Presentation on theme: "The Middle East By: Ryan Boodram,"— Presentation transcript:
1The Middle East By: Ryan Boodram, Catherine Chang, Leon Cheng, Sean Chu, Eunice Kim, and Suvin Jeon
2Before 600 B.C.E Mesopotamia Located between Tigris and Euphrates river (part of Fertile Crescent)1st notable civilization: Sumer (3000 BCE)-consisted of city-states-writing: cuneiform. Spread to other lands through trade-Polytheistic, Ziggurats created to appease gods2nd: Babylon (1700 BCE)-Code of Hammurabi: list of laws3rd: Hittites (1500 BCE)-Iron weapons for military4th: Assyrians (1400 BCE)-Cruel, sent exiles away which lead to cultural diffusion
3Before 600 B.C.E (Mesopotamia cont.) Persian EmpireBuilt on top of a rebuilt Babylon (Chaldean king Nebuchadnezzar)From Nile River to (present-day) AfghanistanTook over Assyrians and Egyptians*Note: Judaism was founded by Abraham at this area+timeChristianity a bit later, but based on Judaism
4Before 600 B.C.E. Egypt (1400 BCE-1000 BCE) Located along the Nile River3 kingdoms: Old, Middle, NewUnited by King MenesRulers were pharaohs (Centralized government)Writing: hieroglyphics- picturesDependent on trade: liked luxuryPolytheistic: mummifications and the afterlife-Pyramids built for religion, to lead body to afterlifeFirst Female ruler: Queen Hatshepsut-greatly expanded tradeSocial Hierarchy: pharaoh->priests->merchants/artisans->peasants
6The Rise of the Persian Empire (600 BCE to 600 CE) Around 550 BCE, Cyrus united the Persian tribes to create the first Persian Empire, known as the Achaemenid Persian EmpireSociety was organized similar to other empires at the time: Kings at the top, followed by warriors then priests and finally peasantsThe Achaemenid Persian Empire would eventually come to conquer Media, Lydia, Babylon, and EgyptThe most influential ruler of the Achaemenid Persian Empire next to Cyrus was Darius IHe divided the Empire into about twenty provinces with each province governed by a satrap (governor)For their religion, the Persians used Zoroastrianism but were relatively tolerant of other religions and culturesIt can be noted that corruption and heavy taxation in the Persian Empire led to economic faltering in the conquered landsThe Persian Empire, having failed to conquer the Greeks twice already in the Persian Wars, funded internal conflicts among the Greeks to finally capture the Greek city-states
7The Hellenistic AgeAround BCE, Alexander the Great of Macedonia conquered the Persian EmpireTo maintain his large empire, Alexander built several Greek-Style cities as strategic strongholdsThe most famous city was Alexandria which became a center of commerce and learning; Alexandria both had the first lighthouse ever built and the famous Library of Alexandria which contained works from all over the world,it would later become the capital of the Ptolemy kingdom which ruled over Egypt following the collapse of the Alexander’s empireAlexander’s death led to the fracturing of his empire into three kingdoms; however by conquering such a vast swath of land, Alexander brought a unifying culture to all the different landsThis age is referred to as the Hellenistic Age in which Greek culture became a major influence on cultures around North Africa and West Asia
9The Silk RoadFollowing the collapse of Alexander’s Empire, a group of Iranians calling themselves the Parthians took over the lands of Mesopotamia and SumerConstant border incursions with the Greeks and Romans led to this civilization becoming relatively isolatedWhile they lasted, the Parthians helped create the Silk RoadThe Silk Road was a transcontinental trade route stretching from Chang’an in Han China to Babylon in the Middle EastIt led to the diffusion of Asian and Middle Eastern culture as well as the introduction of new technologies and animalsThese included the stirrup which came from North Afghanistan and the Camel which was vital for the Silk Road to operate efficiently
10The Sassanid and Byzantine Empires Both the Sassanid and Byzantine Empires were Empires that placed heavy emphasis on an official state religionThe Sassanids had Zoroastrianism and the Byzantines Christianity*These two empires were among the first empires to have their societies completely revolve around religionThese empires were mostly intolerant of other religionsThe close proximity that these empires had to the Silk Road led to the spread of their religions throughout EurasiaAnother religion that spread along the Silk Road was Buddhism*Christianity was founded by Jesus of Nazareth in Israel, beliefs were based on Judaism but emphasized a more personal relation with God
11600 CE to 1450 CERise of IslamAround 570 C.E, Muhammad was born in MeccaReceived revelations from the angel Gabriel.Founds the religion Islam based on the teachings of Muhammad.Influenced by proximity to the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires.Muhammad was exiled from Mecca in 622 and fled to Medina with his followers.Created the umma, a religious community guided by his revelations.Leads the umma in the conquest of Mecca.After Muhammad’s death, he was succeeded by Abu Bakr who created the Five Pillars of Islam and presumably ordered the creation of the holy book, QuranMuslims soon split into two main factions: the Shi’ites who believe descendants of Muhammad should be their leader, and the Sunni who believe that the Caliph should be elected
12Rise of the Caliphate Umayyad Caliphate 1st major caliphate, conquered most of the Middle Eastfell apart due to internal strugglesa single survivor founded a new Umayyad principality in Spain in 755 CEAdopted the administrative practices of the Byzantine and Sassanid EmpiresAbbasid CaliphateEstablished empire based on religionAdopted culture of Sassanid Empirecentralized government was weak, but cultures were united by IslamBerbers and Mamluks revolted leading to the breakup of the empire.Byzantine Empire WeakensUnderwent a period of decline similar to Fall of the Western Roman EmpireTechnological stagnationAllows the Arabs to eat away at empire.
