries; Popular Front came to power, then fell; extremist actions Political unrest – strikes in various industries; Popular Front came to power, then fell; extremist actions Section 3: Political Tensions After World War I

13 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 Great Britain After World War I Labor troubles – outdated industry, unemployment Labor troubles – outdated industry, unemployment Ireland - bloody revolt against Great Britain; Irish Republican Army fought for independence Ireland - bloody revolt against Great Britain; Irish Republican Army fought for independence Section 3: Political Tensions After World War I

14 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 Eastern Europe Weak economies Weak economies Conflicts between socialists and conservatives Conflicts between socialists and conservatives New boundaries caused unrest New boundaries caused unrest Section 3: Political Tensions After World War I

15 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 Objectives: Describe how Benito Mussolini transformed Italy into a fascist state. Describe how Benito Mussolini transformed Italy into a fascist state. Explain why the Weimar Republic failed. Explain why the Weimar Republic failed. Trace how Adolf Hitler became an important figure in Germany. Trace how Adolf Hitler became an important figure in Germany. Describe how the Nazis used power in Germany. Describe how the Nazis used power in Germany. Section 4: Fascist Dictatorships

16 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 16 The Rise of Fascism in Italy Fascist doctrine – dictatorship and totalitarianism, opposed communism and democracy Fascist doctrine – dictatorship and totalitarianism, opposed communism and democracy Mussolini’s rise to power – appointed Fascists to all official positions in center government Mussolini’s rise to power – appointed Fascists to all official positions in center government The corporatist state – major economic activities were organized similar to corporations The corporatist state – major economic activities were organized similar to corporations Section 4: Fascist Dictatorships

17 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 17 The Weimar Republic Treaty of Versailles was humiliating, opposed Germany’s interests Treaty of Versailles was humiliating, opposed Germany’s interests High unemployment, soaring inflation High unemployment, soaring inflation Section 4: Fascist Dictatorships

18 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 18 The Nazis and Hitler Nazi Party was extremely nationalistic, anti- Semitic, and anticommunist Nazi Party was extremely nationalistic, anti- Semitic, and anticommunist Hitler wrote Mein Kampf, which planned for racial purity, promised to repeal Treaty of Versailles Hitler wrote Mein Kampf, which planned for racial purity, promised to repeal Treaty of Versailles Section 4: Fascist Dictatorships

19 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 19 The Nazis in Power Created anticommunist hysteria Created anticommunist hysteria Section 4: Fascist Dictatorships

20 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 20 Objectives: Identify the terms of the New Economic Policy. Identify the terms of the New Economic Policy. Describe how Stalin shaped the Soviet economy. Describe how Stalin shaped the Soviet economy. Explain why Stalin imprisoned and executed millions of Soviet people. Explain why Stalin imprisoned and executed millions of Soviet people. Section 5: Dictatorship in the Soviet Union

21 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 21 Russia Under Lenin New Economic Policy – nationalized industries, collectivized arms New Economic Policy – nationalized industries, collectivized arms Women’s roles – gave women more rights Women’s roles – gave women more rights Education was priority Education was priority Section 5: Dictatorship in the Soviet Union

22 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 22 The Five-Year Plan Ambitious agricultural, industrial, and social goals to create a modern, industrialized society Ambitious agricultural, industrial, and social goals to create a modern, industrialized society Caused hardships for Soviet people, were forced to comply Caused hardships for Soviet people, were forced to comply Section 5: Dictatorship in the Soviet Union

23 HOLT World History World History THE HUMAN JOURNEY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 23 Stalin’s Dictatorship Government under Stalin – purge of disloyal party members, extended to general population Government under Stalin – purge of disloyal party members, extended to general population Foreign policy – wanted rest of world to accept Soviet Union, but tried to spread Communist revolution Foreign policy – wanted rest of world to accept Soviet Union, but tried to spread Communist revolution Section 5: Dictatorship in the Soviet Union


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