Presentation on theme: "THEME: The small but energetic radical abolitionist movement caused a fierce proslavery back-lash in the South and a slow but steady growth of moderate."— Presentation transcript:
THEME: The small but energetic radical abolitionist movement caused a fierce proslavery back-lash in the South and a slow but steady growth of moderate antislavery sentiment in the North
The South in the mid-1800’s is increasingly… Single Crop Plantation Economy (Cotton) Rural Segregated –black v. white –rich planters v. poor whites Oligarchic and Aristocratic Monopolistic Fearful of Northern interference & slave revolts
Abolitionism BEFORE 1820 antislavery societies are more numerous in the antebellum South. Slave revolts end Southern toleration of abolition. 1835 Congress forbids use of mail to send abolitionist material through the mail. 1836 House of Reps passes the “gag rule,” John Quincy Adams defeats this in court after 8 yrs. South advances theory that slavery “civilizes” Africans, compares slave’s quality of life to “wage slaves” in the North (“a lifetime of care”) Northern abolitionists begin to call for emancipation – freeing of all slaves – not just banning slavery in the North
David Walker Free black from North Carolina Urged slaves to rise up and revolt for their freedom. Found dead outside of his printing office “Southern slave masters hated Walker and put a price on his head. In 1829, 50 unsolicited copies of Walker's Appeal were delivered to a black minister in Savannah, Ga. The frightened minister, understandably concerned for his welfare, informed the police. The police, in turn, informed the governor of Georgia. As a result, the state legislature met in secret session and passed a bill making the circulation of materials that might incite slaves to riot a capital offense. The legislature also offered a reward for Walker's capture, $10,000 alive and $1,000 dead.” http://www.africawithin.com/bios/david_walker.htm
Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) “I have been frequently asked how I felt when I found myself in a free state….It was a moment of the highest excitement I ever experienced…. This state of mind, however, very soon subsided; and I was again seized with a feeling of great insecurity and loneliness. I was yet liable to be taken back, and subjected to all the tortures of slavery. This in itself was enough to damp the ardor of my enthusiasm.” Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, 1845 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/images/4fred16m.jpg
William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) “ I am earnest – I will not equivocate – I will not excuse – I will not retreat a single inch – and I will be heard.” (The Liberator, 1831) http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/images/lib.jpg http://edison.rutgers.edu/latimer/wlg.htm
COMPARE AND CONTRAST GARRISON F. DOUGLASS DAVID WALKER
Life of a Slave Slaves are increasingly valuable ($1800 by 1860) Slaves are increasingly sold “down the river” from soil- depleted areas. Auctions separate families. Slaves have no civil or political rights Victimized by owners and white society Beatings not uncommon NOTE: Though increasingly rare, there were free blacks in the South. 250,000 by 1860.
Slave Revolts and Resistance Slaves resist through sabotage and slowdowns 1800: Gabriel leads revolt in Richmond 1822: Denmark Vessey leads rebellion in Charleston 1831: Nat Turner leads revolt in Virginia. Turner and 50 followers attack 4 plantations and kill 50 whites. All Revolts are suppressed quickly and violently. ALSO, the Underground Railroad is a sign of resistance. Example: Marylander Harriet Tubman leads more than 300 to freedom.