Presentation on theme: "WHAP Exam Review Period 5 1750-1914 Chapters 29-33."— Presentation transcript:
WHAP Exam Review Period 5 1750-1914 Chapters 29-33
The Big Picture How are events of this time period interconnected? Why did nationalism grow during this time period? Change? Complex social, political, and economic developments How did the environment impact industrial and economic development?
American Revolution British colonies on east coast, encroaching French settlements French and Indian War/Seven Years’ War: Britain won, France gave up land Bad laws for colonists: Revenue Act, Stamp Act, Tea Act--- “No taxation without representation” War of Independence (Revolutionary War) Thomas Paine’s Common Sense French helped out.
French Revolution Kings lived lavishly, wars cost money so Louis XVI called the Estates General to raise taxes. Estates General: First Estate=Church, Second Estate=Nobles, Third Estate=everyone else, all had same vote National Assembly: Declaration of Rights of Man Reign of Terror: Robespierre, Committee of Public Safety Directory: 5-man government Napoleon: rose through military, Napoleonic Code, reforms, created empire---costly mistakes such as boycotting Britain, war with Spain, invading Russia---taken down by Grand Alliance, exiled Congress of Vienna
Independence Movements in Latin America Haiti: Slave Revolt, Toussaint L’Ouverture, free republic 1804 South America: – Simon Bolivar (from Venezuela) Gran Colombia – Jose de San Martin and Argentina, Chile, Peru – Brazil=Monarchy – Mexico=Miguel Hidalgo, a priest, and Jose Morelos, 1821, Treaty of Cordoba (independence)
Industrial Revolution Began in Britain=had workers, money/capital for investment, people willing to invest, political stability, resources like coal and water, harbors Agriculture increased which led to many people being able to leave farms and go to cities New agriculture techniques: high yield crops, crop rotation, enclosure
The Factory System Change from domestic system (putting out system) Machines were large so moved to buildings Interchangeable parts Assembly line Bad labor conditions, child labor Family: everyone working! (How does this compare to before industrialization and after reforms are made?)
New Economic & Social Philosophies Capitalism: Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Free market economy, private ownership, individuals own the means of production and sell products in free and open market, laissez-faire Marxism: Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto, workers exploited, working class should revolt and take over means of production, Socialism, Communism Luddites: English workers, destroyed equipment, punished Reform Movements: some people believe it is inhumane, Factory Act of 1883, labor unions, Mines Act, public education Social Mobility became more commonplace. Women’s suffrage movement Millions of Europeans migrated to the Americas.
Imperialism Making products requires resources besides coal and iron for the machines Need raw materials from other lands European superiority: civilize, Christianize, “White Man’s Burden”, social Darwinism National prestige, Power
Imperialism in India British East India Company Sepoy Mutiny led to full colonization of India by British Indian National Congress
Imperialism in China Isolationists not imperialists Europeans could only trade at the port of Canton Opium War led to Treaty of Nanjing which allowed others into China (spheres of influence), unequal, Hong Kong went to Britain, Christian missionaries allowed in Taiping Rebellion Self-Strengthening Movement of Manchus Lost Sino-Japanese War: lost Taiwan, gave trading rights to Japan Boxer Rebellion and Boxer Protocol
Japanese Imperialism Isolationist, didn’t allow citizens to travel abroad Commodore Matthew Perry brought ships in to convince Japanese to open to trade, Treaty of Kanagawa Meiji Restoration: revolt against the shogun who signed treaties and Emperor Meiji was put into power, railroads, steamships, universal male military service, westernization Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em!!!
Imperialism in Africa Slave trade ends “Scramble for Africa” South Africa: Dutch boers first, then when diamonds and gold discovered British came in, Boer War 1899- 1902, became British colony then Union of South Africa in 1910, African National Congress formed Suez Canal 1869, Britain bought stock in canal and took over by 1882 Berlin Conference 1884 Europeans added infrastructure, but stripped Africa of its natural resources Legacy of colonialism
United States Imperialism Monroe Doctrine: western hemisphere is off limits to European imperialism/colonialism U.S. invested money in business enterprises Spanish-American War: 1898, U.S. supported Cuban independence from Spain, got control of Guam, Puerto Rico, and Philippines and naval bases in Cuba Roosevelt Corollary: U.S. would intervene in disputes between European powers and Latin America (Big Stick) Panama Canal: 1904-1914
Unification of Italy and Germany Italy: starts as small kingdoms ruled by foreign powers – King of Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel II, made Count Camillo Cavour his prime minister who unified the north by driving out Austrians – Giuseppe Garibaldi drove out Spanish from the South – Declared unified in 1861 Germany: regional governments=Prussia and Austria were dominant – King of Prussia, William I, made Otto von Bismarck his prime minister with the goal of uniting regions – Through war like Franco-Prussian War, consolidated regions – 1871, William I crowned King of the German Empire, Second Reich after the HRE – William II: forced Bismarck to resign, Germany became very industrialized and powerful by 1914
Russia Romanov czars had absolute power. Most people were serfs with no rights. Alexander II: Emancipation Edict abolished serfdom, assassinated by The People’s Will Arts: Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky, Tchaikovsky Alexander III: Russification, Jews persecuted Nicholas II: Socialists, Russo-Japanese War over Manchuria, Bloody Sunday 1905, created the Duma
Ottoman Empire Fought the Russians for control of Black Sea Greece got independence from Ottoman Empire Crimean War: Britain and France helped Ottoman Empire fight off Russia
Role of Women Education, real wages, and career opportunities continued to be inaccessible for most Early feminist writers Some women joined reform movements, labor unions, socialist parties Social Darwinism said that women were mentally inferior University education open to women, but literacy rates in general were low
Big Picture Nationalism: caused unification, fights for independence, resistance to European colonialism, competition among nations to be imperialist Change: many forces of change=exploration, industrialization, education, Enlightenment impact, end of slavery, nationalism, Imperialism, racism, capitalism, Marxism, urbanization, etc. – Transportation and communication spread ideas/changes quickly – Not always complete change---example: end of slavery – Describe how things changed, describe why things changed