13Mongol Empire Ilkhanate Mongols defeated what remained of the Abbasid Caliphate.Destroyed the irrigation systems of the Middle EastMongols employed local rulers and converted to Islam.Oversaw a period of cultural achievement as Muslims were exposed to Chinese scientific ideas.Islam also spread along the silk road.Pax Mongolia allows for the safe trading of goods between the Middle East and the Far East.
151450 CE TO 1750 CE The Ottoman Empire The beginning of this time period was a time of imperial expansion for the Ottomans, and through their conquest they became one of the most powerful and well-organized states in both Europe and the Islamic world.Reasons for conquest:→ wanted to expand empires for more territory as well→ wanted to convert more people1453: Ottoman Turks laid siege to Constantinople and captured it using advanced gunpowder artillery , under the leadership of Sultan Mehmed II (aka “the Conqueror”)→ Constantinople now known as Istanbul→ marks the end of Byzantine rule which had been around for more than 1100 years: Selim I (aka “the Grim”) conquers Egypt and Syria: Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (aka “the Lawgiver)→ peak of the Ottoman Empire→ significantly expands empire in the Balkans and the eastern Mediterranean(tried to conquer Vienna but had to withdraw because winter was coming)***Although a Sunni Islamic military state, the Ottomans practiced religious tolerance, so all peoples under their rule enjoyed peace and prosperity ***
16A Crisis of the Military State: Weakening of the Ottoman Empire 1520s: the Ottoman Empire was at its peak→ one of the most powerful and best-organized states in both Europe and the Islamic worldbut internal conflicts lead to the weakening of the empiremilitary technology evolves: increased use of modern weaponry(ie- the cannon, lighter firearms)the number of janissaries hired to be in the army steadily increasesthe number of cavalrymen in the army is reduced in order to pay for all the janissaries, so the cavalrymen start revolting across the empire (esp. Anatolia)the revolts finally stop in 1610the central government loses power because of these military changes and because the economy starts orienting itself towards Europelocal powers (ie local governors, rich landowners, etc) start growing more powerful
17The Safavid Empire→ similar in many aspects to the Ottoman Empire: was a military state, relied on cavalry and a land army, not a sea power)→ established by Ismail Safavi, who declared it a Shi’ite state (used Shiism to legitimize rule)→ Persia/present day Iran was controlled by this empire→ the capital, Isfahan, was more culturally developed than Istanbul in terms of poetry, art, and architecture (i.e. mosques, palaces)→ Istanbul and Isfahan were similar socially and in terms of infrastructure- cities meant for walking, lack open spaces, crowded houses, irregular and narrow streets- women do not go out at all, men dominate public life→ however the two cities were different overall-Isfahan (and the Safavid empire in general) was not ethnically diverse- Istanbul is extremely diverse, with people from a variety of ethnicities residing in the city→ the Safavid Empire eventually fell to Afghan invaders in 1722, because of various factors (high military costs, inflation, decline of trade)
18Ottoman-Safavid Conflict religious differences cause conflict between the two empires→ Ottoman Empire: Sunni Islamic State→ Safavid Empire: Shi’ite/Shia Islamic Statemultiple Ottoman-Safavid warsboth states have military victories and defeats, but it was basically a stalemate between the twoneither state decisively “defeated” the other1639: peace treaty signed that is almost identical to present day borders of Iraq and Iran***the military costs of this futile warfare was a major factor in the decline of both empires***
19Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire, and Mughal Empire (Gunpowder Nations)
201750 CE TO 1900 CEThe Middle East had been shared by the Ottomans and the Persians, but during the 19th century, the French began to build the Suez canal and the British gained control of the governments of Egypt and the Ottoman Empire.During this time, the development of machines such as steam engines and the internal combustion engine made it far easier to extract natural resources like coal and oil.The Balkan Wars resulted in the loss of the Balkans from the Ottomans in 1821, and many Balkan states such as Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, Croatia, Albania, and Slovenia were created.Egypt could not recover from the fall of the Ottomans until Mohammed Ali came into power.
