Presentation on theme: "Overview of the History of Belize, Central American and the Caribbean(Barbados) Native people Colonial current issues Methods of Teaching History. "— Presentation transcript:
1Overview of the History of Belize, Central American and the Caribbean(Barbados) Native people Colonial current issues Methods of Teaching History.
2Group #2Members Sherayne Banner Karema Roca Cecelia Smith Julio Bobadilla Grace Tillett Laura Kelly
3Chronological Table Toward an Independent Belize History of BelizeChronological Table Toward an Independent BelizeA.D. -Maya cities flourish all through Belize.A.D. -Maya cultural decline in Southern and Central America1520s -CortŽs crosses Southern Belize1530s -Montejo attempts to conquer Belize for Spain. Nachankan and Belize Maya defeated Spanish.
41650s -British buccaneers begin to settle Belizean coast. 1660 -Bartholomew Sharpe, famous British pirate, makes Belize his base and begins to harvest logwood for sale to U.K.1670 -Godolphin (Madrid) Treaty opening all of the Americas to British colonization.1717 -Spanish force from Peten drives out Baymen.
51720s -First record of African slaves in Belize. 1754 -Spanish drive out Baymen who return within a year.1763 -Treaty of Paris: Spain permitted British settlers to cut logwood; no boundaries defined.1765 -Admiral Burnaby codified Settlement's Regulations, known as "Burnaby's Code". Public meetings passed resolutions boundaries of logwood works.1765/68/73 -Slaves revolt.
61779 -Spanish forces capture Belize and take Baymen and slaves to Yucatan. Slaves freed after declaring loyalty to Spain. Baymen sent to Cuba.1783 -Treaty of Versailles: Spain recognizes British rights to cut logwood in Belize between the Hondo and Belize rivers.1784 -Settlers return to Belize; Despard appointed first Superintendent of the settlement.1786 -Convention of London expands British rights in Belize to the Sibun and permits mahogany cutting.
71787 -British evacuate Mosquito Shore and 2,214 "Shore men" and their slaves came to Belize. Public meeting determined qualifications for owning mahogany works.1788 -Maya attacked mahogany works on New River.1798 -Battle of St. George's Caye 1802 -150 Garifuna already settled at Stann Creek.1807 -Abolition of slave trade.
81817 -Superintendent takes away power of settlers to issue lands; large body of runaway slaves reported in the interior.1820 -Slave revolt.1821 -Mexican and Central American independence.1831 -Act passed to give equal rights to "colored subjects" as to whites.1832 -Large number of Garifuna arrive in Belize (Garifuna settlement day).1834/38 -Slavery abolished. Land ordered to be sold and no longer issued free.1847 -War of the Castes in Yucatan sends thousands of refugees into Belize.
91856 -North side of Belize City destroyed by fire. 1859 -British- Guatemala Treaty over Belize. British Honduras Company (later B.E.C.) formed.1862 -Belize becomes a Colony of "British Honduras".1865 -Labourers brought from West Indian islands and China, especially for work on sugar estates of B.H. Co.1866 -British troops routed by Maya in Yalbac Hills.
101867 -Reinforced British Troops destroy Maya villages and crops in Yalbac. 1871 -Belize declared Crown Colony after Assembly dissolved itself in Three of the four unofficial members in new Legislative Council represent landed interests.1894 -Constables mutiny. Belizeans workers riot for better pay. 1906 -Belize City gets electricity.1914 -World War I - Many Belizeans volunteers served.1919 -Belizean troops riot upon return home.
111922 -Marcus Garvey visits Belize. 1929 -Great Depression begins.1931 -Great Hurricane - over 2,000 dead.1933 -Guatemala re- asserts claim to Belize.1934 -Antonio Soberanis leads workers protests.1939 -World War II.1949 -B.H. dollar devalued.1950 -Founding of the P.U.P.1952 -National strike led by General Workers Union.1954 -Vote for all adults.1964 -Self Government.
121968 -The "Webster Proposals": Draft treaty presented by U. S. A 1968 -The "Webster Proposals": Draft treaty presented by U.S.A. media tor for Anglo- Guatemalan dispute, rejected by government and people.1970s -Internalization of Belize's cause.1971 -Belize joins CARIFTA. Belmopan becomes capital of Belize.1973 -Country's name legally changed to "Belize". Aliens Landholding Ordinance passed.1975 -First pro- Belize resolution passed by General Assembly of United Nations.
131976 -Belize given "special status" in Non-Aligned Movement. 1981 -Independence Belize joins Commonwealth, United Nations and Non- Aligned Movement.
