Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary for Judaism Abraham (c. 2000 B.C.) – the father of the Jews. Aggadah – refers to the non-legal parts of rabbinic writings. The aggadah can be."— Presentation transcript:
Vocabulary for Judaism Abraham (c. 2000 B.C.) – the father of the Jews. Aggadah – refers to the non-legal parts of rabbinic writings. The aggadah can be found in the Talmud and the Midrash. Antiochus IV – a Greek king of the Seleucid Empire (territories of modern day Iran, Iraq, and Syria). Antiochus IV ruled from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He subjugated Judea and prevented the Jews from following their religion. Ark of the Covenant – The most sacred object of the Jews kept in the Holy of Holies in the Temple. The ark of the covenant was a rectangle chest or box upon which the blood of the sacrifice was sprinkled on the Day of Atonement. Chanukah – eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Temple of Jerusalem in 165 BC after the defeat of Antiochus IV. circumcision – surgical removal of the foreskin done on the eight day of a baby boy.
Conservative Judaism – A movement started in reaction to abandonment of Jewish traditions by Reformed Jews. Conservative Jews are less strict than Orthodox Jews, but more traditional than Reformed Jews. covenant – an agreement between God and his people, Israel, in which God promises to take care of them if they will obey him and follow his commandments. Dead Sea Scrolls – ancient scrolls comprised of Jewish sectarian and sacred writings. of t Divided Kingdom – The nation of Israel suffered a civil war and were divided into to kingdoms north and south for two hundred years (700 to 500 B.C.). This was the time of the kings and the prophets. Elohim – God in Judaism. God is the only true and living god who is the all-powerful creator of a good world. Essenes – A Jewish sect who did not recognize the Hasmonean priesthood and who sometimes lived in separate communities. Some scholars believe that the Essenes wrote many of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Qumran.
Gemara – Rabbinical commentary of the Mishnah in the Talmud. Halakhah – Rabbinical writings in the Talmud that explain Jewish laws similar to the Sharia of the Muslims. Hasidism – revivalist movement founded by Israel ben Eliezer Ba‘al Shem Tov that emphasizes joyful worship rather than ritual and study. Holy of holies – the place in the Temple where God’s presence was. In the Holy of holies was the ark of the covenant and only the High Priest could enter the Holy of holies once a year on the Day of Atonement to sprinkle to blood of the sacrifice to atone for the sins of the people. Kashruth – food laws of Jews and determine which foods can be called “kosher”. Kethuvim – or the Writings have eleven books. These Writings include Psalms, Proverbs, and Job; the Five Scrolls: Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther; and the last of the writings: Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, and Chronicles (1 & 2). King David (c. 1000 B.C.) – was Israel’s greatest king with whom God made an everlasting covenant.
Kosher – Koshering of meat is done by removing all blood. In order for food to be kosher all meat and dairy products must be kept separate. Maccabean Revolt – In the 2nd century BC, Judas Maccabeus led a revolt against the Seleucid king, Antiochus IV. The revolt was successful and much of Judea was taken back from the Syrians. Mishnah – Written traditions handed down by the Rabbis. Moses (c. 1500 B.C.) – led the people of Israel out of Egypt and gave them the Law. Monotheism – belief in one god. Orthodox Judaism – Jews who follow very strictly their traditions. Orthodox Jews are the official and dominant group in Israel. Passover – the festival to celebrate God’s deliverance from four- hundred years of slavery in Egypt. Pharisees – Ancient Jewish sect. Most Pharisees were from the middle-class. This sect followed the Law of Moses and their traditions very strictly. The Pharisees were very popular and controlled most of the synagogues.
Rabbi – a Jewish ordained religious teacher. Reformed Judaism – Jews who try to keep their Jewish identity but do not force members to follow traditional religious law and ritual. The largest group of Jews in the United States is Reformed Judaism. In Reformed Judaism, women are allowed to become rabbis. Sadducees – ancient Jewish sect made up mostly of the aristocracy and the priests who controlled the Temple. Satan – ruler of the evil angels who oppose God. Sin – disobedience to God. Shabbat – the Sabbath, the day of rest on the seventh day of the week. Shabbat begins on sundown Friday and ends sundown on Saturday. Shema – prayer based on verses from Deuteronomy 6:4-9, 11:13-21, and Numbers 15:37-41. Jews pray the Shema twice a day as a way to affirm their faith. It is a statement of Jewish faith from Deuteronomy 6:4 "Sh'ma Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Eḥad (Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is one)".
Solomon – King David’s Son who consolidated the kingdom. Solomon built the first Temple, but it was later destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 B.C. Sukkot – important fall festival when the Jews build booths out of branches to commemorate the forty years of wandering in the wilderness because of their failure to believe God. Synagogue – a local place of Jewish worship where they meet on the Sabbath. Talmud –Rabbinical writings composed of the Mishnah (traditions) and the Gemara (commentary of the Mishnah). Tanakh – the sacred book of the Jews that is grouped into three divisions: the Torah (Law), Nevi'im (Prophets), and Kethuvim (Writings). Temple, first – Solomon built the first Temple but it was later destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 B.C. Temple, second – The Temple was rebuilt under the direction of the Jewish governor Zerubbabel, the high priest Joshua, and the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. It was completed in 515 B.C.
Torah – the Law of Moses was given to Moses on Mount Sinai. Divine inspiration of the Scriptures. Yom Kippur – the Day of Atonement when Jews fast, confess and repent of their sins. In ancient days the High Priest would offer a sacrifice and bring the blood of the sacrifice into the Holy of holies. Yahweh – common transliteration of YHWH, the Hebrew word for God. Jews do not pronounce this name we don’t know the exact pronunciation. Zadokites – the legitimate priesthood who were disenfranchised during the time of the Maccabees.