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The Gunpowder Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal

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Presentation on theme: "The Gunpowder Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Gunpowder Empires: Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal

2 Ottoman Origins One of many Muslim warrior groups on East frontier of Byzantine Empire Conquered much of western Anatolia & Balkan Peninsula Most long lived of post-Mongol empires

3 Ottoman: Turning Point
1453, broke through massive walls & captured Constantinople Renamed Istanbul Gave Turks control of city that symbolized Christian teachings & connection to ancient Rome Strategic location for long-distance trade & military deployments

4 Ottomans: 1516-1517 Selim took title of caliph, defender of faith
extended from Black Sea to Red Sea to Strait of Gibraltar little impact on N. Africa Pashas, appointed government officials, collected taxes and maintained law & order reported to sultan in Constantinople

5 Ottoman Expansion Soldiers and sailors continued to push borders outward Sultans established administrative rule that compared favorably with regimes elsewhere Distinctive use of different type of slavery Based on religion, not skin color Called Devshirme

6 Ottoman: Suleiman I 1520 expanded Ottoman rule into Europe and West Med. Sea ruled for 46 years great military commander, known for legislation as well codified Ottoman law-kept Islamic faith Tolerance for Christians of the Empire addressed taxes built more schools

7 Ottomans Suleiman married harem girl from Poland named Roxelana-had 5 children with her executed his eldest son, Mustafa, because Roxelana said he was planning to kill Suleiman and take power – her son Selim took power when Suleiman died in 1566

8 Ottomans success largely based on mastery of firearm technology
Sultans head of empire supreme political & military authority Power always transferred to single authority position of sultan was hereditary – son always succeeded father

9 Ottomans Since time of Mehmet II, sultans ruled from the Topkaki Palace in Istanbul administrative headquarters & chief residence of sultan private domain of sultan called “harem,” or “sacred place” Sultans often chose 4 wives as favorites When son became sultan, his mother became queen mother - acted as a major adviser to throne

10 Ottoman Centralized Power
Chief advisor was “Grand Vizier” Led meetings of imperial council - met 4 days a week Sultan sat behind screen-made wishes known to GV Empire divided into districts-ruled by officials who were helped by bureaucrats trained at palace schools Senior officials given land - collected taxes & supplied armies

11 Ottomans Sunni Sultans claimed title of caliph
responsible for guiding & keeping Islamic law In practice, they gave their religious duties to the “ulema”- a group of religious advisors Ulema were responsible for legal system & schools for educating Muslims

12 Ottomans Tolerant of non-Muslims
Non-Muslims paid tax, but allowed to practice their religion & could convert to Islam Most people in European areas remained Christian In some areas, large numbers converted to Islam

13 Ottomans & Portuguese Threat
In early 16th century, merchants form south India & Sumatra requested help from Ottomans Ottomans responded vigorously to threat close to their territory did not see growing threat of world wide naval powers like Portuguese Never formulated a consistent aggressive policy in Indian Ocean to counter growing European dominance- Trapped in land based paradigm when world was shifting to naval power

14 Ottoman: Devshrime (Child Levy)
Christian boys taken by force from families Placed w/Turks Converted to Islam Trained for service in one of four royal institutions Palace Scribes Religious Military

15 Ottoman Institutions: Janissary Corps
By 1520’s, military balanced between cavalry archers and Janissaries-Christian prisoners forced to serve as military slaves Standing army-lived in barracks and trained all year Willing to fight on foot with guns

16 Ottoman Military Muslim states relied on slave soldiers for long time
Conquest of Christian lands provided new military source Converted to Islam Provided flexibility-willing to fight on foot with guns Ottoman were horse culture-guns too heavy and awkward on horseback

17 Ottoman Navy Manned by Greek, Turkish, Algerian, Tunisian sailors with N. African admirals Turning Point: Lost battle of Lepanto against Venice, Spain, Papal States in 1571-dispelled idea of Ottoman invincibility Despite loss, their resources were so extensive that within a year, replaced all galleys that were sunk

18 Ottoman Society: Cosmopolitan, sophisticated Shari’a Law Sultan
provided justice The Askeri Professionals/Military Elites provided security The Raya Professionals Merchants-exempt from taxes Tradesmen Guild Members Peasants Non-Muslims-local customs and religious leaders provided structure and guidance