14IdentificationThe country now known as Belize derives its name from one of two historical sources: Maya root words or the surname of the Scottish buccaneers Peter Wallace who maintained a camp near present day Belize City in the seventeen century.The formation of a consciousness of a national culture coincided with the growth of the nationalist movement in the 1950s toward Independence.
15Ethnic and Geographical Identification In the North and West there were the Mestizos, people formed by the union of Spaniards and Mayas.The central part, there were the Creoles, formed by the intermarriage of the British and their African slaves.In the south there were the Garifunas, also called Black Caribs along the coast and the Mayas further island.
16Location and Geography Belize is at the southern end of the Yucatan peninsula, facing the Caribbean Sea. It covers 8,866 square miles (23,000 square kilometres) and has the second largest barrier reef in the world, which shelters scores of cayes.DemographyImmigration has been a major demographic factor. Together with the long-resident Spanish-speaking group, they have become the largest ethnic group, according to the census of This group numbered 81,275, or 44 percent, of the national population of 189,392.
17The different groups speak their own languages, but the language spoken across ethnic lines is a form of pidgin English called Creole. There is much bilingualism and multilingualism. English is taught in all primary schools; however, its use is limited to official discourse and it appears more often in the written form than in the spoken.
18Food and EconomyFood in Daily Life. Imported bleached wheat flour, corn, beans, rice, and poultry are the daily staples. There are hardly any food taboos, but there are beliefs across ethnic groups that certain foods, notably soups and drinks, help restore health.Apart from specific preferences for some food items at large religious ceremonies, especially among the Garifuna, the items eaten at ceremonies are basically those eaten daily. At such ceremonies, there are usually store-bought alcoholic beverages. Only in some rural communities are home-fermented fruit wines drunk.
19Basic Economy and Trade Basic Economy and Trade. The national currency is known as the Belizean dollar. In the 1990s, there were periods when the country was self-sufficient in corn, rice, beans, poultry, pork, and beef, marking the first time that demand for those staples was satisfied consistently. However, the third largest import is food, which in 1996 amounted to 17 percent of total imports.
20Political LifeGovernment. The government is a parliamentary democracy, and there is separation of the executive, legislature, and judiciary. However, the political parties have virtually eliminated the power of the legislature in favour of a cabinet of ministers.Leadership and Political Officials. The Peoples United Party and the United Democratic Party provide the informal mechanisms that make the formal structures of the government function. Both draw support across all ethnic groups and social classes. All members of the government maintain openness to the public and encourage their constituents to communicate with
21ReligionReligious Beliefs. Christianity is the main religion. Most of the people are Roman Catholics, Anglican, Methodists, Baptists, or Mennonites. There are some Moslems and Hindus.Religious Practitioners. The power of churches comes from their spiritual strength as well as from the state.Rituals and Holy Places. Belize City and Belmopan are important sites for religious denominations. The Anglican Saint John's Cathedral was consecrated in Belize City in Roman Catholics have cathedrals in Belize City and Belmopan.
22Secular CelebrationsThree secular holidays predate the nationalist movement. Baron Bliss Day on 9 March celebrates a British benefactor who established a trust fund for the country's welfare.Commonwealth Day on the fourth Monday in May celebrates participation the British Commonwealth of Nations.Saint George's Caye Day on 10 September commemorates the victory by settlers in the last military effort of Spain to retake Belize in 1798.Holidays introduced as a result of the nationalist movement and later independence, 21 September, 12 October, and 19 November. etc
23History of BarbadosThe first inhabitants of Barbados were the Arawak Indians.In 1200 Ad the Arawak were driven off by Carib Indians from Venezuela.The Caribs later abandoned BarbadosIn 1536 Portuguese explorer Pedro a Campos discovered the island en route to Brazil.He named the island Los Barbados, meaning the ‘Bearded One’.
24History of BarbadosOn May 14th 1625 Captain John Powell landed and claimed the uninhabited island for England.In 1627 his brother Captain Henry Powell landed with a party of 80 settlers and slaves.By the end of 1628 the population was around 2000The colonists originally planted tobacco and cotton, but in 1640 discovered the potential of Sugar Cane.To meet labor demand they imported large amounts of African Slaves.
25History of BarbadosIn 1663 Barbados was made a British Crown PossessionIn 1816, due to the poor living conditions and treatment, the slaves staged a revolt.In 1834 Slavery was abolishedAn economic depression hit in the 1930’s which led to streets riots.As a consequence the British Colonial Welfare was establishedTo counter political unrest, the British reluctantly gave black reformers roles.
