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The Path of Empire 1890 – 1899. Imperialist Stirrings  Shift in US foreign policy –Move from isolationism to imperialism  Causes: –Exports of manufactured.

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Presentation on theme: "The Path of Empire 1890 – 1899. Imperialist Stirrings  Shift in US foreign policy –Move from isolationism to imperialism  Causes: –Exports of manufactured."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Path of Empire 1890 – 1899

2 Imperialist Stirrings  Shift in US foreign policy –Move from isolationism to imperialism  Causes: –Exports of manufactured goods & agricultural products shot up –Expand or explode –New sense of power generated by booming increase in population, wealth, & industrial production –“yellow press” of Joseph Pulitzer & William Randolph Hearst - Cuba –Josiah Strong’s belief that Americans should spread their religion & their values (white mans burden) – Anglo- Saxonism

3 Colonial Scramble  Africa – Europeans – 1880s  Chinese Empire – Japan, Germany, & Russia – 1890s  In order to compete, America must become an imperial power also!

4 Naval Buildup  Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan – The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 Published in 1890 –Control of the sea was the key to world dominance. Why is this important? –Stimulated the naval race around the world

5 Latin America  Sec of State James G. Blaine –Pushed his “Big Sister” policy –Rally the Latin American nations behind Uncle Sam’s leadership & open Latin American markers to trade  Pan-American Conference 1889 –Goal: economic cooperation through reciprocal tariff reduction –Vague plan // led future meetings

6 Diplomatic Crises  1889 – Dispute over the Samoan Islands between US & Germany  1891 – Lynching of 11 Italians in New Orleans caused problems between US & Italy –US paid compensation  1892 – Two US sailors at Valparaiso, Chile were killed –Chileans had to pay  1893 – Dispute between US & Canada over seal hunting in Pribilof Islands off of Alaska –Settled by arbitration

7 Monroe Doctrine & Venezuela  Problems for US & Great Britain over disputed boundary (1895 – 1896) –Between British Guiana & Venezuela –Venezuelans urged arbitration –Gold was found in disputed region – no arbitration  Sec of State Richard Olney responds –Great Britain had violated the Monroe Doctrine –Should agree to arbitration  Reply from London –no arbitration // Monroe Doctrine –not relevant

8  Cleveland - experts decide on the boundary –If Great Britain refused, US would fight  US was not prepared militarily for war & Great Britain didn’t want to fight  German Kaiser Wilhelm II –Sent a letter to South Africa to congratulate them on their capture of 600 British men –Great Britain changed their anger to Germany & not US  Great Britain agreed to arbitration  Results: –Monroe Doctrine enhanced –Reconciliation between US & Great Britain

9 Hawaii  Early 19 th century – shippers, sailors, & whalers  1820 – New England missionaries –Most settled permanently  1840s – State Dept warned other powers to keep out. Why is it important?  1875 – commercial reciprocity agreement  1887 – treaty to allow the building of Pearl Harbor naval base

10 The Hawaiian Pear  1890 - Sugar cultivation was dramatically affected the McKinley Tariff  White planters (mostly Americans) wanted US to annex Hawaii  Queen Liliuokalani – against annexation  1893 – successful revolt by whites –Openly assisted by American troops  Treaty of annexation was rushed to Washington –Stopped by Pres Cleveland –Annexation postponed until 1898


12 Cuban Revolt  1895 – Cuba rose against their Spanish oppressor –Revolt was partly economic Wilson-Gorman Tariff (1894) - high duties on sugar  Insurgents adopted a scorched-earth policy –Spain might be willing to move out –US might move in & help Cubans with independence  America sympathies went to the Cubans –Investment stake of $50 million in Cuba & annually trade of $100 million


14 General “Butcher” Weyler  Sent by Spain to crush rebellion in Cuba –Sent civilians into reconcentration camps in order to prevent them from supporting the rebels –Many died  Weyler was removed in 1897 yet conditions got worse  American public was outraged –Called on Pres Cleveland to formally recognize Cuban rebels –Pres Cleveland was against possible war


16 “Yellow Journalism”  Sensational and often false reporting  William R. Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer –Engaged in a duel for circulation / tried to out do each other –Frederic Remington - sent to Cuba to draw pictures of atrocities – “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war.” (Hearst)



