Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment Ideas of Enlightenment Thought:"— Presentation transcript:
1Enlightenment Ideas of Enlightenment Thought: The universe can be understood through reasonHuman experience is the basis for understanding the truthReligion has no place in the understanding of the physical universe
2John Locke (1630s-1700s)Locke believed people could learn and improve themselves through their experiencesBelieved in the idea that all people are born with 3 basic natural rights:life, liberty, and property and that the purpose of government is to protect these rightsA government’s power comes from the people
3John LockeP. 485Locke's Two Treatises of Civil Government were published after the Glorious Revolution of 1688.In this work Locke gives us a theory of natural law and natural rights which he uses to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate civil governments, and to argue for the legitimacy of revolt against tyrannical governments.
4John LockeLocke wrote on a variety of other topics Among the most important of these is toleration.Henry VIII had created a Church of England when he broke with Rome. This Church was the official religion of England. Catholics and dissenting Protestants were subject to legal prosecution.In a "Letter Concerning Toleration" and several defenses of that letter Locke argues for a separation between church and state.
5John Locke His Ideas: Natural rights—life, liberty, and property Right to rebelFor the individualuse reason to search after truth rather than simply accept the opinion of authorities.
6John LockeImpact:Fundamental to U. S. Declaration of Independence
7Voltaire Used satire to attack the French government and clergy Fought for tolerance, reason, and the freedoms of religion and speechUsed his writings to defend his beliefs“I may disapprove of what you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.”Voltaire
8VoltaireIn his book Philosophical Letters, he was impressed with the British political system of 3 branches of governmentHe became famous as a champion of religious freedom and freedom of thought
9Voltaire His Ideas: Freedom of thought and expression Religious freedom
10VoltaireImpact:Guaranteed in U.S. Bill of Rights, & French Declaration or Rights of Man, European monarchs reduce or eliminate censorshipEuropean monarchs reduce persecution
11RousseauWrote “The Social Contract” in which he discussed the role of the people and government, and that all people were equalCalled for the end of nobility which helped to spark the French Revolution
12RousseauPeople are naturally good, but that environment, education, and laws corrupt themGood government must be based on popular sovereigntyDid not trust reasonOpposed a strong government which set him apart from others
13Rousseau Most philosophies disliked absolute monarchy. They favored enlightened despotismThe absolute monarch would rule but according to the principles of the EnlightenmentHis ideas on government and individual freedom became most influential during the later years of the Enlightenment
14RousseauHis Ideas:Legitimate power comes from the people
15Rousseau Fundamental to U.S. Declaration of Independence Impact:Fundamental to U.S. Declaration of IndependenceU.S. ConstitutionAmerican Revolution
17The Causes The American people were strongly independent. They wanted to do things for themselves. Great Britain was a long way away.The American people didn't want people an ocean away telling them how to live their lives.
18Building of the Revolution The road to revolution built slowly over time. Many events fed the growing desire of the thirteen colonies for independence.
19French and Indian WarThe British government decided to make the American colonies pay a large share of the war debt from the French and Indian War.
20The Colonists Loyalists Patriots They wanted to remain loyal to Britain and thought they would eventually get representation in ParliamentThey resisted British taxation and felt the colonies should declare independence
21Proclamation of 1763This prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains.While Britain did not intend to harm the colonists, many colonists took offense at this order.
22TaxesThe British tried to collect taxes that the American people considered harsh.
23Sugar ActThe Sugar Act taxed sugar made in the colonies or any plantation in America, coffee, molasses, rum, and wines.
24Quartering ActBritain ordered that colonists were to house and feed British soldiers if necessary.The Quartering Act of 1765 said that colonists had to quarter, cook, clean and clothe British soilders in thier own houses.
25Stamp ActThe stamp tax was a tax that was imposed on every document or newspaper printed or used in the colonies.
26Townshend ActsThese taxes were imposed to help make the colonial officials independent of the colonists and included duties on glass, paper, and tea.Smugglers increased their activities to avoid the tax… leading to more troops in BostonThis Act assigned duties on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. This led to some “tar and feathering.”
27Boston MassacreThe colonists and British soldiers openly clashed in Boston.This event was used as an example of British cruelty despite questions about how it actually occurred.
28Tea ActTo assist the failing British East India Company, the Company was given a monopoly to trade tea in America.
29Boston Tea PartyA group of colonists disguised as Indians dumped tea overboard from three ships in Boston Harbor.
30Intolerable ActsThese were passed in response to the Boston Tea Party and placed restrictions on the colonists including outlawing town meetings and the closing of Boston Harbor.
32“Taxation without Representation" The American people also thought that they should be able to send their own people to Britain's Parliament or at least vote for Britain's lawmakers.The combination of the harsh taxes and the lack of an American voice in Parliament gave rise to the famous phrase "taxation without representation."
33LibertyThe colonists called for an independent America, colonies free from British rule and interference.