26History of BarbadosOne of the key reformers, Grantley Adams became the first Prime Minister and was knighted by the queen.Barbados gained internal self government in 1961 and in 1966 gained full independence and retained its status as a Commonwealth country.Independence Day is celebrated annually on the 30th November.In 1967 Barbados joined the United Nations after World War II.Barbados is now a peaceful democratic society without major incident.
27History of BarbadosThe current Prime Minister, Freundel Stuart, took office after the sudden death of late Prime Minister David Thompson.Prime Minister Stuart represents the DLP (Democratic Labour Party) who came into power in 2008.The previous government BLP (Barbados Labour Party) was led by Owen Arthur who had been in power since 1994.
28Location and Geography Barbados is a coral limestone of the South American continental shelf that lies in the Western Atlantic Ocean.100 miles east of the island of St. Lucia and 200 miles north of Trinidad .Has low, rolling hills, and microclimate variations from rainforest to semi-desert.Location and Geography
29Demography and Language More than 260,000 people live on this islandAs early as 1680, the island was home to 70,000 people.Barbadians speak a dialect of English with tonal quality reflecting the West African hertitageAlso speaks an English-West African pidgin called Bajan.
30About 80% of all Barbadians are descendants of former African slaves. Also has a high proportion of citizens with large European history.Barbados is generally free from ethnic tension.Ethic relations
31Coocoo (a creamy blend of cornmeal and okra) and flying fish is the national dish. Bread and fried flying fish is a popular snack or meal.Popular fruits include papaya, mangoes, bananas, oranges and pineapplefood
32Currency is Barbados dollars, which is linked to the United States dollar. Barbados served as a tourists destination as early as the 1600’sSmall numbers of tourists come from South America and the other island in the Caribbean.Most tourists come from the United States and Canada.economy
33Leadership and Political Officials The Barbados Labour Party (BLP) and the Democratic Labour Party (DLP) compete for seats in the House of Assembly.Members of the senate are appointed by the governor-generalThe Cabinet helps the prime minister carry out the executive functions of government.
34Religious BeliefsMore than 80% of the population is Christian and more than half belong to the Church of England.Small East Indian community includes some people who practice Hinduism.A small number of people of diverse background practice Islam.A growing number of people practice Rastafarianism.
35The Native People of Belize Maya civilization in Belize dates back to as early as 1500 B.C., and reached its peak between 300 and 900 A.D.The Mopan Maya originally inhabited parts of central Belize and the Petén in Guatemala.
36KekchiThe Kekchi Maya are originally from the Verapaz region of Guatemala.
37Maya DressMany women wear plain color, full-length dresses sewn from a variety of bright color material, with lace trimmings around the collar and sleeves. Other women use calf length skirts of machine or hand woven cloth. Blouses are made of white or colored cotton cloth and decorated with embroidery or lace trimmings.
38FOODThe mainstay of the Kekchi and Mopan diet is corn and beans.
39FESTIVALS, MUSIC, AND DANCE Fiestas, dancing and traditional music remain important as several festivals and celebrations occur throughout the year.
41CreolesCreoles Belizean Creoles are the descendants of slaves brought from Africa and the West Indies. Generally to be Creole means to have some African ancestry, but is now used primarily to identify non-Indian, non-mestizo ways of life, with a set of social values derived from the Anglo-Saxon countries.
42The Garinaguthe first Garifuna arrived in British Honduras on November 19, 1802.
43The Native People of Barbados The native Barbados people are believed to be Arawaks Indians.
45Colonial Belize Barbados European settlement began in 1638 Europeans settled in 1670’s in this particular area.1798, the United Kingdom and Spain went to war (Battle of St. George’s Caye)was not termed the Colony of British Honduras until 1840.The British were the first Europeans to colonize the islands.They first arrived in 1625.The first settlement landed some time later on 17 February 1627.The first colonists were tenants.
46Colonial Belize Barbados In 1862, the British settlement became a Crown Colony.In 1884 a full governor was appointed.British Honduras petitioned Her Majesty Queen Victoria for Crown Colony, this was granted in 1871In1627 King Charles I made grant of all the Caribbean islands to the Earl of Carlisle.In 1628 under the mistaken impression that Barbados was not one of the Caribbean islands, King Charles granted the island to the Earl of Pembroke
47Colonial Belize Barbados In 1954 Universal Adult Suffrage was introduced.The 1960 Constitution led to a greater independence.On the 1st January,1964 full internal self government was achieved.In 1981 Belize gained its independence.Lord Carlisle died in 1636, and his son leased the island for 21 years to Lord Willoughby of Parham.Barbados had the second oldest Parliament in the Commonwealth the legislature formed in 1639The creation of an Executive Committee in 1881
48Colonial Belize Barbados The first step toward Ministerial government in 1954Barbados gained its independence in1966George Arthur, Superintendent of British Honduras
49Colonial Belize Barbados Colonial Flag (Blue Ensi Colonial Flag (Blue Ensign)British Honduras ( /1920)
50Panoramic view of Belize City, c. 1914 ColonialBelizeBarbadosPanoramic view of Belize City, c. 1914James Hay (Lord Carlisle), made Lord Proprietor of Barbados by King Charles I on 2 July 1627.
