9Hawaii American Sugar Companies Strong influence over King Kalakaua (Sugar = The Big Business of Hawaii)U.S.A.Wanted Pearl HarborHawaiian Planters (business owners) form a leagueForce King Kalakaua to sign the Bayonette Constitution.Signed at gunpoint.
10The Hawaiian League Made up of: 400 American Key: BusinessmenPlantersTradersSugar planters and American interests had strong influence over Hawaiian trade, commerce, and were looking to increase their power in Hawaiian politics.Key:IN FAVOR OF ANNEXATIONAnnexation by the United StatesWhat is annexation?
11The Bayonet Constitution King KalakuaRefused to give U.S.A. Pearl Harbor.Sugar Planters – forced Klakaua at gunpoint to sign a treaty giving the U.S.A. a naval base at Pearl Harbor.
12Queen Liliuokalani Nationalist Pride in her country Wanted to restore Hawaii and rid Hawaii of foreign controls (U.S.A.)
13The Fall of Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani Supporters of Annexation: Wanted to return power to native Hawaiians.Attempts to re-write the Bayonet ConstitutionSupporters of Annexation:Rise UpSet up a provisional (temporary) government.Occupy government buildings.U.S. Navy arrived to “protect” American lives and property.With guns;cannons; and the threat of violence, the Queen surrenders Hawaii to American control.
14Queen Liliuokalani Reading Questions: Why does the Queen surrender Hawaii?Was this fair?Why do you think the U.S.A. apologized? / Do you believe the U.S.A. should have apologized?
15United States and China HawaiiServes as a convenient stopping point for American trading ships sailing to China.What is the appeal of trading with China?
16Spheres of InfluenceRegions where a particular country has exclusive rights over mines, railroads, and trades.Monopoly?Britain; Russia; France; GermanyAll maintained spheres of influence in China.
18United States Feared losing the Chinese Market Getting “squeezed out” of trade with China by Britain, Russia, France, Germany.How is this similar to the United States motivation for imperialism?
19The Open Door PolicyGive all nations an equal right to trade with China.Protect China’s territorial integrity (right to rule itself)A series of “Open Door Notes”Developed by Secretary of State John Hay.European Nations – neither accept or deny policy.Hay – assumes acceptance.
20The Boxer Rebellion The Boxers Against foreign influence in China. Attacked 300 missionaries in Northern China.Walled-in foreign settlements in China’s capital BeijingForeign countries sent in troops to protect the foreigners.
21Emerging Japan 1894 Japan invades China Japan and Russia: What is this an example of?Japan and Russia:Constantly at conflict with each other for Chinese land and resources.
22The Russo-Japanese War 1904Japanese attack Russian troops in Manchuria (northern China).
23U.S.A. Concerns: If Russia wins: If Japan wins: Cut off trade with ManchuriaIf Japan wins:Cut off trade with ChinaPresident Theodore RooseveltJapan had won a series of crucial battlesRoosevelt was asked by Japan to help negotiate a peace between the two powers.
24Treaty of Portsmouth Portsmouth, New Hampshire Ended the Russo-Japanese WarBoth sides agree to leave Manchuria
25Treaty of Portsmouth Lasting Impact: Prestige (made U.S.A. look good) Theodore Roosevelt wins a Nobel Peace PrizeU.S.A. is concerned over Japan’s growing power.
26The Great White Fleet What was it? Why launch it? Outcome: The launching of 4 Destroyers and 16 Battleships on a world tour.Ships were painted in all white and traveled 46,000 miles on their tour.Why launch it?To show the U.S.A. had a strong NavyTo deter powers from waging war with U.S.A. in time of conflictOutcome:Demonstrated the power of the U.S.A. Navy
28Review Secretary of State John Hay Open Door Policy Boxer Rebellion Spheres of InfluenceBayonet Constitution.Queen LiliuokalaniTreaty of PortsmouthRusso-Japanese WarThe Great White FleetSummarize the acquisition of Hawaii
29The Spanish American War Spanish Colonies:Cuba and Puerto RicoConflict in Cuba:Cubans want independenceCubans revolt!Spanish General Valeriano WeylerPuts down the Cuban revolt and puts revolutionaries in concentration camps.200,000 Cubans die of disease and/or starvation in these camps.Weyler
30The Influence of the Media William Randolph HearstNew York JournalJoseph PulitzerNew York WorldSympathized (sided on) the Cubans side.Why?Connection:Cuban independence and the American RevolutionHearstPulitzer
31Yellow Journalismjournalism that downplays legitimate news in favor of eye-catching headlines that sell more newspapers.New York Journal and Herald both used “yellow journalism” in reporting on the Cuban Revolutionaries.
32Male Spanish officials strip search an American woman tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels; front page "yellow journalism" from Hearst (artist: Remington)
35The Maine Incident Hearst – pressed for U.S.A. intervention in Cuba Why is Hearst’s motivation for war a problem?McKinleyAnti-war with SpainBUTSpain’s Minister to the U.S.A.Letter sold to Hearst and published.Described McKinley as “weak, and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd.”
