Alfred Thayer Mahan promoted American overseas expansion by arguing the domination of the seas through naval power was the key to world domination. Factors propelling America toward overseas expansion in the 1890s were 1.The desire to expand overseas agricultural and manufacturing exports. 2.The “yellow press” of Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst. 3.The ideologies of Anglo-Saxon superiority and social Darwinism. 4.The reconciliation between the United States and Britain Don’t hate me ‘cause I’m beautiful. Alfred T. Mahan Christian missionaries in China America and Britain become formal allies
President Grover Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii because White planters had illegally overthrown Queen Liliuokalani against the wishes of most native Hawaiians. Queen Liliuokalani Hawaiian islands White sugar cane plantation owners overthrew the Queen of Hawaii in an attempt to annex Hawaii to the United States. Large numbers of Asian laborers from China and Japan worked in the Hawaiian canefields and sugar mills.
Americans first became concerned with the situation in Cuba because imperialists and business leaders were looking to acquire colonial territory for the United States. Even before the sinking of the Maine, the American public’s indignation at Spain had been whipped into a frenzy by William Randolph Hearst’s sensational newspaper accounts of Spanish atrocities in Cuba. Whoever controls Cuba controls the Gulf of Mexico and Panama. I’m on it dude. William Randolph Hearst Senator Lodge
Even after the Maine exploded, the United States did not immediately declare war on Cuba because President McKinley was reluctant to get into a war. Why did he support war then? - Public pressure and the Democratic Party using his lack of decisiveness against him in the upcoming election. He also acknowledged America’s commercial and strategic interests. On February 15, 1898 the Maine exploded off the coast of Havana, Cuba, killing 260 American sailors. America blamed Spain despite evidence pointing to a spontaneous explosion below decks. What to do… What. To. Do. President McKinley
Emilio Aguinaldo was the leader of Filipino insurgents against Spanish rule. America promised to return the Philippines to self-rule once the Spanish were ousted. Theodore Roosevelt, the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, ordered Admiral Dewey to attack the Spanish navy in the Philippines. Hawaiian islands The Philippines Admiral Dewey, with the new steel U.S. ships, made short work of the outdated Spanish fleet.
Theodore Roosevelt resigned as Undersecretary of the Navy so that he could fight in Cuba. He named his regiment of volunteers, many from Arizona Territory, the “Rough Riders.” As part of the peace treaty with Spain, the U.S. acquired The Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
The most immediate consequence of American acquisition of the Philippines was a guerilla war between the United States and Filipino rebels. The annexations of Puerto Rico and the Philippines posed America some headaches. If he Filipinos were left to govern themselves, they might fall into anarchy. Another major power, like Germany or Japan, may then take over them over. President William McKinley struggled with the decision, but ultimately decided to annex the Philippines on religious and economic reasons. OK, fine. The U.S. will control the Philippines. Christian missionaries wanted to convert the Filipinos. American businessmen were eager for profits in the Philippines. We are not some tiny, thinly populated island. Filipinos will fight
A couple questions arose as a result of annexing the territories: 1. Did the peoples of these new territories get Constitutional protections? 2. Did American laws apply to the newly acquired territories? The answers are a mixed bag. Under the Teller Amendment, the U.S. honored its promise to withdraw from Cuba once Spain was ousted (except for keeping a tiny chunk of Cuba, which we still control today). Puerto Rico was never promised independence, but eventually became a U.S. territory with citizenship rights. America fought a vicious war with the Filipinos. U.S. soldiers conducted water torture and concentration camps. The U.S. forced Cuba to include the Platt Amendment to their Constitution, which allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs until 1934. William Taft, who became president later, was governor of the Philippines until 1901. I weighed 350 lbs.
In the Open Door notes, Secretary of State John Hay called on all imperial powers to Respect Chinese rights and permit economic competition in their spheres of influence. True to Western superiority complexes, Hay never consulted with the Chinese before declaring the policy. America was guaranteed fair access to trade with the Chinese. Some Chinese resented the influence of foreign powers and fought the Western powers. The “Boxers” were crushed.
The Republican Party renominated McKinley for president. Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt was chosen to run as the vice- presidential candidate because party bosses and ultra-wealthy business owners (like Rockefeller) didn’t like Roosevelt’s stubborn personality. The Democratic Party chose William Jennings Bryan again. He railed against Republican overseas imperialism. Lincoln got rid of slavery only for McKinley to enslave 7 million Filipinos. No one could predict McKinley’s assassination just six months later. Teddy Roosevelt became president, to the chagrin of the party bosses who feared Roosevelt’s independent spirit. Not cool. John D. Rockefeller Marcus Hanna
As president, Theodore Roosevelt gained political strength especially through his personal popularity with the public and his belief the president should lead boldly. Roosevelt overcame Colombia’s refusal to approve a canal treaty by encouraging Panamanian rebels to revolt and declare independence from Colombia. Theodore Roosevelt’s slogan that stated his essential foreign policy principle was “Speak softly and carry a big stick. Roosevelt worried European powers would invade some Latin American countries because of their extreme amounts of debt. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine declared only America could intervene in the Latin American countries.
Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for negotiating peace between Russia and Japan over their fight for Manchuria and Korea. The treaty negotiated by Roosevelt only made Roosevelt happy. The Russians felt robbed of military victory and Japan felt cheated out of its just compensation for winning. Their anger in 1906 foreshadowed the hostilities against America as Japan became more powerful in the Pacific and Russia in Eastern Europe. The Japanese were angered by California’s law segregating Asian students from White students in schools. The Gentlemen’s Agreement dictated that Japan would stop sending workers to the American mainland and in return California would not discriminate against the Japanese living in California.
1. How did Teddy Roosevelt change the office of the presidency? 2. Why did America practice imperialism?