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Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes 1750-1914. Timeline.

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Presentation on theme: "Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes 1750-1914. Timeline."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes

2 Timeline

3 American Revolution Cause “No Taxation without Representation” – Seven Years’ War – New tax laws (navigation, stamp act) – 1774 Continental Congress meets – 1775 B + A Lexington, Mass – 1776 Declaration of Independence Effects 1781 British surrender to Washington Articles of Confederation created= weak 1783 Treaty of Paris signed = British officially recognize America 1789 Constitution created Influenced French and Latin American Revolutions

4 French Revolution Cause Estates General – Unfair taxation – Unfair privileges Deficit Spending – Costly wars – Lavish court – Poor harvests – Economic Recession NO $$$$$ or FOOD MAKES PEOPLE ANGRY Effects Increase in Nationalism Congress of Vienna Legitimacy Quadruple Alliance Concert of Europe BALANCE OF POWER

5 Moderate Phase National Assembly Feudalism abolished Issued declaration of rights “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” Reorganized Church (took back land) Established constitutional monarchy (1791) Included legislative assembly-replaced old provinces w/ 83 departments Abolished guilds Ended Church interference Radical Phase National Convention “Sans-Culottes” Radicals (Jacobins) take control of legislative assembly and set up national Convention Abolish Monarchy Declares France a Republic Suffrage for all male citizens Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette executed (1793) Committee of Public safety set up Robespierre=Reign of Terror Guillotine=40,000 executed Directory Moderate constitution of 1795 Five-man Directory established (2 legislative bodies elected by male citizens w/ property Dictatorial Riots suppressed Corrupt leadership Chaos threatened Napoleon Overthrows Directory Consulate set up (Napoleon #1) N= Consul for life N=Emperor of France Economic reform Religious reform Napoleonic code Established Military victories create French Empire French defeat in Battle of Nations= Napoleon’s abdication and exile. #1 Monarchy-Old Order/Estates GeneralPhases of the French Revolution

6 France after Revolution Louis XVIII rules – Issued Charter of French Liberties – 2 house legislature – Limited freedom of press Charles X – Rejected Charter – Absolute Ruler – Abdicated

7 1830 Louis Phillipe (cousin)-King – “Citizen King” – Extended suffrage to wealthy – Favored bourgeoisie – Feb 1848 Poor harvests No jobs or bread…again abdicates

8 1848 Second Republic proclaimed by Alphonse de Lamartine (romantic poet) – (1 st republic ) – Liberals vs Socialists (Louis Blanc) – Rebellion in June “Bread or Lead” – Gov’t turned violent against protesters (1500 killed) – Gave vote to all men – Issued constitution (president with 1 house legislature) – President = Louis Napoleon Bonaparte(nephew of original) 1852 Louis Napoleon proclaims himself emperor – 2 nd republic ends – Used plebiscite (y/n vote) won 90% of vote

9 After the Congress of Vienna More Revolts Revolts in Balkans – Serbs gain autonomy from Ottoman Empire – Britain, France, Russia force Ottomans to grant independence to Greece but with a German King 1830 Belgium – 1815 Congress of Vienna united Austria Netherlands and Kingdom of Holland under Dutch King. – Belgians and Dutch not happy b/c of different Language Religion (B=Catholic, D=Protestant) Economies (B=manufacturing, D=trade) – Students Protest 1831 Belgium = independent w/ constitution and always neutral 1830 Poland revolted over being controlled by Russia, Prussia and Austria-but failed to win independence

10 1832 Britain – Reform Bill of 1832 – Passed through peaceful means – Set up new districts for electing officials – Suffrage for men who owned property, paid rent and Catholic – Doubled # of British voters – Industrial Revolution major factor in need for revolt + reform

11 1848 Austria – Student protests – Metternich resigned – Budapest Hungarian nationlists (Louis Kossuth) demanded independent gov’t, end serfdom, and written constitution – Prague, Czechs ask for similar demands – Austria Agrees at first but later suppressed revolts with help of Russia Italy – Tired of domination by Austria – Set up independent republics – Installed a nationalist gov’t – Kicked pope out of Rome – Austria and France send in troops and reestablish order

12 Latin America Independence Term applies to land south of US where Spanish, Portuguese, and French are spoken. All derived from Latin. Region includes Mexico, Central America, South America, islands of Caribbean Influenced by Enlightenment + American revolution – Women hosted salons called tertulias Encouraged by French Revolution

13 Latin American Society Born in Spain or Portugal Held most important positions in colonial gov’t and Church Peninsulares Born in Latin America, ancestors came from Europe Wealthy landowners and lesser go’vt officials Creoles Mestizos: Mixed native and European ancestry. Some owned/rented small farms or businesses Mulattoes: Mixed African and European ancestry Common People Africans were slaves on large plantations Natives were free but treated no better than slaves Slaves