36USS Maine Incident Sent to Havana Harbor Goal: Protect U.S. sailors and propertyFebruary 15, 1898Explosion on board the Maine.Press / Americans – BLAMED SPANISH!Coal Bin Theory“Remember the Maine!”
40Expansion in Latin America Governing Cuba and Puerto RicoCubaThe Platt AmendmentLimited Cuba’s freedom under the United States.
41Platt Amendment 3 Main Points: Authorized the U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs.Limited the ability of Cuba to make treaties.Gave the United States a naval baseGuantanamo BayIn all:Cuba was made a U.S. protectorate
42ProtectorateThe United States promised to protect Cuba from other nations but reserved the right to intervene in Cuba’s affairs.Last until 1934
43Puerto Rico The Foraker Act Allowed U.S. to appoint Puerto Rico’s governor and upper house of legislation.Lower House – elected by Puerto Ricans
44Puerto Rico The Jones Act of 1917 Puerto Rico: Granted Puerto Ricans the right to elect both houses of their legislature.Granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenshipPuerto Rico:Commonwealth of the United States
45The Panama Canal Key reasons for the canal: A canal would cut the time in half that it took to travel around the tip of South AmericaThis would increase our Navy’s mobility (ability to move quicker) and it would strengthen it by doing so.
46The Panama Canal Secretary of State John Hay 1903 Treaty Rejected by ColombiaUnited States would have paid:$10 million for the canal$250,000 yearly rental
47President Roosevelt In response to Colombia Will not be allowed to “bar one of the future highways of civilization.”
48Revolution Phillippe Bunau-Varilla Went to United States to ask for support of the revolution.United States sends U.S. Marines to Panama (Colombia).Revolution begins.U.S. Marines keep Colombian troops from reaching the rebellion.
49Independent PanamaUnited States recognizes the newly independent Republic of Panama.Two days after their revolution.Secretary of State Hay begins working a treaty.
50The Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty Gave the United States:Unending Power (sovereignty) over a 10 mile wide Canal Zone.
51Building of the Canal Beginning 1904 Completed August 15, 1914 160 trainloads of earth a day
54Review What country did Panama gain its independence from? Who was most influential in gaining Panama its independence?What was the United States’ role in the Panamanian Revolution?Why did the United States get involved in the Panamanian Revolution?What did the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty give to the United States? What do you believe is the most important aspect of the treaty?
55The U.S. and Latin America Long history of involvement in Latin America.Wanted to limit the influence of foreign nations in Latin AmericaLatin AmericaSouth AmericaCaribbean Islands – Cuba; Puerto Rico, etc.“Middle” America
57The Monroe Doctrine President James Monroe Main Idea: The United States is the protector of the Western Hemisphere.
58The Dominican Republic Unable to pay back debts to EuropeansUnited States concernedWhy?United States feared that European countries would forcefully collect their debts and assert control over parts of Latin America.How would this interfere with the Monroe Doctrine?
59The Roosevelt Corollary The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.Who wrote it?Theodore RooseveltWhat was it?United States pledged to use armed forces to prevent any European country from seizing Dominican [ or any other Latin American] territory.WITHOUT CONSENT (permission) OF ANY LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRY
60The Roosevelt Corollary “If a nation… keeps order and pays its obligations, it need fear no interference from the United States. Chronic wrongdoing… in the Western Hemisphere… may force the United States, however reluctantly,… to the exercise of an international police power.”
61European Reaction / U.S. Response European countries want their money!What does the United States do?Intervenes in Latin AmericaHow?Ex: Dominican RepublicWhat happens?United States sends in marinesWhat do the marines do?Collect customs duties.
62Dollar Diplomacy What was it? Who was behind it? Main Idea: Use economic, rather than military force in Latin America.Who was behind it?President William H. TaftMain Idea:Replace bullets with dollars.
63Dollar Diplomacy in Action U.S. banks invest in Latin AmericaHow? Through LoansBUT:NicaraguaA shift in government with United States’ investments at stake:Revolt to overthrow government (that United States liked)U.S. intervenesHow?Sends marines to protect U.S. interests
64Woodrow Wilson Intervention in Latin America Believed democracy should prevail in Latin America.Democracy would keep European powers out of Latin America.Uses Military to put down revolts against democratic countries in Latin America.Promotes revolts for democracy in undemocratic Latin American countries.Haiti
65Review1. Explain the term Dollar Diplomacy. How was dollar diplomacy put into action?2. What was the purpose behind the Roosevelt Corollary?3. How does the Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine relate? [consider the goals of each]4. How was the Roosevelt Corollary put into action?5. Explain the policy toward Latin America of the following Presidents: Wilson; Roosevelt; Taft.6. How did the United States appease (calm the nerves of) European investors that were owed money by Latin American countries?7. Which of the various tactics used by the Presidents is best? Explain/justify your answer.
66Essay QuestionExplain how American Imperialism was consistent with the ideas of Alfred Thayer Mahan. Provide three specific examples of American Imperialism that directly tie into Mahan’s argument and be sure to explain how they relate.