51Colonial Flags Belize Barbados British Honduras (1870-1919/1920) GovernorFlag of Lieutenant Governor/Governor - Presumably fromFlag of Queen Elizabeth II in Barbados
52Current Issues CrimeCrime is a serious offence against the public law.Both Belize and Barbados have similar precaution measures against crime.Graph to show statistic of crime rate in Belize and Barbados.
58Summary on Crimes in Belize Statistics indicate a decrease in Major Crimes, Other Crimes andSummary Jurisdiction Offences with a percentage of 4.4%, 1.4% and12.6% respectively when 2009 is compared with same period in2008. Overall, there was a crime reduction of (348) crimes or(4.2%), when 8, 253 reports made in 2008 is compared with 7,905 in2009.
65Current Issues Education School system in Belize. The system is based on British education and is broken into three levels (Primary, Secondary and Tertiary)School system in Barbados. It is fashioned after the British.Free education from Primary to tertiary in BarbadosHighest literacy rate in the world (89%) in Barbados.
66Current Issues HealthThere’s little to worry about in Barbados where health care is top quality.Main hospitalMedical health care quality.
69What is History?Chronological study that interprets and gives meaning to events and applies systematic methods to discover the truthTeacher who knows the details of the lives of individual students have a better understanding of the student’s interest, fears, and behaviorsThe more students know about history, the better they can learn.
70Teachers need to reflect on the following: a. What are the big ideas I need to teach?b. How can the study of history grab student’s interest?c. How can I encourage students to ask important questions about what happened?d. What inaccurate conceptions do my students hold that keep them from completely understanding the objectives?
71Teachers need to reflect on the following: e. How can I help students understand the past and get inside others’ experiences?f. How can I help students understand that history is an interpretive construction based on evidence?
72History in Schools Goals and Specifications: A knowledge of Belize and a commitment to its nationhood and development.know the history and status of Belize as a nation, including its social, political, and economic development.To develop and enhance the learner's full potential to actively participate in development of his/her society.
73History in Schools Children study history when: they sequence and order events in their daily lives, hear stories about today and long ago,Recognize that other individuals hold different views and,Understand links between their actions and decisions and their consequences.
74Benefits of Studying History: a. Personal Benefits:Help people attain their identity by finding their own place in the history of the world.b. Helps individuals better understand and study other subjects in the humanities.c. Helps unify citizens into communities by creating a national identity.d. Helps people develop cognitively.
75Students and the Learning of History a. Students are able to address some aspects of historyb. Children know more about some historical topics than othersc. Know a lot about content and interpersonal relations of social history but very little about the nature and purpose of government, politics, and economics.
76Strategies and Resources for Teaching History: Using Timelines to Develop ChronologyTime is abstract therefore timelines are used to assist students in understanding time-related concepts. Timelines are concrete devices.The calendar also helps to mark the passage of time and important changes that occur over time.The teacher helps students to recognize important ideas related to history.
77Resources for Teaching History: Locating and Using Historical Resources:Historians use many resources. Some of these resources are readily available; others can be obtained through inquiries and using the Internet.Resources for teaching can be obtained by asking for help.
78Resources for Teaching History: People as ResourcesArtifacts and MuseumsThe Community as a ResourceDocuments as ResourcesDiaries, Letters, and Pictures as Resources
79Visual Literacy and History Artist preserved the likeness of people and landscapes in paintings, on the walls of caves and on pottery, in stone or on canvas.Because the languages of many people are not written or cannot be translated, works of art provide us with our best sources of information about many people and how they livedA painting, drawing, or photograph is an interpretation of what was
80Reenactments and Drama Visit to historic sites.History is taught by re-enactors through presentations and answering questions as if the spectator had stepped into the historic scene.Teachers can use the acting out of history to role play people events.
81Biographies and Historical Literature The story like format of trade books is familiar and can help students to read and understand the material.A story may be used as part of an explanatory introduction to help raise interest in or questions about events.Using multiple books provides an opportunity to accommodate students with different abilities.Biographies and historical fiction are two types of trade books that have been popular among young readers .