21At the end of the 18th century, Sultan Selim introduced reforms to train the army European style, standardize taxes, and bring provincial governors under central government control.However, the Janissary, which was a group of Christian boys taken from their homes in the Balkans and converted to Islam and served for life in the Ottoman army, was becoming a powerful force in Istabnbul, Damascus, and Aleppo.In Serbia, the residents complained that the Janissary abused them, and Selim threatened to relocate the Janissaries to Istanbul.The Janissaries, thinking that Selim wanted to restrict their power, revolted and massacred Christians in Serbia. Only when Russia threatened to intervene did the struggle end with Serbia becoming effectively independent.Sultan Mahmud II, Selim’s cousin, took over power and announced the creation of a new artillery unit which he had secretly been training. When the Janissaries rose in revolt, he had the new unit to bombard the Janissary barracks, and the Janissary corps was officially dissolved.
22Tanzimat: a series of reforms announced by Mahmud II’s son, Abdul Mejid, in 1839 and strongly endorsed by the European ambassadors. A few examples are the proclamation that called for public trials and equal protection under the law for all, guaranteed rights of privacy, equalized the eligibility of men for enlisting in the army and provided a new method of tax collection.Influence of women was decreased and the political changes and economic changes narrowed women’s opportunities. They retained their right to inherit shares, and had the power to manage her own property.The Crimean War: A conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.After the Crimean War, the Ottomans began losing power, and the Suez Canal opened up in The downfall of the empire worried a group of young men who called themselves the Young Ottomans or Young Turks, and they promoted a mix of liberal ideas derive from Europe, national pride, and modernist views of Islam. The Young Turks helped draft a constitution that was unfortunately short lived.
251900 CE to Present The Last of the Ottoman Empire By 1900, the Ottoman Empire had lost control of North Africa (ex. Egypt), and the Balkan peninsula (ex. Greece)known as the “sick man of Europe”inferior technologyArmenian genocide during WWIColonization after WWIWith the secret Sykes-Picot agreement, Britain and France arranged to take countries in the Middle East as mandates, even after promising independence for their support in WWIRise of independent nations after WWIITurkeyAtaturk (“father of the Turks”) led the nationalist Turks and gained independence after defeating British and Greek troopssupported modernization, as well as economic and social connections with the Westsupported secularizationwould be imitated by other Middle Eastern countries (ex. Pahlavi in Iran)EgyptNasser promoted economic development, westernization, and modernizationSupported secularization and suppressed the Muslim Brotherhood
26Religion Rise of Islamic fundamentalism many scholars see it as a response to modern Western society (ex. scandalous attire, individualism, atheism, materialism)Terrorismfundamentalist leaders believe that Western peoples are plagued so deeply with immoral values that it is now justified to murderterrorism isn’t limited to Western countries only: Sunni and Shi’ite groups have attacked each otherIranian RevolutionMohammad Reza Pahlavi, shah of Iran, ruled with great inequality among the Iranian people. He supported foreign companies and used money to fund the militaryAyatollah Khomeini rose to power, supporting a return to strict religious values and ruling by sharia lawthis upset the balance of power in the Middle East as Iran would inspire and support later revolutions for anti-Western governmentsSecularized and westernized nationsFaud regime in EgyptTurkey
27Israel Zionists wanted a state for Jews Zionism gained support after Jews were abused in the Holocaustthe UN and Western countries support the creation of Israelinitial agreement offered the Palestinians their own country next to IsraelArab countries attacked Israel but lost and Israel took over more territory, claiming that it needed the territory for national security reasonsPalestinians and Israelis continue to fight todayIsrael is seen by some as a move by the West to put a Christian and Western nation in a land of Arab nations
281900 CE to Present Economy Nasser took over the Suez Canal several Middle Eastern countries discover huge oil reserves, which led to a great source of newfound wealthOPEC (organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) consists mostly of Middle Eastern countriesOPEC has used the importance of oil in as leverage against the West (ex. after the Yom Kippur war)WomenWomen have less power in court, less education, and less propertyWomen are encouraged to wear burqas or hijabs to conceal their skinSince 1918, 45 countries in the Middle East have granted female suffrageWomen are fighting for rights for divorce and driving
29BibliographyBulliet, Richard W. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Print.Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview, Print.Duiker, William J., and Jackson J. Spielvogel. The Essential World History. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, Print.Schill, Andrew. "A Brief History of Middle Eastern Oil - Abadie Schill." Abadie Schill N.p.,n.d. Web. 6 May 2014.Laden, Jennifer, and Patrick Whelan. AP World History. New York: Kaplan Pub., Print.Monty, David, Abby, and Alexandra Freer. AP world History Exam 2012 Edition. Massachusetts: The Princeton Review,Inc, Print."Epic World History." : Ottoman-Safavid Wars. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May <http://epicworldhistory.blogspot.com/2012/05/ottoman-safavid-wars.html>.Pictures