3Key EventsRomans overthrew the last Etruscan king and established a republicRomans crushed Hannibal and won the Second Punic WarAugustus became the first emperor, signifying the beginning of the Roman EmpireConstantine proclaimed official tolerance of ChristianityGermanic tribes defeated the Romans, and the empire fell.
4The Impact TodayUsing their practical skills, the Romans made achievements in law, government, language, and engineering that became an important part of Western civilization.In the last 200 years of the Roman Empire , Christianity grew, along with its new ideals of spiritual equality and respect for human life.
5Chapter Preview “Horatius at the Bridge” Courage, duty, determination – these were common words to many Romans, who believed that it was their mission to rule nations and peoples.
7The Land and Peoples of Italy Map on page 150Favorable location of Rome18 Miles inland from Tyrrhenian SeaOn the Tiber River (Way to the sea)Far enough inland to be safe from piratesBuilt on 7 hills, thus easily defendedEarly settlers of Italy – Latins, Greeks, and Etruscans
9The Roman RepublicIn 509 B.C. the Romans overthrew the last Etruscan king and established a republic.Engaged in continuous warfare after becoming a republic as Rome was surrounded by enemiesBy 261 B.C. Rome had defeated the Latin states, the Greeks, and the Etruscan states to conquer virtually all of Italy
10The Roman Republic (continued) To rule Italy, the Romans devised the Roman ConfederationThis allowed some peoples – especially Latins – to have full Roman citizenshipThe Romans made the conquered peoples feel they had a real stake in Rome’s success
11The Roman Republic (continued) Why Rome was SuccessfulReading Page 151
12The Roman State Two groups of orders Patricians – Great landowners, who became Rome’s ruling classPlebeians – Less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers were part of this larger groupBoth groups could vote, but only Patricians could be elected to governmentThe senate was made up of patricians called consuls and praetorsMuch struggle between the orders
13Roman LawThe Twelve Tables and the Law of Nations were Rome’s first code of law, which stated citizens were innocent until proven guilty in a court of law.
14The First Punic War (264 – 241 B.C.) Fought against Carthage. Located on the coast of North Africa, Carthage was closest to Sicily, in Southern Italy.The Roman navy defeat the Carthaginians, who are forced to give up Sicily and leave Italy altogether.Sicily becomes the first Roman province, at the center of the Mediterranean Sea, giving Rome much greater influence and power over its neighbors.
16The 2nd Punic War (218 – 201 B.C.)The great Carthaginian general, HANNIBAL, attacks Rome from the north, moving his army through Spain, the ALPS, and into northern Italy.To move this army of 46,000 soldiers, Hannibal used elephants. He defeats the Romans at Cannae, in 216 B.C.Rome invades Carthage, in N. Africa, and in 202 B.C. defeat Hannibal and the Carthaginians, becoming the strongest force in the Mediterranean region.
20Rome Conquers AllThe Third Punic War, 146 B.C. Rome completely destroys Carthage, burns it to the ground, and sells all of its citizens into slavery. Carthage becomes the new Roman province, called Africa.Rome conquers Macedonia in 148 B.C.Takes control of Greece in 146 B.C.Pergamum in Asia, becomes a Roman province in 129 B.C., completing its control of the Mediterranean Sea.
23From Republic to Empire Section 2From Republic to Empire
24Growing Inequality and Unrest The Roman Senate was made up of Aristocrats which were large land ownersMany believed Rome’s economic problems were due to the decline of the small farmerTiberius and Gaius Gracchus (brothers) wanted the government to take back land and give it to the landless RomansBoth brothers were killed
25A New Role for the ArmyInstead of small farmers who were landholders in the army, new generals started recruiting volunteers whom were poor (they were promised land)The power was now in the hands of the general instead of the governmentGenerals Marius and Sulla battle in a civil war. Sulla is victorious and restores power to the Senate and eliminates other powers
27The First TriumvirateJulius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey form the First Triumvirate.All three had equal power within Rome, ruling over different parts of the Roman Empire.Crassus is killed, causing a divide between Pompey and Caesar.It is Caesar who becomes dictator of Rome in 45 B.C., after defeating Pompey in battle. However…
31The Second Triumvirate Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus rule Rome after Caesar’s death.A war divides Octavian and Antony, which Octavian wins (Battle of Actium). Antony flees to Egypt with Cleopatra, and commits suicide.Octavian rules Rome, becomes the Emperor Augustus.31 B.C. to 14 A.D. (Age of Augustus)
35The Pax Romana: 31 B.C. to 180 A.D.This era begins with Augustus and ends with Marcus Aurelius. (Page 160 – 161)Five consecutive ‘good’ emperors: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus AureliusA period of growth in the Roman Empire, specifically in expansion through trade and commerce throughout the Mediterranean region.Huge divide between the rich and poor; most Romans were farmers.
