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MONDAY TO FRIDAY 9AM TO 5 PM 123 WEST MAIN STREET NEW YORK, NY MONDAY TO FRIDAY 9AM TO 5 PM 123 WEST MAIN STREET NEW YORK, NY BEST TRAVEL, INC. YOUR TRAVEL HEADQUARTERS Chapter 22, Section 3 The Enlightenment Spreads Pages
MONDAY TO FRIDAY 9AM TO 5 PM 123 WEST MAIN STREET NEW YORK, NY Explain how Enlightenment ideas spread throughout Europe. 2.Describe changes in art, music, and literature during the Enlightenment. 3.Show how Enlightenment ideas reformed monarchies in Prussia, Austria, and Russia. Chapter 22---Section 3 Objectives
MONDAY TO FRIDAY 9AM TO 5 PM 123 WEST MAIN STREET NEW YORK, NY Discussion Enlightenment ideas spread through discussion, printed materials, songs, and visual arts, as well as laws and governmental decisions. How do you learn about new ideas in the 21 st Century?
MONDAY TO FRIDAY 9AM TO 5 PM 123 WEST MAIN STREET NEW YORK, NY A World of Ideas Remember the philosophers’ of the Enlightenment got themselves in trouble many times by criticizing the Catholic Church or the government. The Enlightenment influenced everything from the art world to the royal courts. 1700s- Paris was the cultural and intellectual capital of western Europe. Young people came from all over Europe to study, live the culture of the city, and philosophize. Salons: social gathering places in large drawing rooms in mansions of wealthy women. These gatherings attracted scientists, artists, writers, philosophers, and other intellectuals. Diderot’s Encyclopedia: One of the wealthiest and influential salon hostesses of the time was Maria-Therese Geoffrin. She financed a project of a leading philosophe Denis Diderot : this philosophe created a set of books from contributions from scholars of Europe. These volumes were published in 1751 and called Encyclopedia.
MONDAY TO FRIDAY 9AM TO 5 PM 123 WEST MAIN STREET NEW YORK, NY Encyclopedia The views expressed during the Enlightenment caused trouble and angered the French government and the Catholic Church. Censors banned the work due to the fact it undermined royal authority, encouraged revolt, and fostered “moral corruption, irreligion, and unbelief.” Diderot continued to publish his Encyclopedia. Salons and the published Encyclopedia helped to spread the Enlightenment ideas to educate people throughout Europe. Enlightenment ideas eventually spread through newspapers, pamphlets, and political songs. The literate middle class was eager for news, ideas, and entertainment, readily purchased popular magazines that began to circulate. One of the most famous, The Spectator, offered essays about social behavior, love, marriage, and literature. Another, The Ladies Diary, was aimed at middle-class women. By the 1780s, over 150 magazines were available in England.
MONDAY TO FRIDAY 9AM TO 5 PM 123 WEST MAIN STREET NEW YORK, NY New Artistic Styles Neoclassical Style Emerges: 1600 and 1700 European art was dominated by a style called baroque – characterized by a grand, ornate design. The baroque style was seen in elaborate palaces such as Versailles. Neoclassical- (new classical) Artists and architects worked in a simple and elegant style borrowed ideas and themes from Greece and Rome. Changes in Music and Literature: Music styles were dominated by composers Johann Sebastian Bach of Germany and George Friedrich Handel of England. During the Enlightenment a newer, lighter, and more elegant style of music known as classical. Three composers in Vienna, Austria– Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven. Books written in common language and entertaining were very popular among the middle class. Examples of these works were; Pamela, by Samuel Richardson, considered to be the first English novel about a young servant girl who refused the advances of her master. Tom Jones, by Henry Fielding, describes the story of an orphan who travels all over England to win the hand of his lady.
MONDAY TO FRIDAY 9AM TO 5 PM 123 WEST MAIN STREET NEW YORK, NY Enlightenment and Monarchy Enlightened despots: despots means, “absolute ruler.” Voltaire believed that the best form of government was a monarchy which the ruler respected the people’s rights. Some monarchs embraced the new ideas and made reforms. Monarchs had no intention of giving up power. The changes were motivated by two desires: A. Wanted to make their countries stronger; B. their own rule more effective. Frederick the Great: Frederick II, king of Prussia committed himself to reforming. Frederick granted religious freedom, reduced censorship, and improved education. Also, he reformed the justice system and abolished the use of torture. He did not believe in serfdom, but did nothing to change it because he needed the wealthy landowners. The social order in Prussia never changed. Frederick made it clear that his goal was to serve and strengthen the country. Joseph II: of Austria was the son and successor of Maria Theresa. He introduced legal reforms and freedom of the press. He also supported freedom of worship, even for Protestants, Orthodox Christians and Jews. Joseph eliminated serfdom and ordered that peasants be paid in cash for their labor. Catherine the Great: She read the philosophes especially Voltaire. Catherine ruled with absolute authority but was willing to seek reforms for Russia. She proposed reforms based on Montesquieu and Beccaria. She put limited reforms in place, but did little to improve the life of Russian peasants. When the serfs started an uprising and Catherine’s military put down the rebellion. Catherine knew that she needed the nobles to keep her throne and gave noble’s the absolute authority over the serfs. Catherine gained the rights to the Black Sea and the right to send ships through Ottoman controlled straits. She also expanded her empire into Poland. Russia became an international power as it expanded.