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Enlightenment  Ideas of Enlightenment Thought: - The universe can be understood through reason - Human experience is the basis for understanding the truth.

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment  Ideas of Enlightenment Thought: - The universe can be understood through reason - Human experience is the basis for understanding the truth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment  Ideas of Enlightenment Thought: - The universe can be understood through reason - Human experience is the basis for understanding the truth - Religion has no place in the understanding of the physical universe

2 John Locke (1630s-1700s)  Locke believed people could learn and improve themselves through their experiences  Believed in the idea that all people are born with 3 basic natural rights:  life, liberty, and property and that the purpose of government is to protect these rights  A government’s power comes from the people

3 John Locke  P. 485  Locke's Two Treatises of Civil Government were published after the Glorious Revolution of 1688.  In this work Locke gives us a theory of natural law and natural rights which he uses to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate civil governments, and to argue for the legitimacy of revolt against tyrannical governments.

4 John Locke  Locke wrote on a variety of other topics Among the most important of these is toleration.  Henry VIII had created a Church of England when he broke with Rome. This Church was the official religion of England. Catholics and dissenting Protestants were subject to legal prosecution.  In a "Letter Concerning Toleration" and several defenses of that letter Locke argues for a separation between church and state.

5 John Locke  His Ideas:  Natural rights—life, liberty, and property  Right to rebel  For the individual  use reason to search after truth rather than simply accept the opinion of authorities.

6 John Locke  Impact:  Fundamental to U. S. Declaration of Independence

7 Voltaire  Used satire to attack the French government and clergy  Fought for tolerance, reason, and the freedoms of religion and speech  Used his writings to defend his beliefs “I may disapprove of what you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.” Voltaire

8  In his book Philosophical Letters, he was impressed with the British political system of 3 branches of government  He became famous as a champion of religious freedom and freedom of thought

9 Voltaire  His Ideas:  Freedom of thought and expression  Religious freedom

10 Voltaire  Impact:  Guaranteed in U.S. Bill of Rights, & French Declaration or Rights of Man, European monarchs reduce or eliminate censorship  European monarchs reduce persecution

11 Rousseau  Wrote “The Social Contract” in which he discussed the role of the people and government, and that all people were equal  Called for the end of nobility which helped to spark the French Revolution

12 Rousseau  People are naturally good, but that environment, education, and laws corrupt them  Good government must be based on popular sovereignty  Did not trust reason  Opposed a strong government which set him apart from others

13 Rousseau  Most philosophies disliked absolute monarchy.  They favored enlightened despotism  The absolute monarch would rule but according to the principles of the Enlightenment  His ideas on government and individual freedom became most influential during the later years of the Enlightenment

14 Rousseau  His Ideas:  Legitimate power comes from the people

15 Rousseau  Impact:  Fundamental to U.S. Declaration of Independence  U.S. Constitution  American Revolution

16 American Revolution

17 The Causes  The American people were strongly independent.  They wanted to do things for themselves. Great Britain was a long way away.  The American people didn't want people an ocean away telling them how to live their lives.

18 Building of the Revolution  The road to revolution built slowly over time. Many events fed the growing desire of the thirteen colonies for independence.

19 French and Indian War  The British government decided to make the American colonies pay a large share of the war debt from the French and Indian War.

20 The Colonists LoyalistsPatriots  They wanted to remain loyal to Britain and thought they would eventually get representation in Parliament  They resisted British taxation and felt the colonies should declare independence

21 Proclamation of 1763  This prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains.  While Britain did not intend to harm the colonists, many colonists took offense at this order.

22 Taxes  The British tried to collect taxes that the American people considered harsh.

23 Sugar Act  The Sugar Act taxed sugar made in the colonies or any plantation in America, coffee, molasses, rum, and wines.

24 Quartering Act  Britain ordered that colonists were to house and feed British soldiers if necessary.

25 Stamp Act  The stamp tax was a tax that was imposed on every document or newspaper printed or used in the colonies.

26 Townshend Acts  These taxes were imposed to help make the colonial officials independent of the colonists and included duties on glass, paper, and tea.  Smugglers increased their activities to avoid the tax… leading to more troops in Boston This Act assigned duties on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. This led to some “tar and feathering.”

27 Boston Massacre  The colonists and British soldiers openly clashed in Boston.  This event was used as an example of British cruelty despite questions about how it actually occurred.

28 Tea Act  To assist the failing British East India Company, the Company was given a monopoly to trade tea in America.

29 Boston Tea Party  A group of colonists disguised as Indians dumped tea overboard from three ships in Boston Harbor.

30 Intolerable Acts  These were passed in response to the Boston Tea Party and placed restrictions on the colonists including outlawing town meetings and the closing of Boston Harbor.


32 “Taxation without Representation"  The American people also thought that they should be able to send their own people to Britain's Parliament or at least vote for Britain's lawmakers.  The combination of the harsh taxes and the lack of an American voice in Parliament gave rise to the famous phrase "taxation without representation."

