Key Events Romans overthrew the last Etruscan king and established a republic Romans crushed Hannibal and won the Second Punic War Augustus became the first emperor, signifying the beginning of the Roman Empire Constantine proclaimed official tolerance of Christianity Germanic tribes defeated the Romans, and the empire fell.
The Impact Today Using their practical skills, the Romans made achievements in law, government, language, and engineering that became an important part of Western civilization. In the last 200 years of the Roman Empire, Christianity grew, along with its new ideals of spiritual equality and respect for human life.
Chapter Preview “Horatius at the Bridge” Courage, duty, determination – these were common words to many Romans, who believed that it was their mission to rule nations and peoples.
The Land and Peoples of Italy Map on page 150 Favorable location of Rome – 18 Miles inland from Tyrrhenian Sea – On the Tiber River (Way to the sea) – Far enough inland to be safe from pirates – Built on 7 hills, thus easily defended Early settlers of Italy – Latins, Greeks, and Etruscans
The Roman Republic In 509 B.C. the Romans overthrew the last Etruscan king and established a republic. Engaged in continuous warfare after becoming a republic as Rome was surrounded by enemies By 261 B.C. Rome had defeated the Latin states, the Greeks, and the Etruscan states to conquer virtually all of Italy
The Roman Republic (continued) To rule Italy, the Romans devised the Roman Confederation This allowed some peoples – especially Latins – to have full Roman citizenship The Romans made the conquered peoples feel they had a real stake in Rome’s success
The Roman Republic (continued) Why Rome was Successful – Reading Page 151
The Roman State Two groups of orders – Patricians – Great landowners, who became Rome’s ruling class – Plebeians – Less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers were part of this larger group Both groups could vote, but only Patricians could be elected to government The senate was made up of patricians called consuls and praetors Much struggle between the orders
Roman Law The Twelve Tables and the Law of Nations were Rome’s first code of law, which stated citizens were innocent until proven guilty in a court of law.
The First Punic War (264 – 241 B.C.) Fought against Carthage. Located on the coast of North Africa, Carthage was closest to Sicily, in Southern Italy. The Roman navy defeat the Carthaginians, who are forced to give up Sicily and leave Italy altogether. Sicily becomes the first Roman province, at the center of the Mediterranean Sea, giving Rome much greater influence and power over its neighbors.
The 2nd Punic War (218 – 201 B.C.) The great Carthaginian general, HANNIBAL, attacks Rome from the north, moving his army through Spain, the ALPS, and into northern Italy. To move this army of 46,000 soldiers, Hannibal used elephants. He defeats the Romans at Cannae, in 216 B.C. Rome invades Carthage, in N. Africa, and in 202 B.C. defeat Hannibal and the Carthaginians, becoming the strongest force in the Mediterranean region.
Rome Conquers All The Third Punic War, 146 B.C. Rome completely destroys Carthage, burns it to the ground, and sells all of its citizens into slavery. Carthage becomes the new Roman province, called Africa. Rome conquers Macedonia in 148 B.C. Takes control of Greece in 146 B.C. Pergamum in Asia, becomes a Roman province in 129 B.C., completing its control of the Mediterranean Sea.
Growing Inequality and Unrest The Roman Senate was made up of Aristocrats which were large land owners Many believed Rome’s economic problems were due to the decline of the small farmer Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus (brothers) wanted the government to take back land and give it to the landless Romans Both brothers were killed
A New Role for the Army Instead of small farmers who were landholders in the army, new generals started recruiting volunteers whom were poor (they were promised land) The power was now in the hands of the general instead of the government Generals Marius and Sulla battle in a civil war. Sulla is victorious and restores power to the Senate and eliminates other powers
The First Triumvirate Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey form the First Triumvirate. All three had equal power within Rome, ruling over different parts of the Roman Empire. Crassus is killed, causing a divide between Pompey and Caesar. It is Caesar who becomes dictator of Rome in 45 B.C., after defeating Pompey in battle. However…
The Second Triumvirate Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus rule Rome after Caesar’s death. A war divides Octavian and Antony, which Octavian wins (Battle of Actium). Antony flees to Egypt with Cleopatra, and commits suicide. Octavian rules Rome, becomes the Emperor Augustus. 31 B.C. to 14 A.D. (Age of Augustus)
The Pax Romana: 31 B.C. to 180 A.D. This era begins with Augustus and ends with Marcus Aurelius. (Page 160 – 161) Five consecutive ‘good’ emperors: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius A period of growth in the Roman Empire, specifically in expansion through trade and commerce throughout the Mediterranean region. Huge divide between the rich and poor; most Romans were farmers.
