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Imperialism Essential Questions: – How did people in Africa and Asia respond to western imperialism? – How did imperialism create a western- dominated.

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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism Essential Questions: – How did people in Africa and Asia respond to western imperialism? – How did imperialism create a western- dominated."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperialism Essential Questions: – How did people in Africa and Asia respond to western imperialism? – How did imperialism create a western- dominated world economy?

2 Industrial Revolution Source for Raw Materials Markets for Finished Goods European Nationalism Missionary Activity Military & Naval Bases European Motives For Colonization Places to Dump Unwanted/ Excess Popul. Soc. & Eco. Opportunities Humanitarian Reasons European Racism “White Man’s Burden” Social Darwinism

3 The New Imperialism Causes of Imperialism in the late 1800’s: – Strengths: Social Darwinism Economic prosperity Self-organized governments Competition between countries – Spheres of influence: Economic control of nations

4 More causes… – Industrialization Necessity of finding cheaper raw materials for manufacturing in Western factories.

5 1000 different languages; 1000+ different tribes

6 The Partition of Africa Africa is used as an imperial continent It is divided among several European Countries: – Britain – France – Belgium – Germany – Italy



9 Britain in Africa Main motive: protect their trading centers from the French and Germans

10 British in Africa Control of Egypt – Conquered in 1882 Egypt becomes a “puppet state” of Great Britain – Wanted to protect trade by way of the Suez Canal


12 British in Southern Africa British traded with the Dutch Afrikaners in S. Africa Discovered gold in Witwatersrand… British want the land; Dutch refused to give it.

13 South African (Boer) War 1899-1902 – Just not enough Boers – British easily win In the end, Britain gets gold, diamonds, furs and trade routes

14 Diamond Mines Raw Diamonds

15 Effects on Natives Britain’s win makes Dutch move inland – Great Trek Pushes into Natives Zulus in particular are affected

16 Zulus Led by Shaka Zulu – Unites S. African tribes – iklwa Fight against the Boers and British – Lost some 80,000 zulus – Protected the Zulu culture and some land

17 Berlin Conference of 1884 Decided that Africa should be “civilized” – Africa is divided by the participating countries and ruled Members: – France, Germany, Belgium and Britain By 1902, 90% of Africa is owned by Europeans

18 French in Africa Conquer and convert – Military occupation along shore – Missionaries inland Trade for Slaves and gold

19 France in Africa West to East Colonizing Strategy

20 French Speaking Countries Today

21 Germany in Africa Togo, Cameroon, German Southwest Africa, German East Africa Jumped in late and took what they could. – (Realpolitik) German goods: Sisal, cotton, coffee, rubber.



24 Belgium King Leopold II conquers the Belgian Congo Puts harsh racist restrictions on the natives called Apartheids

25 Worked natives extensively for raw materials – Vegetable oil – Rubber – Clothing – Bananas/foods – Medicines – Ivory Around 10 million killed

26 Victims It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official

27 Eventual Independence

28 Russia vs. British Vied for control of Afghanistan and Persia Russia searching for a “warm water port” British want a buffer – Support free Iranian state

29 The British take over India What do the British see in India? – – British East India Trading Company had conquered India, Bangladesh and Pakistan – Still Allow the Mogul Empire to exist under guidance of EIC.


31 Trade – British take advantage of Indian Culture (remember social structure and Hinduism) – Indians produce cotton, tobacco, opium, and precious metals that are exported to Britain


33 Cultural integration Idea: Make India like Britain Outlawed many Indian and Hindu customs – Ex. Sati

34 SimlaKarachi, 1896

35 Victoria Station, Bombay

36 The British in India British built railroad network to transport goods (using Indian Labor)

37 The Sepoy – Indian soldiers that fought for the British – British used them to gain control over all of India – Fought against other Indians and in WWI


39 Life for the British in India

40 Sepoy Revolt (1857) Sepoys revolt against the British – Story goes… – Also, reports of Racial Bias – Sepoys quickly gain society support and territory

41 Area of Revolt Of 140,000 Sepoys, less than 8,000 were loyal to British Delhi becomes a disaster By 1858, British troops arrive and squelch revolt

42 Results British retaliation – Institute “The Devil’s Wind” Direct British Crown Rule – Queen Victoria “Empress of India”

43 Execution of Sepoys

44 The Raj (king) British Crown rules from 1857 until 1947 – Viceroys Economics: – High taxation Cultural repercussions – “Divide and rule”


46 Cambodia and Phnom Pehn Siam and Vietnam fight for control in early 1800’s. Cambodia becomes a suzerainty protectorate of France. – Lasts from 1863-1957 King Norodom seen as savior of Cambodia


48 China and the Opium Wars China had practiced Isolationism When they did open up, they enjoyed a trade surplus, while Europe suffered a trade deficit British start trading opium to the Chinese for tea – China becomes addicted to opium; start running a deficit to pay for the drug



51 Indemnity to Britain Define indemnity: – payment for loss/casualties British defeat Chinese, make China pay – China gives British Hong Kong (which British keep until 1997) – China must give payments, or indemnities, to the British – China must open up 5 ports, and grant extraterritoriality to the British

52 The Boxer Rebellion Uprising by the “Righteous Harmonious Fists” in 1899 (a conservative group nicknamed the Boxers) Quickly suppressed by multinational force of: – USA – Japan – British – French – Germans


54 Imperialist Japan Shogun promotes an Isolationist approach through the early 1800’s Commodore Matthew Perry opens trade in 1853

55 The Meiji Revolt - 1868 A powerful group of samurai overthrow the Shogun. A powerful group of samurai overthrow the Shogun. Sakamoto Ryoma, the hero. Sakamoto Ryoma, the hero. He helped Japan emerge from feudalism into a unified modern state. He helped Japan emerge from feudalism into a unified modern state.

56 The Emperor Is “Restored” to Power MEIJI  “Enlightened Rule”

57 Government Adopt a government from the Germans – Promoted equal rights – The Diet- the Japanese legislature divided into: The House of Representatives and… The House of Peers – Kept the emperor as head

58 Japan westernizes Economically industrializes – Build RR’s, banks and a postal system – Factories and companies emerge Ex. Mitsubishi Zaibatsu rules Japanese economy Culturally adopts European or American traditions, clothing and customs


60 Newspaper Cartoon, 1870s? Enlightened Half-Enlightened Un-Enlightened

61 Japanese Social Darwinism Two Japanese Groups: – junketsu (pure-blood) – konketsu (mixed-blood). [ [

62 Japan Annexes Korea

63 Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) Japanese defeat the Chinese badly

64 The Battle of Tsushima: The results startled the world! The Russo-Japanese War: 1904-1905

65 Russia loses to the Japanese Sign the Treaty of Portsmouth – Japan gets Manchuria from the Russians – Japan solidifies control of Korea


67 Japan Is a Player in China

68 Australia A penal colony Some stats of people that were sent there: – 80% men; 20% women – 70% English – 24% Irish – 5% Scottish – Rest were from British Colonies

69 Port Arthur

70 Aborigines Indigenous culture of Australia – About 517,000 today A culture of 25,000 years! A backwards nation when the British bring convicts to Australia…


72 Ayer’s Rock


74 Australia Declares independence in 1901 But, still a sphere of influence for Great Britain – We’ll see in WWI (1914- 1918)


76 In Conclusion: The Imperialist movement: – Used Brute force and or economic control to strengthen European countries (and Japan) – Inspired competition between European countries – Connected the world together economically – Introduced western economics and government to all parts of the world

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