14 HAITIAN REVOLUTION CAUSE Island Hispaniola Split – Spanish= Santo Domingo (east) – French= Saint Domingue (west) – Richest colony (sugar + coffee) – Society-Grand Blancs vs Petit Blancs, Gens de coulor libres,Tainos/natives and slaves = inequalities French Revolution – Rumor King abolished slavery = revolt Important Figures August 2, 1791 religious leader Boukman along with slaves rose up and burned plantations Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture considered leader of revolution – Established military –guerilla warfare – Tricked by French and captured, died in France 1803 November 28, 1803 Jean-Jacques Dessaline declares Haiti a republic

15 Latin American Revolts Why: Creoles not happy with Spain – Could not get ahead in jobs – Could trade only with Spain – Use only Spanish ships – Valuable mines in Mexico and Peru were under Spanish control – Napoleon’s conquest of Spain put his brother Joseph in charge of Spain and its colonies. Colonies had no loyalty towards a frenchman – Natives also lead revolt – Encomienda System Most famous Tupac Amaru (Peru) – Incan descent – Demanded end of brutal force of Natives – 1780 crushed by Spanish – 1810 Fighting breaks out

16 South American Revolts Simon Bolivar in the north Wealthy Venezuelan creole Influenced by enlightened thinkers (Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu) 1811 Venezuela declared independence from Spain 1819 built an army led 2,500 soldiers through Andes + took Spanish by surprise in Bogota + won 1821 Freed Venezuela Marched south to Ecuador in Guayaquil + met w/ San Martin Dec. 9, 1824 Battle of Ayacucho last battle with Spanish and freed South America Jose de San Martin in the south Returned to Argentina from Spain (fighting Napoleon) when revolts broke out. Commanded a creole army 1816 Argentina declares independence 1817 led army across Andes to free Chile 1821 Lima, Peru fought Spanish in mts. + met with Bolivar: San Martin left army with Bolivar and returned to Argentina

17 Brazil freed peacefully 1807 Napoleon invades Portugal Royal family flees to Brazil After Napoleon’s defeat, King returns King’s son, Dom Pedro stays in Brazil 1822 Brazilians demand independence Dom Pedro agreed – September 7, 1822 issues call, “Independence or death!” (Brazil’s national independence day) – December 1822 Dom Pedro named emperor of Brazil

18 Mexico Struggles for Freedom Native Americans and Mestizos fought for independence 1810 creoles revolt – September 16, 1810 Father Miguel Hidalgo calls “el grito de dolores” (cry of Dolores-city) urged people to rebel – Went on 200 mile march to Mexico city with force of 60,000 declared end to slavery and called for reforms for Natives – Creoles joined forces + defeated Hidalgo + executed him – Father Jose Morelos takes over and is a better general – 1813 Morelos’s army controlled all of Mexico expect largest cities. Called for independent Mexico Set up democratic government Tax wealthy Give land to peasants – Creoles not happy: captured Morelos + executed him – 1821 Augustin Iturbide named emperor soon ousted – 1824 Iturbide shot – Republic of Mexico established Next 100 years Mexico struggles with gov’t that leads to intervention of foreign powers

19 After Rebellion 18 separate republics set up Never again carved into colonies Governments dominated by Caudillos (army officials ruled as dictators) Monroe Doctrine: 1823 US President James Monroe announced that American continents not to be considered for future colonization. Supported by Britain British and American Economic interests both countries invested in Latin American economies

20 Abolition 1441 Portuguese slave trade begins Importation-Illegal 1803 Denmark 1807 Britain 1808 USA 1814 France 1817 Netherlands 1845 Spain 1867 Cuba Abolition (Freedom) 1833 Britain 1848 France 1865 USA (Emancipation Proclamation) 1886 Cuba 1888 Brazil 1960s Saudi Arabia + Angola

21 Women’s Rights Early Feminists Hildegard of Bingen Heloise Julian of Norwich 1405 Christine de Pizan “City of Angels” Mary Astell “Reflections Upon Marriage” Jane Adams “Remember the Ladies” Olympe de Gouges “Declaration of Woman and Female Citizen” Mary Wollstonecraft “Vindication of Women’s Rights” 1792 Influenced by Quaker Religion-believed all were equal 1840 Anti Slavery Convention in Britain forced women to sit in balcony with curtain covering them and not allowed to speak Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention “Declaration of Sentiments” (Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Jane Hunt, Martha Wright, MaryAnn M’Clintock) Frederick Douglass, Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth

22 Suffrage 1869 Wyoming Territory 1890 became state. Other states allowed suffrage but rescinded New Jersey and Utah 1893 New Zealand 1895 Australia 1906 Finland 1913 Norway 1915 Denmark 1919 Britain, Canada, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Austria 1920 USA 19 th Amendment 1922 Ireland 1930s S. Africa, Turkey, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Cuba 1945 France, Italy, Japan 1948 Israel 1949 China 1950s India, Mexico 1990s Switzerland, Kazakhastan 2000s Middle East countries: Kuwait, Qatar, Oman

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