Section 3 Culture and Society in the Roman World
Roman Art and Architecture Similar to the Greeks Excelled in Architecture / Super Builders Remarkable engineering led to the construction of roads, bridges, and aqueducts 50,000 miles of roads throughout the empire A dozen aqueducts kept a population of one million supplied with water
Pax Romana Architecture (The Colosseum in Rome)
Culture and Society The head of the Roman family was the dominant male, or paterfamilias. Roman women traditionally were under the authority of their father, until they were married. In time, women gained greater independence, but could not participate in politics. Roman children were educated at home, learning both Greek and Latin, boys becoming adults at 16 years, and girls often married at 12 to 14 years old.
Culture and Society (Continued) Changing roles for women in the second century A.D. (Page 166) Slavery was very common in the Roman empire Slave revolts also took place, the most famous revolt was led by the gladiator Spartacus The Gladiatorial Shows (Page 166/167)
Spartacus and Slave Revolts Romans typically feared their slaves and the possibility of revolt. If one slave killed a Roman, it was not uncommon for several slaves to be executed as punishment. Spartacus led a slave revolt in 73 B.C. of 70,000 slaves in southern Italy. His army was able to defeat several Roman armies before he was captured and executed. 6000 slaves were crucified, lining the Roman roads, to serve as a warning to other slaves not to revolt.
CHRISTIANITY Based upon the life and teachings of Jesus Christ Jesus lived from 0 A.D. to 33 A.D. Christians believe that Christ ascended to Heaven after he was crucified and buried for three days. Believe that the Bible (Old and New Testament, 66 Books) is the word of God. Catholics, Protestants, and Orthodox (3 major branches of Christianity)
Rome’s Influence A procurator was a Roman official that ruled a province, like Judaea. Jesus’ presence in the province of Judaea and Galilee stirred local controversy Jesus shared the message of loving one another, emphasizing humility, charity, and love towards others.
The Rise of Christianity (Continued) According to Jesus the transformation of the inner person was most important… “So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets” Some people thought Jesus might lead a revolt against Rome, he was turned over to Roman authorities whom ordered Jesus’ crucifixion After his death, his followers proclaimed that he had risen from death and had appeared to them
The Early Christian Church Early Christians were persecuted by the Romans, often martyred for their faith. A disciple of Jesus, Simon Peter, along with the Apostle Paul, continued to spread the word of the Gospel throughout the Mediterranean Sea. Both were killed for their faith. Romans persecuted Christians under the Emperor Nero, largely because Christians would not recognize the Roman emperor as a god.
The Triumph of Christianity Under Theodosius the Great, who ruled from 378 to 395, the Romans adopted Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire Why did Christianity attract so many? – Gave meaning and purpose to life – Was familiar and offered immortality – Fulfilled the human need to belong
The Decline Conflict and confusion followed the death of the last good emperor (Aurelius in A.D. 180) 235 to 284 A.D. – 22 Emperors with military strength, many met a violent death Invasions, civil wars, and plague came close to causing an economic collapse of the Roman Empire in the 3 rd century
Diocletian and Constantine Diocletian ruled from 284 to 305 and Constantine from 306 to 337 gave new life to the Roman Empire Divided empire into 4 units each with its own ruler Constantine’s biggest project was the construction of a new capital city in the east – Constantinople (Present day Istanbul in Turkey)
The Fall of the Roman Empire The Romans suffered crushing defeats by the Visigoths and the Vandals 476 is known as the fall of the Roman Empire (Romulus Augustlus (western emperor) was deposed by the Germanic head of army) Various theories to explain the decline and fall of the Roman empire (Page 178)
Theories to Explain the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Emphasis on a spiritual kingdom weakened the military Traditional Roman values declined Lead poisoning caused a mental decline Plague wiped out one-tenth of the population Failure to advance technologically because of slavery Inability to develop a workable political system
Chapter 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianity Wrap Up and Review
Key Events (Re-visited) Romans overthrew the last Etruscan king and established a republic Romans crushed Hannibal and won the Second Punic War Augustus became the first emperor, signifying the beginning of the Roman Empire Constantine proclaimed official tolerance of Christianity Germanic tribes defeated the Romans, and the empire fell.
The Impact Today (Re-visited) Using their practical skills, the Romans made achievements in law, government, language, and engineering that became an important part of Western civilization. In the last 200 years of the Roman Empire, Christianity grew, along with its new ideals of spiritual equality and respect for human life.