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Section 1 An Age of Ideologies.  Turn to page 214 in your book  Read through the timeline  Analyze pictures and maps.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1 An Age of Ideologies.  Turn to page 214 in your book  Read through the timeline  Analyze pictures and maps."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 1 An Age of Ideologies

2  Turn to page 214 in your book  Read through the timeline  Analyze pictures and maps

3 Father Miguel Hidalgo  Father Miguel Hidalgo urges Mexicans to fight for independence from Spain

4 Simon Bolivar  Simon Bolivar, later known as “The Liberator,” seizes Bogota from the Spanish

5 French Revolution of 1830  French revolutionaries battle the king’s troops in the streets of Paris


7  After 1815, conservatives called for a return to the political and social structure that existed before 1789  Liberals embraced the ideas of the Enlightenment and wanted to limit the power of monarchs  Nationalists threatened the powerful empires of Europe by pushing for independence.

8  Conflicts emerged as conservative leaders opposed liberal and nationalist demands  List three goals that conservative politicians may have had during this time  List three goals that liberal politicians may have had during this time

9  Divide into three groups  Group 1 = conservativism  Group 2 = liberalism  Group 3 = nationalism  Each group must outline its political movement by listing the attitudes, goals policies, and actions.  Assign two members to be the “experts”  Experts must teach the other groups about their political movement

10  Goal 1. To create a lasting peace, by establishing a balance of power 2. Protecting the system of monarchy

11  An attempt to turn back the clock to pre French Revolution 1789  Wanted to make the rest of Europe forget about the French Revolution and Napoleon

12  Congress of Vienna was a victory for the conservatives  Conservatives supported the Old Order, or the way things were in Europe before Napoleon and the French Revolution  Old Order appealed to peasants because of its simplicity and rules

13  Conservatives thought that defending peace and creating stability benefitted all people of Europe

14  The ideological opposition to conservatives were liberals and nationalists  Liberals and Nationalists believed in the ideas of the Enlightenment

15  Wanted governments to be based on a written constitution with separation of powers  Spoke out against divine-right monarchy

16  1800’s national groups who shared common heritage set out to win there own states  Nationalism gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity and a goal of creating their own homeland

17  Ideas of liberalism and nationalism inspired revolts against the Old Order



20  United by Karageorge, Serbs revolted against the Ottomans beginning in 1804-1813  Serbs fought a guerrilla war style  Unsuccessful but forged a united Serbian identity  By 1830 Serbs won autonomy from Ottoman Empire with the help of Russia

21  National identity, heritage and shared history forged a strong bond between Greeks  After winning support from Western Europe, Britain, France and Russia aided Greece in forcing the Ottomans to grant independence to some Greek provinces  By 1830 Greece completely independent

22  By the late 1820’s Southern Europe is nearly about to erupt with nationalist and liberalist revolutions  Metternich and other Old Order leaders struggled to put out the fires of national and liberal revolutionaries

23 Section 2 Revolutions of 1830 and 1848

24  The Charter of French Liberties 1. Created by Louie XVIII after COV 2. Is a written Constitution 3. Created a two house legislature 4. Limited freedom of the press  Few people were satisfied

25 Ultraroyalists (supporters of the King) Ultraroyalists 1.Supporters of the King 2.Despised constitutional government 3.Wanted to restore the Old Regime

26  Charles X, brother of Louis XVIII 1. Became King after the death of his brother (1824) 2. Strong believer in absolutism 3. Rejected the idea of the Charter of French Liberties

27  July 1830, Charles X 1. Suspended the legislature 2. Limited the right to vote 3. Restricted the press

28  In Paris, angry liberal and radical citizens responded with force  Within days, radicals controlled Paris by 1. Setting up barricades 2. Firing upon soldiers 3. Pelting soldiers with stones  Charles X abdicated the throne and fled to Paris

29  Radicals wanted to set up a republic  Moderate liberals wanted a constitutional monarchy  Louis Philippe was chosen as king; he was chosen by the lower house of the French legislature

30  Louis Philippe, cousin of Charles X  Citizen King because he owed his throne to the people  Got along well with the liberal bourgeoisie

31  Under his rule the upper bourgeoisie prospered 1. Suffrage extended to France’s wealthier citizens 2. Created policies that favored the middle class 3. Lower class / working class still not represented

32  Radicals unhappy with France in the 1840’s  Secret societies pushed for a Republic  Utopian socialists called for an end to private ownership  Liberals called for an end to Louis Philippe’s government; called for expansion of suffrage

33  A recession ignited the flames of revolution  Factories shut down / people lost jobs  Poor harvests caused rising bread prices  Government officials receive the blame

34  Government took steps to end the ridicule  Angry mobs took to the streets  As the turmoil spread Louis Philippe abdicated  The birth of the Second Republic

35  Second Republic the works of a group 1. Liberal 2. Radical 3. Socialist  Socialists wanted to help the hungry and working classes 1. Established national workshops; provided jobs for the unemployed

36  Upper and middle class’s win control over the government; shut down national workshops  Angry workers take to the streets of Paris and riot (“Bread or Lead!”)  Bourgeoisie Liberals responded with violence; peasants who feared socialist would take their land, attacked the rioting workers

37  Nearly 1,500 people were killed before the government shut down the rebellion  Aftermath 1. Middle class feared and distrusted those to the left 2. working class had a deep hatred for the bourgeoisie

38  By the end of 1848 the National Assembly 1. Issued a constitution for the Second Republic 2. Created a strong president 3. Established a one-house legislature 4. Allowed suffrage to all adult men (9 million men, before 200,000)

39  Presidential election winner = Louis Napoleon; nephew of Napoleon Bonapate 1. Attracted the working class; presented himself as someone who cared about social issues (poverty) 2. Liked by conservatives because of his historical name

