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PERIOD 7 1890-1945 2/6/2015. An increasingly pluralistic United States faced profound domestic and global challenges, debated the proper degree of government.

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Presentation on theme: "PERIOD 7 1890-1945 2/6/2015. An increasingly pluralistic United States faced profound domestic and global challenges, debated the proper degree of government."— Presentation transcript:

1 PERIOD 7 1890-1945 2/6/2015

2 An increasingly pluralistic United States faced profound domestic and global challenges, debated the proper degree of government activism, and sought to define its international role

3 Key Concept 7.3: Global conflicts over resources, territories, and ideologies renewed debates over the nation’s values and its role in the world, while simultaneously propelling the United States into a dominant international military, political, cultural, and economic position

4 I.Many Americans began to advocate overseas expansionism in the late 19th century, leading to new territorial ambitions and acquisitions in the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific

5 Becoming A World Power: America Claims an Empire Chapter 20


7 Objectives Students will be able to: 1. Define Industrial revolution Colonialism Imperialism 2.Explain the relationship between the Industrial revolution and Imperialism

8 The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain and spread to the Continent and then the USA –Gross National Product (GNP)

9 USA has been the most powerful country in the world ______________ since after the Civil War ___________________in the late 19 th century, ___________, and an ____________ work force enabled us to gain this position

10 In 1890, the USA lagged behind in ______________________

11 ImperialismImperialism – ColonialismColonialism –

12 The British EmpireThe British Empire: Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, India, Bermuda, The Bahamas, Jamaica, Belize

13 The French EmpireThe French Empire: French Indochina, French West Africa, Madagascar, Haiti and French Guiana

14 The German EmpireThe German Empire: Southwest Africa, East Africa, Indonesia, Suriname

15 A.The perception in the 1890s that the western frontier was “closed,” economic motives, competition with other European imperialist ventures of the time, and racial theories all furthered arguments that Americans were destined to expand their culture and norms to others, especially the nonwhite nations of the globe.

16 Causes *Growth of Imperialism in Europe and Asia *Economic Factors *Nationalism *Military *Humanitarian Factors *Adventure/Pioneer Spirit United States Expansion

17 Economic Factors _______________ US already had economic interests abroad that they wanted protected

18 _______________ Extreme Patriotism Belief that your nation is the best and other countries are inferior

19 Military Military is superior and growing stronger – why not use them? Secure bases around the world

20 Humanitarian Factors _______________ __________________ ________________

21 Humanitarian Factors ________________ –American culture is superior –We are obligated to share it –We can take over other territories because we are ‘better’

22 Adventure New Frontiers – Turner and Roosevelt’s theory that Americans need new lands to conquer to keep the ‘pioneer spirit’ alive

23 Previous American Expansion 1776 – 1830s: Bought land from France and Spain 1830 – 1850s: _______________ Annexed Texas Mexican American War 1867: Bought Alaska ($7.2M) & took Midway (uninhabited) 1875: Treaty with Hawaii for exclusive trade

24 Strategically located in the Pacific Ocean between San Francisco and China Americans traded there for decades Christian missionaries reformed the natives American businessmen bought or traded large tracts of land for sugar plantations

25 Hawaii (1875) Agreements between USA and King Kalakaua (1891) Queen Liliuokalani resisted American control

26 (1893) _________ and ___________US marines took over the country and declared it an independent republic without permission of Congress

27 President Grover Cleveland apologized and refused to annex Hawaii (Dole became president of Hawaii) (1898) President McKinley ordered Hawaii annexed and it became an American territory Hawaii became our 50 th state in 1959

28 Americans gradually accepted the idea of American Imperialism but assumed it would be done peacefully and at no expense to them

29 The Spanish American War April, 1898 – December, 1898 ____________________

30 B. The American victory in the Spanish-American War led to the U.S. acquisition of island territories, an expanded economic and military presence in the Caribbean and Latin America, engagement in a protracted insurrection in the Philippines, and increased involvement in Asia.

31 Causes:

32 Review of the Monroe Doctrine Issued in 1823 by Monroe’s Secretary of State, _________________ Stated that the USA would prevent any foreign intrusion in the __________ _______________ In return, the USA would not interfere in European Affairs

33 Monroe Doctrine In 1823, USA had no power to enforce it – enforced it to keep markets open did not want France & Spain re-colonizing areas they lost USA built navy/marines by mid-century Result was US control of the Western Hemisphere Remains the cornerstone for our foreign policy in Latin America

34 Monroe Doctrine Examples: –1821 Mexico became independent from Spain –USA would not allow Spain to recolonize it –French occupied Mexico during our Civil War –After 1865, USA supported the rebels that overthrew the French