37Culture and Society in the Roman World Section 3Culture and Society in the Roman World
38Roman Art and Architecture Similar to the GreeksExcelled in Architecture / Super BuildersRemarkable engineering led to the construction of roads, bridges, and aqueducts50,000 miles of roads throughout the empireA dozen aqueducts kept a population of one million supplied with water
40Culture and SocietyThe head of the Roman family was the dominant male, or paterfamilias.Roman women traditionally were under the authority of their father, until they were married. In time, women gained greater independence, but could not participate in politics.Roman children were educated at home, learning both Greek and Latin, boys becoming adults at 16 years, and girls often married at 12 to 14 years old.
41Culture and Society (Continued) Changing roles for women in the second century A.D. (Page 166)Slavery was very common in the Roman empireSlave revolts also took place, the most famous revolt was led by the gladiator SpartacusThe Gladiatorial Shows (Page 166/167)
42Spartacus and Slave Revolts Romans typically feared their slaves and the possibility of revolt. If one slave killed a Roman, it was not uncommon for several slaves to be executed as punishment.Spartacus led a slave revolt in 73 B.C. of 70,000 slaves in southern Italy. His army was able to defeat several Roman armies before he was captured and executed.6000 slaves were crucified, lining the Roman roads, to serve as a warning to other slaves not to revolt.
43The Development of Christianity Section 4The Development of Christianity
44CHRISTIANITY Based upon the life and teachings of Jesus Christ Jesus lived from 0 A.D. to 33 A.D.Christians believe that Christ ascended to Heaven after he was crucified and buried for three days.Believe that the Bible (Old and New Testament, 66 Books) is the word of God.Catholics, Protestants, and Orthodox (3 major branches of Christianity)
45Rome’s InfluenceA procurator was a Roman official that ruled a province, like Judaea.Jesus’ presence in the province of Judaea and Galilee stirred local controversyJesus shared the message of loving one another, emphasizing humility, charity, and love towards others.
46The Rise of Christianity (Continued) According to Jesus the transformation of the inner person was most important… “So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets”Some people thought Jesus might lead a revolt against Rome, he was turned over to Roman authorities whom ordered Jesus’ crucifixionAfter his death, his followers proclaimed that he had risen from death and had appeared to them
49The Early Christian Church Early Christians were persecuted by the Romans, often martyred for their faith.A disciple of Jesus, Simon Peter, along with the Apostle Paul, continued to spread the word of the Gospel throughout the Mediterranean Sea. Both were killed for their faith.Romans persecuted Christians under the Emperor Nero, largely because Christians would not recognize the Roman emperor as a god.
50The Triumph of Christianity Under Theodosius the Great, who ruled from 378 to 395 , the Romans adopted Christianity as the official religion of the Roman EmpireWhy did Christianity attract so many?Gave meaning and purpose to lifeWas familiar and offered immortalityFulfilled the human need to belong
52The DeclineConflict and confusion followed the death of the last good emperor (Aurelius in A.D. 180)235 to 284 A.D. – 22 Emperors with military strength, many met a violent deathInvasions, civil wars, and plague came close to causing an economic collapse of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century
53Diocletian and Constantine Diocletian ruled from 284 to 305 and Constantine from 306 to 337 gave new life to the Roman EmpireDivided empire into 4 units each with its own rulerConstantine’s biggest project was the construction of a new capital city in the east – Constantinople (Present day Istanbul in Turkey)
55The Fall of the Roman Empire The Romans suffered crushing defeats by the Visigoths and the Vandals476 is known as the fall of the Roman Empire (Romulus Augustlus (western emperor) was deposed by the Germanic head of army)Various theories to explain the decline and fall of the Roman empire (Page 178)
56Theories to Explain the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Emphasis on a spiritual kingdom weakened the militaryTraditional Roman values declinedLead poisoning caused a mental declinePlague wiped out one-tenth of the populationFailure to advance technologically because of slaveryInability to develop a workable political system
57Rome and the Rise of Christianity Wrap Up and Review Chapter 5Rome and the Rise of ChristianityWrap Up and Review
58Key Events (Re-visited) Romans overthrew the last Etruscan king and established a republicRomans crushed Hannibal and won the Second Punic WarAugustus became the first emperor, signifying the beginning of the Roman EmpireConstantine proclaimed official tolerance of ChristianityGermanic tribes defeated the Romans, and the empire fell.
59The Impact Today (Re-visited) Using their practical skills, the Romans made achievements in law, government, language, and engineering that became an important part of Western civilization.In the last 200 years of the Roman Empire , Christianity grew, along with its new ideals of spiritual equality and respect for human life.