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America and the World 1897-1917 Expansion in the Pacific War with Spain Expansion in Latin America.

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Presentation on theme: "America and the World 1897-1917 Expansion in the Pacific War with Spain Expansion in Latin America."— Presentation transcript:

1 America and the World Expansion in the Pacific War with Spain Expansion in Latin America

2 Imperialism The quest for colonial empire. 4 Reasons: Political; Economic; Social; Military Need for markets Need for raw materials Gain power Gain prestige

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4 Alfred Thayer Mahan The Influence of Sea Power upon History Book written by Mahan Key Argument: United States needed a strong navy to protect its economic interests in foreign markets.

5 U.S. Imperialism Other countries competing for expansion Expansionism promoted within the states. Through Imperialism the U.S. will: Spread Christianity Spread political system (democracy)

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7 Acquiring Hawaii Why interested? Tropical climate Fertile soil Perfect location for naval base/ coal station Why would the U.S. want to put a naval base/ coal station in Hawaii?

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9 Hawaii American Sugar Companies Strong influence over King Kalakaua (Sugar = The Big Business of Hawaii) U.S.A. Wanted Pearl Harbor Hawaiian Planters (business owners) form a league Force King Kalakaua to sign the Bayonette Constitution. Signed at gunpoint.

10 The Hawaiian League Made up of: 400 American Businessmen Planters Traders Sugar planters and American interests had strong influence over Hawaiian trade, commerce, and were looking to increase their power in Hawaiian politics. Key: IN FAVOR OF ANNEXATION Annexation by the United States What is annexation?

11 The Bayonet Constitution King Kalakua Refused to give U.S.A. Pearl Harbor. Sugar Planters – forced Klakaua at gunpoint to sign a treaty giving the U.S.A. a naval base at Pearl Harbor.

12 Queen Liliuokalani Nationalist Pride in her country Wanted to restore Hawaii and rid Hawaii of foreign controls (U.S.A.)

13 The Fall of Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani Wanted to return power to native Hawaiians. Attempts to re-write the Bayonet Constitution Supporters of Annexation: Rise Up Set up a provisional (temporary) government. Occupy government buildings. U.S. Navy arrived to “ protect ” American lives and property. With guns;cannons; and the threat of violence, the Queen surrenders Hawaii to American control.

14 Queen Liliuokalani Reading Questions: Why does the Queen surrender Hawaii? Was this fair? Why do you think the U.S.A. apologized? / Do you believe the U.S.A. should have apologized?

15 United States and China Hawaii Serves as a convenient stopping point for American trading ships sailing to China. What is the appeal of trading with China?

16 Spheres of Influence Regions where a particular country has exclusive rights over mines, railroads, and trades. Monopoly? Britain; Russia; France; Germany All maintained spheres of influence in China.

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18 United States Feared losing the Chinese Market Getting “ squeezed out ” of trade with China by Britain, Russia, France, Germany. How is this similar to the United States motivation for imperialism?

19 The Open Door Policy Give all nations an equal right to trade with China. Protect China ’ s territorial integrity (right to rule itself) A series of “ Open Door Notes ” Developed by Secretary of State John Hay. European Nations – neither accept or deny policy. Hay – assumes acceptance.

20 The Boxer Rebellion The Boxers Against foreign influence in China. “ The Boxer Rebellion ” The Boxers: Attacked 300 missionaries in Northern China. Walled-in foreign settlements in China ’ s capital Beijing Foreign countries sent in troops to protect the foreigners.

21 Emerging Japan 1894 Japan invades China What is this an example of? Japan and Russia: Constantly at conflict with each other for Chinese land and resources.

22 The Russo-Japanese War 1904 Japanese attack Russian troops in Manchuria (northern China).

23 U.S.A. Concerns: If Russia wins: Cut off trade with Manchuria If Japan wins: Cut off trade with China President Theodore Roosevelt Japan had won a series of crucial battles Roosevelt was asked by Japan to help negotiate a peace between the two powers.

24 Treaty of Portsmouth Portsmouth, New Hampshire Ended the Russo-Japanese War Both sides agree to leave Manchuria

25 Treaty of Portsmouth Lasting Impact: Prestige (made U.S.A. look good) Theodore Roosevelt wins a Nobel Peace Prize U.S.A. is concerned over Japan ’ s growing power.

26 The Great White Fleet What was it? The launching of 4 Destroyers and 16 Battleships on a world tour. Ships were painted in all white and traveled 46,000 miles on their tour. Why launch it? To show the U.S.A. had a strong Navy To deter powers from waging war with U.S.A. in time of conflict Outcome: Demonstrated the power of the U.S.A. Navy

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28 Review Secretary of State John Hay Open Door Policy Boxer Rebellion Spheres of Influence Bayonet Constitution. Queen Liliuokalani Treaty of Portsmouth Russo-Japanese War The Great White Fleet Summarize the acquisition of Hawaii

29 The Spanish American War Spanish Colonies: Cuba and Puerto Rico Conflict in Cuba: Cubans want independence Cubans revolt! Spanish General Valeriano Weyler Puts down the Cuban revolt and puts revolutionaries in concentration camps. 200,000 Cubans die of disease and/or starvation in these camps. Weyler

30 The Influence of the Media William Randolph Hearst New York Journal Joseph Pulitzer New York World Sympathized (sided on) the Cubans side. Why? Connection: Cuban independence and the American Revolution HearstPulitzer

31 Yellow Journalism journalism that downplays legitimate news in favor of eye-catching headlines that sell more newspapers. New York Journal and Herald both used “ yellow journalism ” in reporting on the Cuban Revolutionaries.