40  By 1852 he proclaimed himself emperor; calling himself Napoleon III  Used a plebiscite to win public approval as justification for taking power  90% of voters approved the move to establish the Second Empire

41  Paris inspires uprisings to break out elsewhere in Europe  “When France Sneezes, Europe catches cold.” – Metternich

42  1830, Belgians resented the arrangement that placed them and Holland under the Dutch King made at the COV  Belgians and Dutch separated by 1. Language 2. Religions (Catholic / Protestants) 3. Economic interests (manufacturing / trade)  After learning about the revolutions in France of 1830, Belgians revolutionary spirit is ignited

43  Students and workers barricaded the streets of Brussels, and turned to violence versus soldiers  The Dutch King turned to his partners of the COV for help  Britain and France knew this revolt would disrupt the boundaries set at COV but would benefit more by having an independent Belgium and Holland

44  Other COV countries; Austria, Prussia and Russia were too busy putting down revolts of their own to aid the Dutch King  1831Belgium becomes an independent state with a liberal constitution

45  Poles join to forge a nationalist uprising  Unlike the Belgians, Poles were unable to declare their independence  Most of Poland landed under the was under Russian rule because of the COV

46  French Revolution of 1848 unleashed a wave of revolution across Europe  Time for opponents of the old order to make a stand, “springtime of the peoples.”


48  Grievances had been piling up for years in Europe 1. Middle-class liberals wanted a greater share of political power for themselves 2. Middle-class liberals wanted protections for basic rights of all citizens 3. Workers demanded relief from the miseries of the Industrial Revolution 4. Nationalists wanted independence from foreign oppression

49  Foreign Minister of the Austrian Empire  Leading voice in the COV  Revolts break out in Vienna (Austria) 1. Students supported by workers took to the streets rioting 2. Demanded liberal reforms 3. Metternich resigned his post as minister

50  Revolts in Austria spread to Budapest and Prague  Nationalist demanded an independent government from the empire  Wanted an end of serfdom and wanted a written constitution  Made gains, but they were temporary  Austrian troops regained re-took control of Vienna and Prague

51  Nationalist uprising begins in Italy  Italy was controlled by the Austrian Empire  Nationalists goals were linked to liberal reforms and established new republics  Workers wanted to push the reforms further  Austrian troops but an end to revolts, and put things back to the way they were before the revolutions


53  University students demanded national unity and liberal reform  Famine leaves workers and peasants angry and hungry  There were many divisions amongst reformers  Finally offered the King of Prussia Frederick William IV the crown of a united Germany

54  Frederick William IV rejected the crown because it was offered by the people  1849 – assembly dissolved by Prussian army  Middle class reformers and radical reformers clash; hundred killed, many more hundreds put in jail

55 Section 3 Latin American Wars of Independence

56  By the late 1700’s the revolutionary fever that gripped Western Europe spread to Latin America  Discontent existed amongst 1. Social 2. Racial 3. Political systems

57  Peninsulares 1. Spanish born 2. Dominated Latin America political and social life 3. Were the only group that could hold two jobs in the government and church

58  Creoles 1. Europeans – descendents of Latin Americans 2. Owned haciendas (large estate, plantation), ranches, and mines 3. Bitterly resented their second class status

59  Mestizos 1. People of Native American and European decent  Mulattoes 1. People of African and European decent  Angry at being denied the status, wealth and power that was only available to whites

60  1700’s educated Creoles read the works of Enlightened thinkers 1. Watched the American Revolution and the colonist overthrow British rule 2. Read translations of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution 3. Women participated in the exchange of ideas, and held solons (tertulias) 4. Inspired by the ideals of “liberty, equality and fraternity” 5. Inspired but reluctant to act on ideals

61  Haiti was France’s most prized possession  French planters owned profitable sugar plantations 1. Labor intensive 2. Worked by nearly 500,000 African Slaves  Haiti also had mulattoes; 25,000 free, but not equal to French creoles

62  1790’s in France the debate over ways to abolish slavery in the West Indies were being had  1791 – Inspired by the rhetoric of the Enlightenment, Haiti’s slaves exploded in revolt  Leader of the rebellion Toussaint L Ouverture

63  Toussaint L Ouverture 1. Self educated 2. Untrained, but a brilliant general 3. Inspiring commander 4. “We are fighting so that liberty- the most precious of all earthly possessions – may not perish

64  Struggle was long and complex  Toussaints army of former slaves faced off versus 1. Mulattoes and French planters 2. French, Spanish and British armies  1798 Rebels win! Haitians freed, but still a French colony

65  1802 – Napoleon is in power of France  Sends an army to conquer Haiti  Toussaint encourages Haitians to fight for full Independence  French forces stricken with yellow fever and are forced to agree to a truce

66  Toussaint captured by French and dies in a French Prison  Haitians still fight on, win independence from France, declare independence in 1804  1820 – Haiti becomes a republic

67  Slave revolt in Haiti strikes fear into the creoles in Spanish America  Father Miguel Hidalgo inspires freedom throughout Mexico

68  El Grito de Dolores = “the cry of Dolores” – becomes the battle cry for Mexican Independence  Father Hildalgo is the priest of a rural parish of Dolores, Mexico  Hidalgo lead an army of poor mestizos and Native Americans, but got resistance from creoles  Hidalgo was captured and executed

69  Mestizo priest  Called for wide ranging social and political reform for Mexico  Wanted to improve living conditions for most Mexicans  After four years of leading the rebels, Morelos was captured and shot

70  1820 – In Spain, liberals forced a constitutional monarchy  Agustin de Iturbide, a conservative creole in Mexico overthrew the Spanish

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