Presentation on theme: "Concept Formation Begin work on data retrieval charts with a partner What are some similarities among the three examples?"— Presentation transcript:
Concept Formation Begin work on data retrieval charts with a partner What are some similarities among the three examples?
Summarize the Similarities the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas
Example 1 In the early 17th century, the British established colonies in Virginia and New England on the North American continent. Settlers in America were relatively autonomous, but relied upon trade with England through a process known as mercantilism. The primary connections between the colonies and England were cultural and economic, but the colonies mostly governed themselves, especially while England was preoccupied with war with France.
Example 2 In the 1930s and 1940s, Nazi Germany expanded its territorial holdings, beginning with the Anschluss or annexation of Austria in 1938, followed by that of the Czechoslovak Sudetenland later in 1938, then Poland, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France in 1940. At the height of its expansion, Nazi Germany controlled and governed much of central Europe either directly or through puppet governments and representatives.
Example 3 Americans viewed Hawaii as an extension of their own country in the early 19 th century. White, American business interests in sugar wanted to annex the territory to avoid high tariffs despite resistance from Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani. The minority white population organized a revolt in 1893 and were assisted by American troops. The territory was eventually annexed in 1898.
American Expansion Missionaries- duty to spread Christianity to less fortunate people Politicians- supported business leaders in foreign investments Naval Power- Alfred Thayer Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890) a strong navy is crucial to securing foreign markets and becoming a world power
Pan-American Conference (1889) Meeting of various nations in Western Hemisphere International cooperation on trade Promoted economic and political cooperation between the nations
The Cuban Revolt Cuban nationalists wanted to overthrow Spanish colonial rule. In 1895 they began sabotaging plantations to remove Spain or involve the US. Spain sent 100,000 troops to suppress the revolt. US business interests called for President Cleveland to aid the Cubans.
Election of 1896 Democrats divided between “gold” Democrats loyal to Grover Cleveland and prosilver Democrats who nominated William Jennings Bryan Republicans nominated William McKinley who supported a high protective tariff and the gold standard McKinley won over Bryan, signaling an era of business, industry, and strong government under the Republicans
Causes of the Spanish American War Jingoism- intense nationalism that calls for aggressive, expansionist foreign policies Business interests Yellow Press De Lôme letter Sinking of the Maine
Yellow Journalism sensationalized events going on in Cuba to create war fever in the US Joseph Pulitzer- New York World William Randolph Hearst- New York Journal De Lôme letter (1898)- Spanish Minister to the US wrote a highly critical letter about McKinley that was leaked by Hearst’s paper
De Lôme Letter (1898) Spanish Minister to the US wrote a highly critical letter about McKinley that was leaked by Hearst’s paper “Besides the ingrained and inevitable bluntness (grosería) with which is repeated all that the press and public opinion in Spain have said about Weyler, it once more shows what McKinley is, weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd besides being a would-be politician (politicastro) who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.”
The Maine McKinley sent the USS Maine down to Cuba to flex American military muscle. On February 15, 1898 the Maine blew up in Havana Harbor
“You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.”
Continuing Pressure McKinley still wanted to avoid war, but the papers, and much of Congress, wanted him to declare war. He eventually set an ultimatum to Spain, which they met, but public sentiments still urged him to declare war. Congress approved the joint resolution, including the Teller Amendment which declared the US had no interest in taking control of Cuba
Fighting the War US Army was ill-prepared for war More than 5,000 soldiers died of disease, less than 500 died in battle Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt was an expansionist eager to show of the Navy Teddy quit his post so he could fight, and led his Rough Riders in a famous charge up San Juan Hill
Victories Commodore George Dewey captures Manila US Navy destroys Spanish fleet at Santiago Bay.
Treaty of Paris (1898) US recognition of Cuban independence US acquisition of Puerto Rico and Guam US acquisition of the Philippines in return for $20 million paid to Spain
Imperialism vs. Anti-imperialism Imperialists favor annexing the Philippines Anti-imperialists believe acquiring the Philippines violates the Declaration of Independence by denying their right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” Imperialists passed the Treaty of Paris (required 2/3 vote in the Senate)
Platt Amendment (1901) Teller Amendment (1898) guaranteed Cuban sovereignty, yet troops were still in Cuba in 1901 Platt Amendment listed conditions required for withdrawal of troops 1. Never sign a treaty that impaired its independence 2. Never build up an excessive public debt 3. Allow US intervention to help preserve independence and maintain law and order 4. Allow US to maintain naval bases in Cuba
Election of 1900 Republicans re-nominate President McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt as VP Democrats re-nominate William Jennings Bryan, who argued for free silver and against imperialism McKinley and Roosevelt win with a large margin of victory