19 Ottoman: Crisis and Revolt 1585-1650
Cannon & lighter-weight firearms gained importance Size/cost of Janissary grew Role of traditional cavalry diminished Sultan reduced number of landholding cavalrymen Revenue that used to go to their expenses, went into imperial treasury Inflation from cheap silver from New World bankrupted many landholders who were restricted to fixed amount of taxes Land returned to the state Displaced cavalrymen, armed and unhappy, became a restive element

20 Ottoman Crisis and Revolt
Revolts between Marauders/Bandits Former landholding cavalrymen, short-term soldiers Overburdened peasants Impoverished students Anatolia suffered the worst Government inability to stop spread of guns

21 Ottoman Janissary Privilege
Janissaries forced changes that helped the state in short run: Could support themselves Hereditary Forced recruitment abolished Total number of Janissaries increased, effectiveness as military force decreased

22 Ottoman Economic Changes: Tax Farming
Sultans became more isolated Grand Viziers had real power Tax farmers paid specific taxes in advance in return for collecting a greater amount from taxpayers Rural administration disrupted Tax farmers less likely to live on land State had greater administrative burden to maintain order Relied on provincial governors & on wealthy who purchased lifelong tax collection rights

23 Ottoman Growing Weakness
Demographic changes, Ottoman inability to control trade, growing dominance of European traders in Indian Ocean turned Izmir into multicultural entrepot Agricultural economy of lands most accessible to Europe became enmeshed in growing European commercial networks Ottoman security weakened

24 Ottoman Weakness Military power decline
Janissaries sometime hired replacements Sultans relied on poorly trained seasonal recruits 2nd Seige of Vienna failed in 1683 Weakness obvious to Austrians and Russians Safavid empire collapsed in 1722

25 Ottoman Weakness began w/ Selim II about 1699
training of officials declined senior positions given to sons/daughters of elite, based less on merit elite only interested in own fortunes, so local government grew more corrupt and taxes rose Wars depleted imperial treasury

26 Ottoman Weakness Declining trade w/East as Safavid instability cut into Silk production Taxes on coffee were higher to Muslim merchants 15% vs 3% Europe dominated sea trade but did not gain control of Ottoman territory

27 Ottoman Weakness: The Tulip Period
Very few able to perceive downward spiral of Ottoman power & reasons for it Ironically, elites became fascinated with European styles & attitudes “Tulip Bulb” craze= growing detachment/ disengagement from real issues

28 Weakness: Patrona Halil Rebellion
1730, a revolt by Janissary with religious overtones forced the abdication of Sultan Ahmed II Halil took control but was executed Confirmed that central government weak Local powers gained power

29 Safavid Empire:

30 Safavid Origins Safavid Dynasty started w/ Shah Ismail
descendant of Safi al-Din-leader of Turkish ethnic groups in Azerbaijan near Caspian Sea Under Ismail, Safavid took control of much of Iran & Iraq Relied on cavalry paid through land grants Multi-lingual Oriented inward-not towards the sea

31 Safavids Ismail called himself “shah,” or king, of new Persian state
Ismail was Shiite Theocracy Created distinct Shi’ite identity sent preachers to different areas to convert members of Ottoman Empire led to massacre of Sunni Muslims when he took Baghdad Ismail lost at Tabriz to Suleiman over religious differences

32 Safavid: Shah Abbas, Restless, decisive, ruthless, intelligent, disciplined brought Safavids to highest point of glory Standardized Shiite beliefs-brought into line with Shari’a law usurped throne from father & imprisoned him later killed man who helped him gain throne With European allies, attacked Ottoman Turks to regain lost lands

33 Safavid: Shah Abbas I Enlarged Iranian territory
Stabilizing force after period of civil war and foreign invasions Established global trade contacts between Asia and Europe Built Isfahan Donated generously Employed calligraphers, painters, bookbinders, designers for inscriptions on buildings Created a visual style that would be associated with his reign Laid foundation for Modern Iran

34 Safavid Empire: Shah Abbas I
When he took power, Ottomans occupied West Iran, the Caucasus, and Iraq Uzbeks controlled Khurasan-including holy shrine of Imam Riza at Mashad Regained territory with slave army of ghulams, Christian slaves who had converted Seized Hormuz from Portuguese Defeated Ottomans, regained Baghdad-allowed access to holy Shi’ite sites Controlled trade in Persian Gulf

35 Safavids: Shad Abbas and Sufism
Mystical strain of Islam found in both Sunni and Shi’a sects Also known as dervishes Achieve oneness w/ god though prayer, rituals, visions- retreat from material world Shah Abbas was Sufi & tolerant but would repress unorthodox Sufi beliefs or practices or if his authority was threatened