33 Liberty  The colonists called for an independent America, colonies free from British rule and interference.

34 Preparing for War  Americans started stockpiling guns and ammunition in violation of British laws.  Their defense of such a stockpile led to shots being fired.  The Shot Heard ‘Round the World

35 Lexington and Concord  In April, British troops were ordered to Lexington and Concord to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock.

36 Captain John Parker  "Stand your ground; don't fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here.”

37  In the end, the American Revolution grew out of increasing restrictions placed upon the colonies by the British.  It is estimated that only one- third of the colonists were in favor of rebellion.  One-third continued to side with the British.  The last third were neutral concerning the rebellion and break from Great Britain.

38 Governing a New Nation

39 Articles of Confederation  This plan was adopted in 1777 but wasn’t ratified until 1781  It contained :  A central government  A one-house Congress  Each state had one vote  Congress could declare war and make peace  It could deal with other nation and settle disputes between the states


41 Articles of Confederation  The plan was weak… it was intentional  Americans feared a strong central government  It couldn’t enforce laws (approved by 9 states)  It couldn’t levy taxes  It couldn’t regulate trade  There was no chief executive  The only courts were the state courts

42 Articles of Confederation  The Articles were designed to place the power into the individual states  They were seen as closer to the people and popular will  They feared a repressive government  However, Americans realized that this was not the way to build an effective and stable government

43 The Constitution  People were unhappy with the weak government  Delegates met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles  They realized that it would not work  They decided to write a constitution

44 The Constitution  They unanimously chose George Washington as presiding officer  They adopted a federal system of government  The central or federal government could:  Declare war  Raise armies  Make treaties  Coin money  Regulate trade with foreign governments

45 Three Branches of Government  Executive Branch, president, enforced laws  Legislative Branch, Congress, made laws  Judicial Branch, federal courts, interpreted the laws  Each branch acted as a check on the power of the others  It was ratified and went into effect in 1789

46 Bill of Rights  Some Americans didn’t like the Constitution  They feared it didn’t protect the rights of individuals  As a result, ten amendments were added known as the Bill of Rights  Freedoms guaranteed: Religion Speech Press Assembly Petition Freedom from Illegal search and seizure The right to a jury trial

47 Effects  It was a major world event  It put into the practice the ideas of political philosophers of the Enlightenment  The American democratic government was a landmark in world history and an important influence  Because of the American Revolution, it gave people still under absolute monarchies and privileged classes… HOPE!

48 French Revolution

49 Napoleon  SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions. c. Explain Napoleon’s rise to power, the role of geography in his defeat, and the consequences of France’s defeat for Europe

50 Napoleon

51 Latin America

52  Latin America was the first colonial area to collectively gain independence. The region was inspired by the American and French Revolutions.  Leaders used new found nationalism to unite their countries and overthrow the Europeans:  Toussaint l’Ouverture (Haiti)  Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (Mexico)  Simon Bolivar (Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela)  Jose de San Martin (Argentine, Chile, Peru)  However, most of the new Latin American countries still retain heavy Spanish influence from their colonial days (the language and Catholic Religion).

53 Causes  There are three reasons for the rise of former colonies of European empires as new nations:  spread of Enlightenment ideas by those educated in Europe  decline of the power of the empires  the rise of nationalism in the colonies.

54 Toussaint L'Ouverture  1 st successful revolt occurred in the French colony of Saint Domingue  When the French Revolution broke out, free mulattoes demanded same rights as French settlers  The settlers resisted

55 Toussaint L'Ouverture  1791: mulattoes and slaves joined together under the leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture, a freed slave, and staged a bloody revolt  They won  Only successful revolution led by slaves anywhere in the world

56 Toussaint L'Ouverture  Napoleon sent troops in but lost  Saint Domingue gained its independence under the name of Haiti  It became the 1 st independent country in Latin America

57 Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla  1810, Father Hidago led an army of Indian peasants against the Spanish  He won some victories but was captured and executed  Hidalgo represented the wave of the future.  His compassion for the underdog, his hatred of injustice and his intelligent and creative approach to economic development all contribute to his well-deserved title as “Father of Mexico.”

58 Jose de San Martin  One of the first revolts against Spain was in La Plata 1810  Creole rebels took control  General Sam Martin led the fighting  Six years later, independence for what is now called Argentina  Peru became independent in 1821  With the help of Bernardo O’Higgins, gained independence of Chile 1818

59  Independence for the rest of South America came only after a long, bloody civil war.

60 Simon Bolivar  Nicknamed “the Liberator”  Started the revolt in Venezuela 1810  Became the president of a new nation called Gran Columbia  Included were Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela

61 Independence in Latin America  San Martin ran the Spanish out of Peru  Peru was independent in 1821  Simon Bolivar took charge and drove the Spanish out for good 1824  The following year, the upper part of Peru was named for him… Bolivia

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