34Preparing for WarAmericans started stockpiling guns and ammunition in violation of British laws.Their defense of such a stockpile led to shots being fired .The Shot Heard ‘Round the World
35Lexington and ConcordPressIn April, British troops were ordered to Lexington and Concord to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock.At Lexington, open conflict occurred and eight Americans were killed.At Concord, the British troops were forced to retreat with the loss of 70 men. This was the first instance of open warfare.
36"Stand your ground; don't fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here.”Captain John Parker
37In the end, the American Revolution grew out of increasing restrictions placed upon the colonies by the British.It is estimated that only one-third of the colonists were in favor of rebellion.One-third continued to side with the British.The last third were neutral concerning the rebellion and break from Great Britain.
39Articles of Confederation This plan was adopted in 1777 but wasn’t ratified until 1781It contained :A central governmentA one-house CongressEach state had one voteCongress could declare war and make peaceIt could deal with other nation and settle disputes between the states
41Articles of Confederation The plan was weak… it was intentionalAmericans feared a strong central governmentIt couldn’t enforce laws (approved by 9 states)It couldn’t levy taxesIt couldn’t regulate tradeThere was no chief executiveThe only courts were the state courts
42Articles of Confederation The Articles were designed to place the power into the individual statesThey were seen as closer to the people and popular willThey feared a repressive governmentHowever, Americans realized that this was not the way to build an effective and stable government
43The Constitution People were unhappy with the weak government Delegates met in Philadelphia to revise the ArticlesThey realized that it would not workThey decided to write a constitution
44The ConstitutionThey unanimously chose George Washington as presiding officerThey adopted a federal system of governmentThe central or federal government could:Declare warRaise armiesMake treatiesCoin moneyRegulate trade with foreign governments
45Three Branches of Government Executive Branch, president, enforced lawsLegislative Branch, Congress, made lawsJudicial Branch, federal courts, interpreted the lawsEach branch acted as a check on the power of the othersIt was ratified and went into effect in 1789
46Bill of Rights Some Americans didn’t like the Constitution They feared it didn’t protect the rights of individualsAs a result, ten amendments were added known as the Bill of RightsFreedoms guaranteed:ReligionSpeechPressAssemblyPetitionFreedom from Illegal search and seizureThe right to a jury trial
47Effects It was a major world event It put into the practice the ideas of political philosophers of the EnlightenmentThe American democratic government was a landmark in world history and an important influenceBecause of the American Revolution, it gave people still under absolute monarchies and privileged classes… HOPE!
49NapoleonSSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions.c. Explain Napoleon’s rise to power, the role of geography in his defeat, and the consequences of France’s defeat for Europe
52Latin AmericaLatin America was the first colonial area to collectively gain independence. The region was inspired by the American and French Revolutions. Leaders used new found nationalism to unite their countries and overthrow the Europeans:Toussaint l’Ouverture (Haiti)Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (Mexico)Simon Bolivar (Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela)Jose de San Martin (Argentine, Chile, Peru)However, most of the new Latin American countries still retain heavy Spanish influence from their colonial days (the language and Catholic Religion).
53CausesThere are three reasons for the rise of former colonies of European empires as new nations:spread of Enlightenment ideas by those educated in Europedecline of the power of the empiresthe rise of nationalism in the colonies.
54Toussaint L'Ouverture1st successful revolt occurred in the French colony of Saint DomingueWhen the French Revolution broke out, free mulattoes demanded same rights as French settlersThe settlers resisted
55Toussaint L'Ouverture1791: mulattoes and slaves joined together under the leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture, a freed slave, and staged a bloody revoltThey wonOnly successful revolution led by slaves anywhere in the world
56Toussaint L'Ouverture Napoleon sent troops in but lost Saint Domingue gained its independence under the name of HaitiIt became the 1st independent country in Latin America
57Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla 1810, Father Hidago led an army of Indian peasants against the SpanishHe won some victories but was captured and executedHidalgo represented the wave of the future.His compassion for the underdog, his hatred of injustice and his intelligent and creative approach to economic development all contribute to his well-deserved title as “Father of Mexico.”
58Jose de San MartinOne of the first revolts against Spain was in La Plata 1810Creole rebels took controlGeneral Sam Martin led the fightingSix years later, independence for what is now called ArgentinaPeru became independent in 1821With the help of Bernardo O’Higgins, gained independence of Chile 1818
59Independence for the rest of South America came only after a long, bloody civil war.
60Simon Bolivar Nicknamed “the Liberator” Started the revolt in Venezuela 1810Became the president of a new nation called Gran ColumbiaIncluded were Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, and VenezuelaSimon Bolivar
61Independence in Latin America San Martin ran the Spanish out of PeruPeru was independent in 1821Simon Bolivar took charge and drove the Spanish out for good 1824The following year, the upper part of Peru was named for him… Bolivia