35 (1891) USA successfully demanded reparations from Chile for the deaths of 2 American sailors (1893) USA prevented a revolt in Brazil (1895) USA arbitrated a border dispute between British Guiana and Venezuela

36 (1891) USA successfully demanded reparations from Chile for the deaths of 2 American sailors (1893) USA prevented a revolt in Brazil (1895) USA arbitrated a border dispute between British Guiana and Venezuela

37 The Cuban Revolt Cubans wanted independent rule from Spain Revolt began in 1868 but they reached a truce 10 years later Revolt began again in 1895 Spain was not interested in a truce

38 The Cuban Revolt Spain sent their military ________________to forcefully deal with the insurrection Cubans were placed in concentration camps, where over ____________ died of disease and malnutrition (out of ______________population)

39 The Cuban Revolt USA refused to get involved US businessmen urged a military response, but Presidents Cleveland and McKinley refused

40 Yellow Journalism Competition between the 2 papers led to spectacular headlines and a loose concern for the truth Possibility of war increased circulation for both of them

41 _________________ Name came from a British song – “We don’t want to fight, yet By Jingo!.....” Term came to represent national pride that was expressed as contempt for inferior nations ______________

42 “Spark” Cuban unrest was still threatening US citizens and property President McKinley sent the U.S.S. Maine to Havana Harbor for protection World and Journal demanded war

43 Spanish American War President McKinley gave Spain one last ultimatum Spain refused to grant Cuban independence USA declared war on Spain in April, 1898 War would take place in the Spanish colonies

44 Spanish American War The Philippines –Before the planned attack on Cuba took place, Admiral Dewey launched a surprise attack on the Spanish Pacific Fleet –Aided by the Filipinos –Complete and total victory over the Spanish in Manila Bay

45 Spanish American War Cuba –American navy destroyed their Atlantic Fleet at Santiago –led the attack in Cuba

46 Spanish American War Puerto Rico –American navy bombarded San Juan –US troops landed in July but met little resistance

47 Spanish American War Victory was assured by July Official treaty was signed in December, 1898

48 Results of the Spanish American War 1. 2.

49 Results of the Spanish American War 3. 4. 5.

50 (1898 – 1902) Cuba under military rule Cuba drafted a constitution similar to the US Constitution ________________was attached to Cuban Constitution

51 _________________ –Cuba became an American protectorate –Cuba could not sign any treaties with foreign countries without US approval –Cuba would lease land to the USA for naval bases USA intervened in Cuba several times In effect until 1934

52 Puerto Rico Foraker Act in 1900 removed military control Became US territory Became Commonwealth in 1952 Representatives to Congress but they can not vote Statehood could be imminent

53 “When I realized that the Philippines had dropped into our laps, I confess that I did not know what to do with them..I walked the halls of the White House night after night….and prayed to Almighty God for light and guidance…And one night, it came to me this way…

54 –1. that we could not give them back to Spain, that would be cowardly and dishonest –2. that we could not turn them over to France or Germany..that would be bad business and discreditable –3. that we could not leave them to themselves..they were unfit for self- government and they would soon have anarchy and misrule worse than Spain’s war

55 –4. that there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them as our fellow men for whom Christ also died

56 Filipino Insurrection Filipinos fought with the USA against Spain in 1898

57 Filipino Insurrection Filipino losses were staggering

58 On March 7, 1906, US troops under the command of Major General Leonard Wood massacred as many as 1,000 Filipino Muslims, known as Moros, who were taking refuge at Bud Dajo, a volcanic crater on the island of Jolo in the southern Philippines. US soldiers pose for the camera in the aftermath of the massacre. (Photo from The National Archive)

59 The Philippines The Philippines would remain under American control until ____________ The USA sent billions of dollars in economic aid until the 1990s USA was asked to give up Clark Air Force Base – still maintained a force of approximately 15,000 people there June 1991 – _________________

60 ________________ 1899 –Divided between Great Britain, Germany and USA –Great Britain withdrew –Germany lost all colonies/territories in WWI _________________ 1899 –Unoccupied _____________ –Located halfway between Hawaii and the Philippines

61 _________________ Did citizenship follow the flag? Were occupants of US territories automatically US citizens, entitled to all rights of the Constitution Series of Supreme Court cases known as Insular Cases –Decision that the right to determine status, including citizenship, resided with Congress

62 China –Chinese products included silk and spices –Huge population meant new markets for manufactured goods

63 ‘_______________’ Russia, Japan, Germany, Great Britain, and France all controlled major Chinese ports USA sent Open Door notes in 1899 and later in 1908 to insure open trade in China

64 China (1900) __________________resulted in the deaths of 300 foreigners Rebellion was put down (brutally) by Chinese and European troops USA did not want the European countries to use that as an excuse to obtain complete control in China Insisted on “___________________”

