3 VocabularyBartolommeo Dias: Portuguese explorer. 1st to sail around Africa.Prince Henry: “Henry the Navigator” Set up navigation school. Opened exploration for everyoneVasco da Gama: 1st to sail from Europe to India (directly)Treaty of Tordesillas: Pope Alexander IV peace between Spanish/Portuguese. Line of Demarcation split the Americas up for S/P.Dutch East India Company: Dutch trading company that controlled trade in Asia ($$RICH$$)
4 Vocabulary IIZheng He: Famous Chinese explorerDaimyo: Japanese feudal lord/nobleTokugawa Shogunate: A dynasty of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from (Isolation)Haiku: Japanese poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables
5 An Age of Exploration and Isolation GLORYGODGOLDChapter 19:
6 Main Idea QuestionsWhat Role did the Renaissance play in launching an age of exploration?What was Prince Henry’s goal and who actually achieved it?What European countries were competing for Asian trade during the age exploration?
7 Europeans Explore the East “God, Glory, and Gold” Many Factors Encourage Exploration (3 G’s)Europeans Seek Greater WealthDemand for spices and other Eastern goods increased after Crusades(nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon and pepper)Trade routes controlled by Muslim and Italian MerchantsWanted to find different way EastThe Spread of ChristianityEuropeans wanted to spread Christian ideas and convert non-Christians
8 For “God, Glory and Gold” Technological AdvancesInvention of triangular sails allowed ships to sail against the windInvention of astrolabe, sextant, and compass allowed sailors to accurately navigateCaravel: Sturdy Hull, triangular sails (against the wind) astrolabe and the magnetic compass65 Feet Long (average)Large cargo areaShallow depth
9 Portugal Leads the Way The Portuguese Explore Africa Prince Henry the Navigator founded a school to promote exploration (1419)Wanted to find a sea route to AsiaPortuguese Sailors Reach AsiaIn 1487, Bartholomew Dias becomes the 1st European to round S. AfricaIn 1498, Vasco da Gama reaches India by sea, trade route opened from India to Portugal
10 Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean Portugal’s Trading EmpireDuring the early 1500’s, Portugal captures ports in India, the East Indies, and the PhilippinesPortugal had trade monopoly in Asia, allowing it to become the richest European CountryVasco da Gama
11 Trading in the Indian Ocean Other Nations Drive out the PortugueseIn 1521, Spanish explorer Magellan becomes the first to round the worldThe Dutch captured the East Indies in 1581, formed the Dutch East India CompanyEuropean Trading OutpostsWhile Europeans controlled coastal ports, majority of inland native peoples remained unaffected
12 Spain Also Makes Claims Spanish attempted a direct route to Asia1492The Portuguese believed that Columbus reached AsiaSpain vs. Portugal over newly “claimed” landsSpain and Portugal are both Extremely Catholic!!!Pope Alexander VI stopped a potential warTreaty of TordesillasLine of Demarcation Zone
15 Other Nations Challenging The Portuguese The Dutch Republic (The Netherlands)1600: 20,000 shipsDutch East India CompanyPrivate Company to lead colonizationExploration of the East Indies (Batavia, Java)France and England develop their own East India CompaniesOnly gained access to port cities
16 Main Idea Questions: PG 535 What Role did the Renaissance play in launching an age of exploration?What was Prince Henry’s goal and who actually achieved it?What European countries were competing for Asian trade during the age exploration?