32 Male Spanish officials strip search an American woman tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)

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35 The Maine Incident Hearst – pressed for U.S.A. intervention in Cuba Why is Hearst ’ s motivation for war a problem? McKinley Anti-war with Spain BUT Spain ’ s Minister to the U.S.A. Letter sold to Hearst and published. Described McKinley as “ weak, and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd. ”

36 USS Maine Incident Sent to Havana Harbor Goal: Protect U.S. sailors and property February 15, 1898 Explosion on board the Maine. Press / Americans – BLAMED SPANISH! Coal Bin Theory “ Remember the Maine! ”

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38 Key Terms / People Platt Amendment Protectorate Foraker Act Secretary of State John Hay Philippe Buneau-Varilla Hay-Buneau-Varilla Treaty Monroe Doctrine Roosevelt Corollary Dollar Diplomacy

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40 Expansion in Latin America Governing Cuba and Puerto Rico Cuba The Platt Amendment Limited Cuba ’ s freedom under the United States.

41 Platt Amendment 3 Main Points: Authorized the U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs. Limited the ability of Cuba to make treaties. Gave the United States a naval base Guantanamo Bay In all: Cuba was made a U.S. protectorate

42 Protectorate The United States promised to protect Cuba from other nations but reserved the right to intervene in Cuba ’ s affairs. Last until 1934

43 Puerto Rico The Foraker Act Allowed U.S. to appoint Puerto Rico ’ s governor and upper house of legislation. Lower House – elected by Puerto Ricans

44 Puerto Rico The Jones Act of 1917 Granted Puerto Ricans the right to elect both houses of their legislature. Granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship Puerto Rico: Commonwealth of the United States

45 The Panama Canal Key reasons for the canal: A canal would cut the time in half that it took to travel around the tip of South America This would increase our Navy ’ s mobility (ability to move quicker) and it would strengthen it by doing so.

46 The Panama Canal Secretary of State John Hay 1903 Treaty Rejected by Colombia United States would have paid: $10 million for the canal $250,000 yearly rental

47 President Roosevelt In response to Colombia Will not be allowed to “ bar one of the future highways of civilization. ”

48 Revolution Phillippe Bunau-Varilla Went to United States to ask for support of the revolution. United States sends U.S. Marines to Panama (Colombia). Revolution begins. U.S. Marines keep Colombian troops from reaching the rebellion.

49 Independent Panama United States recognizes the newly independent Republic of Panama. Two days after their revolution. Secretary of State Hay begins working a treaty.

50 The Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty Gave the United States: Unending Power (sovereignty) over a 10 mile wide Canal Zone.

51 Building of the Canal Beginning 1904 Completed August 15, trainloads of earth a day

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54 Review What country did Panama gain its independence from? Who was most influential in gaining Panama its independence? What was the United States ’ role in the Panamanian Revolution? Why did the United States get involved in the Panamanian Revolution? What did the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty give to the United States? What do you believe is the most important aspect of the treaty?

55 The U.S. and Latin America Long history of involvement in Latin America. Wanted to limit the influence of foreign nations in Latin America Latin America South America Caribbean Islands – Cuba; Puerto Rico, etc. “ Middle ” America

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57 The Monroe Doctrine President James Monroe Main Idea: The United States is the protector of the Western Hemisphere.

58 The Dominican Republic Unable to pay back debts to Europeans United States concerned Why? United States feared that European countries would forcefully collect their debts and assert control over parts of Latin America. How would this interfere with the Monroe Doctrine?

59 The Roosevelt Corollary The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. Who wrote it? Theodore Roosevelt What was it? United States pledged to use armed forces to prevent any European country from seizing Dominican [ or any other Latin American] territory. WITHOUT CONSENT (permission) OF ANY LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRY

60 The Roosevelt Corollary “ If a nation … keeps order and pays its obligations, it need fear no interference from the United States. Chronic wrongdoing … in the Western Hemisphere … may force the United States, however reluctantly, … to the exercise of an international police power. ”

61 European Reaction / U.S. Response European countries want their money! What does the United States do? Intervenes in Latin America How? Ex: Dominican Republic What happens? United States sends in marines What do the marines do? Collect customs duties

62 Dollar Diplomacy What was it? Use economic, rather than military force in Latin America. Who was behind it? President William H. Taft Main Idea: Replace bullets with dollars.

63 Dollar Diplomacy in Action U.S. banks invest in Latin America How? Through Loans BUT: Nicaragua A shift in government with United States ’ investments at stake: Revolt to overthrow government (that United States liked) U.S. intervenes How? Sends marines to protect U.S. interests

64 Woodrow Wilson Intervention in Latin America Believed democracy should prevail in Latin America. Democracy would keep European powers out of Latin America. Uses Military to put down revolts against democratic countries in Latin America. Promotes revolts for democracy in undemocratic Latin American countries. Haiti

65 Review 1. Explain the term Dollar Diplomacy. How was dollar diplomacy put into action? 2. What was the purpose behind the Roosevelt Corollary? 3. How does the Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine relate? [consider the goals of each] 4. How was the Roosevelt Corollary put into action? 5. Explain the policy toward Latin America of the following Presidents: Wilson; Roosevelt; Taft. 6. How did the United States appease (calm the nerves of) European investors that were owed money by Latin American countries? 7. Which of the various tactics used by the Presidents is best? Explain/justify your answer.

66 Essay Question Explain how American Imperialism was consistent with the ideas of Alfred Thayer Mahan. Provide three specific examples of American Imperialism that directly tie into Mahan ’ s argument and be sure to explain how they relate.


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