36 Safavids Safavid Empire went from Azerbaijan on Caspian Sea east to India; along the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea north to the southern border of Russia When Shah Abbas died, religious orthodoxy increased Women forced to give up freedom for life of seclusion-wearing veil Not cut off from outside world Wife retained property after marriage-gave some women a stake in general economy and a degree of independence Under Shari’a women could testify for themselves

37 Safavid Religion Shi’ite Beliefs united Safavid
Created further estrangement from neighbors-all Sunni Persian language 2nd after Arabic Developed unique cultural elements in tile mosaics, poetry Shi’ite doctrine says that all temporal leaders are stand-ins for the “Hidden Imam”; the 12th descendent of Ali Debate over the relationship between religion & politics led to religious scholars independent from imperial authority-did not become subordinate government functionaries like in Ottoman Empire

38 Safavid: Isfahan Isfahan-jewel of Safavid Empire
Silk & carpet weaving flourished Riza-i-Abbasi most famous artist of the time beautiful works about simple subjects such as oxen plowing, hunters, and lovers soft colors and flowing movement in painting

39 Safavid: Economy Silks and carpets were important commercial goods
Good location on trade routes Became rich from growing trade between Europe and Central Asia and India Both Muslim and Non-Muslim traders Most subjects were farmers/herders

40 Safavid: Economic Crisis and Political Collapse
Most subjects were subsistence farmers no significant technological developments Could not generate enough money for military and bureaucracy Inflation from cheap silver from New World Mismanagement of silk industry Nomadic groups withdrew support Afghan marauders captured Isfahan and ended Safavid rule

41 Mughal Empire: 1605-1707 Babur founder-united Hindu & Muslim kingdoms
descendant of Mongol Conqueror Timur Lenk Took Khyber Pass in NW India & Delhi in N. India Small armies but had weapons, artillery, & used them w/ great effect

42 Mughal Akbar the Great was grandson of Babur
placed most of India under Mughal control by use of artillery and negotiation Formed alliances with Hindu Rajput Kingdoms best known for his tolerance adopted a policy of religious tolerance – married Hindu princess Zamindars were low ranking officials of Hindu descent who got paid by keeping part of collected taxes part of his toleration of government administration

43 Mughal Shah Jahan ruled 1628-1658
used political system started by earlier Mughal rulers expanded boundaries into Deccan Plateau and Samarkand in Hindu Kush Money spent on buildings and military projects drained the treasury-had to raise taxes best known for Taj Mahal mausoleum for favorite wife, Mumatz Mahal

44 Mughal Aurangzeb took over from his father, Shah Jahan
had his brother put to death devout Muslim- high principles Imposed Shari’a Law tried to eliminate social evils suttee (Hindu practice of cremating a widow on her husband’s funeral pyre) levying illegal taxes, gambling, drinking Ended policy of religious tolerance – tried to convert Hindus, tore down temples Imposed heavy tax on Hindus Conquered Hindu kingdoms in central India, took slaves led to social unrest that made India open to attack from abroad

45 Mughal British helped decline of Mughal Empire
Sir Robert Clive-chief representative of British East India Company 1696, British East India gained control of Indian trade by taking Bengal, Calcutta Indians practiced guerilla warfare against British but couldn’t dislodge them

46 Women’s Lives Under Mughal
Complex played a role in Mughal tribal society – warriors & advisors in political matters Could own land & do business Experienced restrictions under Islamic law isolation of women was practiced in upper class Hindu families Many Hindu practices went unchanged by Mughal rule

47 Mughal Art & Architecture
brought together Persian and Indian influences in art & architecture Taj Mahal- greatest example of Mogul architecture Akbar encouraged Persian & Indian motifs “Akbar style” included humans in action He encouraged artists to imitate European art forms, including perspective & lifelike portraits He commissioned artists from Persia & Europe to teach Indian artists

48 Mughal Urdu= Arabic + Hindi
Education considered pupils needs and culture

49 Maritime Worlds of Islam, 1500-1750
Some SE Asian kingdoms welcome Islam to counter aggressive Christianity of Europeans Muslims in coastal Africa intermarried with locals Created mixed population that played a key part in development of distinctive Swahili culture

50 Conclusion All three Empires declined simultaneously
Land-based empires dependent on land grants could not provide money needed for expensive weapons Sea-based empires flourished from new ship designs, navigational accuracy, cannon, joint-stock companies, and aggressive trading tactics Balance of power shifted-favored Europeans

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