65 Within a period of 10 years the USA had become a world power While proving we had economic power decades earlier, we now proved that we had military and political power as well

66 A New Foreign Policy Foreign Policy after the Spanish-American War Big Stick Diplomacy Panama Canal Dollar Diplomacy Moral Diplomacy Encouraged Revolution in Columbia Leased Canal Zone from Panama Influenced relations in L. America US Navy used to back diplomacy Open Door in China & stability in L. America Economic assistance USA in Mexico for moral reasons USA backs a stable government

67 Panama Canal Voyage from New York to San Francisco around Cape Horn –approximately 15,000 miles –dangerous Railroad route across Central America was unreliable and slow Land routes were dangerous due to rugged terrain and disease

68 Panama Canal Shortest route was through the Panama area of Columbia _______________ Leased right of way to the French French attempted but failed to build a canal Offered the lease to the Americans

69 Panama Canal President Roosevelt tried to negotiate a treaty with Columbia

70 Panama Canal USA began construction in 1906 Spread of disease was limited because of isolation of victims and destruction of mosquito's habitat

71 Panama Canal The Panama Canal officially opened in 1914 It remained an American territory until 1977 Gradually control was turned over to the Panamanians Completed on December 31, 1999

72 “___________________” President Roosevelt added a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine USA would become an international police force “Speak softly and carry a big stick” Big stick was Invaded and occupied many nations in the 19 th & 20 th centuries

73 _________________ Taft Financial support to regimes that supported the USA government and industry –Protect US financial interest with the military if necessary “…United States shall extend all proper support to every legitimate and beneficial American enterprise abroad. “ William Howard Taft

74 ________________ Wilson –condemn –spread –stay out of foreign affairs –reverse previous mistakes The Philippines – Jones Act 0f 1916 –Granted territorial status and step toward future independence Puerto Rico – Jones Act of 1917 –Puerto Ricans became naturalized citizens, granted by Congress, not the Constitution. They do not have full rights. (Amended in 1940 to full citizenship) Panama Canal – ended free tolls for American companies

75 Mexico Experienced many revolts between the 1820’s and the 1930’s The USA generally did not interfere until 1911, when President Diaz was overthrown A dictator, Huertes took control of the country President Wilson felt it was our moral responsibility to support his opposition

76 Foreign Policy - Mexico: –Background –(1810 – 1866) Conflicts with Spanish, French, and their own governments – power changed hands several times –(1876 – 1911) President Porfirio Diaz assumed power –*repressive regime –*increased industrial strength and foreign investment –*–*

77 Madero – Wealthy landowner that ran for office and lost – started the Mexican Revolution that toppled Diaz; Madera became President. Victoriano Huerta and others overthrew Madera in a coupe 1913 Rebel leaders Venustiano Carranza, Francisco “Pancho” Villa and Alvaro Obregon continued to fight Zapata – Native American Revolutionary in the south

78  Mexico:  US Intervention (1913-1914)  Wilson refused to recognize Huerta  Tampico Incident – US sailors from the USS Dolphin were arrested in the port of Tampico and released unharmed. Infuriated Americans.  Germany sent an arms supply to Mexico to aid Huerta; ____________________________  Argentina, Brazil, Chile (ABC) organized a proposal for a provisional government and Huerta was ousted in 1914.

79 Mexico: –Revolution Winds Down – 1915 –After Huerta fled, Villa and Zapata controlled 2/3 of Mexico –Venustiano Carranza returned to Mexico and became “1st Chief” –The US recognized Carranza

80 Mexico: 10 civilians, 8 soldiers died; town was destroyed; 100 Mexicans died General Pershing entered Mexico to apprehend Villa After searching for almost a year, Wilson recalled him.

81 Mexico: –1916 - V. Carranza called a constitutional convention and re-organized the government –Called for placing public welfare above individual interests – –1917 – received Zimmerman Note from Germany

82 Moralistic Diplomacy Failures – – invaded & occupied for 19 years; 10,000 Haitians died resisting (1915-1934) USA sent navy to Haiti 26 times between 1849 and 1913 – – invaded and occupied for 8 years (1916-1924) – – Chasing Pancho Villa (1917) – – could not maintain a biased neutrality

83 Debating America’s New Role C. Questions about America’s role in the world generated considerable debate, prompting the development of a wide variety of views and arguments between imperialists and anti-imperialists and, later, interventionists and isolationists.

84 Anti-Imperialism Arguments:

85 America’s New Role – Imperialism Viewed from Abroad Countries began to depend on the USA for military and economic assistance “Yankee go home” became a familiar refrain, particularly in Latin America The same issues that arose in 1900 still plague us today –What right do we have to interfere in foreign nations –What responsibilities do we have toward foreign nations

86 The End!

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