19 USS Maine  1898 – Washington sent battleship to Cuba for a “friendly visit” –Actually there to protect & evacuate Americans if needed  Feb 1898 – Hearst headlined the de Lome Letter –Written by Spanish minister Dupuy de Lome –Insulted Pres McKinley Uproar resulted & de Lome was forced to resign  Feb 15, 1898 – Maine mysteriously exploded in Havana Harbor –260 died



22 “Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain!”  Spanish – explosion was internal & accidental  Americans – explosion was caused by a submarine mine  Washington refused arbitration  Americans blindly accepted that Spain was responsible


24 McKinley & War  American demands from Spain –End reconcentration camps –Armistice with Cuban rebels  McKinley, Mark Hanna, & Wall Street did not want war  The public wanted war - “yellow journalism”  Pres McKinley finally gave the people what they wanted - WAR



27 McKinley  April 11, 1898 – McKinley urged armed intervention to free the oppressed Cubans –Congress responded with a declaration of war  Teller Amendment 1898 –Proclaimed to the world when the US had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give the Cubans their freedom

28 American Navy  Navy Sec John D. Long –Assistant Sec Theodore Roosevelt  Feb 25, 1898 –Long was away & Roosevelt cabled Commodore George Dewey with the following instructions: In the event of war, attack Spanish fleet in the Philippines Orders were confirmed by McKinley  May 1. 1898 – Dewey carried out his orders –Became a hero –Waited in bay until reinforcements arrived


30 Unexpected Imperialistic Plums  Dewey’s reinforcements arrive & captured Manila on Aug 13, 1898 –Joined forces with Emilio Aguinaldo  Hawaii – needed as a coaling & provisional way station –Joint resolution of annexations was rushed through Congress & approved by McKinley (July 7, 1898) –Granted US citizenship & full territorial status in 1900


32 Invasion of Cuba  Spanish gov’t ordered a fleet to Cuba –Commanded by Admiral Cervera Believed it was suicide  Cervera found refuge in Santiago harbor –Blockaded by US forces  Plan: Send in forces from the rear to drive out Cervera –General William R. Shafter lead the force

33 Rough Riders  Regiment of volunteers – consisted largely of cowboys & other hardy characters  Commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood  Organized by Theodore Roosevelt –Resigned from the Navy Dept to serve as lieutenant colonel


35 Spain Loses Big  Shafter’s landing near Santiago was made without serious opposition  Fighting broke out at El Caney & San Juan Hill –Rough Riders & Buffalo Soldiers –Suffered many casualties  July 3 – entire Spanish fleet was destroyed –500 Spaniards killed – 1 American killed  General Nelson A. Miles commanded army to invade Puerto Rico –little resistance – invaders were greeted as heroes  Aug 12, 1898 – Spain signed an armistice




39 Treaty of Paris  Outcome: –Cuba was granted its independence –Pacific Island of Guam annexed by US –Puerto Rico was annexed by US *** Most controversial issue was what to do with the Philippines – US finally agreed to pay Spain $20 million –Philippine Islands annexed by the US


41 Debate over Imperialism  Pres McKinley argued that there was no acceptable alternative to acquisition of the Philippines –US could not honorably give the islands back to Spanish misrule –Filipinos might fall into anarchy if they governed themselves –Germany or another power may try to take them & war would result

42 The Debate Continues  Anti-Imperialist League argued it violated our own political heritage & the philosophy of the Dec of Independence  Imperialists stressed the economic potential for American trading profits and the “White Man’s Burden”  Treaty of Paris was approved by 1 vote on Feb 6, 1899

43 Puerto Rico  Many inhabitants lived in poverty  Foraker Act of 1900 –Congress accorded Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular government  1917 – Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship  Insular Cases – Supreme Court was divided on whether the Constitution followed the flag –Document did not necessarily extend to Puerto Rico


45 Cuba  American military gov’t set up by General Leonard Wood –Major improvements politically, economically & with education –Public health – Dr. Walter Reed Attack on yellow fever Clean up of mosquito breeding grounds  1902 – US withdrew its troops from Cuba after the Cubans had been forced to write into their own Constitution

46 Platt Amendment - 1902  Cuba agreed not to impair their independence by treaty or debt  Cuba agreed that the US might intervene with troops to restore order and provide protection  Cuba promised to lease naval stations to the US (ultimately only one-Guantanamo)


48 Legacy of the “Splendid Little War”  War did not make the US a world power –Advertised the fact that the nation was a world power  Americans found in the victories further support for their indifference to adequate preparedness  National pride soared  US became a full-fledged Far Eastern power  Reunited Yankees & Rebels

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