18 The Rise of the Ming Hongwu drives out the Mongols in 1368 Helped restore farms, removed Mongol traces and promoted China’s historical past!!Returned to Confucian idealsTyrant who feared being revoltsSon Yonglo moved capital to Beijing and constructed the Forbidden City
19 The Forbidden City Beijing Started in 1406 14 years to construct 800 buildings with 9,000 roomsLargest palace complex in the worldHidden from public viewNo foreigners were allowedHome of the Royal Family
21 China Under the Ming Dynasty The Voyages of Zheng HeColumbus vs. Zheng HeChinese Marco Poloship voyages“Treasure Ship” 500ft1.5 Football Fields27,000 crew members in the fleet (City of Jamestown)Distributed gives of silver and silk16 countries wanted to trade with Ming Dynasty7th voyage was the last (1433)
23 Ming Foreign Relations 1500s Ming Isolationism3 International Port CitiesCanton, Macao, NingboSmugglers Industry (European and Chinese)Used Silver from South American MinesChina did not Industrialized because….Confucian Ideas (farm life)Chinese Economy favored farms (high taxes on merchants)Christian MissionariesBrought Christianity, science/technology ie “Clock”Matteo Ricci
24 Manchus Found the Qing Dynasty Manchus (From Manchuria) establishes the Ming DynastyRuled for 260 yearsExpanded to Taiwan, Central Asia, Mongolia and TibetKangxi ruled 60 yearsPeace and prosperityThirst for knowledge
25 Ethnocentrism: Belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group Chinese ExclusionChinese “Middle Kingdom” (Center of the Universe)Foreigners must follow Chinese customs to trade (Dutch)Kowtow: Kneeling-head to ground 9 times (respect)Dutch became exclusive trading partnerTea
26 Dutch vs. English Dutch Respected Chinese customs English did not respect (NO KOWTOW)Dutch gained access/British did not!!“…nor do we need any more of your country’s manufactures.” Qian-Long
27 Life In Ming and Qing China Families and the Role of WomenNo Retirement Homes In ChinaNew increases in fertilizer allowed for more populationChinese favored sons over daughtersElderly parents would live with SonsWomen raised the children and tended he home
30 Japan Limits Western Contacts period of “Warring States”Daimyos Take ControlTokugawa Shogunate Unites JapanBrought all of Japan under control inContinued feudalism in JapanEmperor and ShogunShogun has all the Power!!
32 Three words…..Stability, Prosperity and Isolation Life In Tokugawa JapanThree words…..Stability, Prosperity and IsolationFarmers produced more food=more populationStructured society (Feudalism)Confucian ideals influenced society (Farmers!!)Mid 1700s shifted to urban societyEdo (old fishing village) changes to Tokyo (Million)
33 Culture Under The Tokugawa Shogunate Samurai attended dramas called Noh DramasGlorified Samurai lifeTragic themes, battles, courageHaiku: Short poetry expressing imagesKabuki: Plays where actors mime in elaborate costumes
35 Contract Between Europe and Japan Portugal Sends Ships, Merchants and Tech.Christian Missionaries in Japan1543 first European contact(shipwrecked Portuguese)Cultural DiffusionBrought Clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearmsDaimyo welcomed strangersBought weaponsSword vs. GunAccepted missionaries b.c. they wanted gunsTokugawa Ieyasu did not like Christians1612 Banned ChristianityRevolt in Southern Japan was blamed on ChristiansForcible kick/killed Christians
36 Christian Missionaries In Japan 1549 Christian Missionaries arriveBy 1600, 300,000 Japanese convertsTokugawa Ieyasu disliked/distrusted Christians1612 Christianity is banned1637 Christianity is banned after a revolt
37 The Closed Country Policy Loved European Trade…..Hated European ideas/waysFeared revolt1639 “Closed Door Policy”One Port: NagasakiOnly Dutch and Chinese allowedSpanish/Portuguese bannedShoguns controlled Nagasaki200 years of European IsolationJapanese forbidden to leaveSelf sufficient country
38 The Closed Country Policy Shoguns and Samurai feared “outsider” ideas/ideals“Closed Door Policy”One open port: NagasakiOnly Dutch and Chinese MerchantsShoguns could control the single port200 years of isolationForbidden to leaveNo new ideas from abroadNO CULTURAL DIFFUSION
39 Main Ideas What happened during the period of “Warring States”? What was the structure of society in Tokugawa Japan?What were the new styles of drama, art and literature in Tokugawa Japan?
40 Chapter QuizWhat were the three main reasons for the European Exploration?Name the famous Chinese explorer during the Ming Dynasty?What type of foreign policy did Japan use under the Tokugawa Shogunate?