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Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes

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Presentation on theme: "Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes

2 Timeline

3 American Revolution 1776-1783 Cause Effects
“No Taxation without Representation” Seven Years’ War New tax laws (navigation, stamp act) 1774 Continental Congress meets 1775 B + A Lexington, Mass 1776 Declaration of Independence 1781 British surrender to Washington Articles of Confederation created= weak 1783 Treaty of Paris signed = British officially recognize America 1789 Constitution created Influenced French and Latin American Revolutions

4 French Revolution 1789-1799 Cause Effects Estates General
Unfair taxation Unfair privileges Deficit Spending Costly wars Lavish court Poor harvests Economic Recession NO $$$$$ or FOOD MAKES PEOPLE ANGRY Increase in Nationalism Congress of Vienna Legitimacy Quadruple Alliance Concert of Europe BALANCE OF POWER

5 #1 Monarchy-Old Order/Estates General Phases of the French Revolution
Moderate Phase National Assembly Feudalism abolished Issued declaration of rights “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” Reorganized Church (took back land) Established constitutional monarchy (1791) Included legislative assembly-replaced old provinces w/ 83 departments Abolished guilds Ended Church interference Radical Phase National Convention “Sans-Culottes” Radicals (Jacobins) take control of legislative assembly and set up national Convention Abolish Monarchy Declares France a Republic Suffrage for all male citizens Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette executed (1793) Committee of Public safety set up Robespierre=Reign of Terror Guillotine=40,000 executed Directory Moderate constitution of 1795 Five-man Directory established (2 legislative bodies elected by male citizens w/ property Dictatorial Riots suppressed Corrupt leadership Chaos threatened Napoleon Overthrows Directory Consulate set up (Napoleon #1) N= Consul for life N=Emperor of France Economic reform Religious reform Napoleonic code Established Military victories create French Empire French defeat in Battle of Nations= Napoleon’s abdication and exile.

6 France after Revolution
Louis XVIII rules Issued Charter of French Liberties 2 house legislature Limited freedom of press Charles X Rejected Charter Absolute Ruler Abdicated

7 1830 Louis Phillipe (cousin)-King
“Citizen King” Extended suffrage to wealthy Favored bourgeoisie Feb 1848 Poor harvests No jobs or bread…again abdicates

8 1852 Louis Napoleon proclaims himself emperor
1848 Second Republic proclaimed by Alphonse de Lamartine (romantic poet) (1st republic ) Liberals vs Socialists (Louis Blanc) Rebellion in June “Bread or Lead” Gov’t turned violent against protesters (1500 killed) Gave vote to all men Issued constitution (president with 1 house legislature) President = Louis Napoleon Bonaparte(nephew of original) 1852 Louis Napoleon proclaims himself emperor 2nd republic ends Used plebiscite (y/n vote) won 90% of vote

9 After the Congress of Vienna More Revolts
Revolts in Balkans Serbs gain autonomy from Ottoman Empire Britain, France, Russia force Ottomans to grant independence to Greece but with a German King 1830 Belgium 1815 Congress of Vienna united Austria Netherlands and Kingdom of Holland under Dutch King. Belgians and Dutch not happy b/c of different Language Religion (B=Catholic, D=Protestant) Economies (B=manufacturing, D=trade) Students Protest 1831 Belgium = independent w/ constitution and always neutral 1830 Poland revolted over being controlled by Russia, Prussia and Austria-but failed to win independence Britain, France, Russian defeated Ottoman empire at the Battle of Navarino

10 1832 Britain Reform Bill of 1832 Passed through peaceful means
Set up new districts for electing officials Suffrage for men who owned property, paid rent and Catholic Doubled # of British voters Industrial Revolution major factor in need for revolt + reform

11 1848 Austria Italy Student protests Metternich resigned Budapest
Hungarian nationlists (Louis Kossuth) demanded independent gov’t , end serfdom, and written constitution Prague, Czechs ask for similar demands Austria Agrees at first but later suppressed revolts with help of Russia Italy Tired of domination by Austria Set up independent republics Installed a nationalist gov’t Kicked pope out of Rome Austria and France send in troops and reestablish order 1805 Napoleon combined many separate Italian states into a single French controlled Kingdom of Italy Congress of Vienna restored old divisions 1831 Mazzini formed Young Italy no one older than 40 could join-60,000 members Germany remained disunited representatives went to the German Federal Diet, included 39 states 2 were Austria and Prussia, but no army to back up decisions for the German Confederation

12 Latin America Independence
Term applies to land south of US where Spanish, Portuguese, and French are spoken. All derived from Latin. Region includes Mexico, Central America, South America, islands of Caribbean Influenced by Enlightenment + American revolution Women hosted salons called tertulias Encouraged by French Revolution

13 Latin American Society
Peninsulares Born in Spain or Portugal Held most important positions in colonial gov’t and Church Creoles Born in Latin America, ancestors came from Europe Wealthy landowners and lesser go’vt officials Common People Mestizos: Mixed native and European ancestry. Some owned/rented small farms or businesses Mulattoes: Mixed African and European ancestry Slaves Africans were slaves on large plantations Natives were free but treated no better than slaves Penisulares and creoles = less than 1/5 of population

14 HAITIAN REVOLUTION 1791-1804 CAUSE Important Figures
Island Hispaniola Split Spanish= Santo Domingo (east) French= Saint Domingue (west) Richest colony (sugar + coffee) Society-Grand Blancs vs Petit Blancs , Gens de coulor libres,Tainos/natives and slaves = inequalities French Revolution Rumor King abolished slavery = revolt August 2, 1791 religious leader Boukman along with slaves rose up and burned plantations Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture considered leader of revolution Established military –guerilla warfare Tricked by French and captured, died in France 1803 November 28, 1803 Jean-Jacques Dessaline declares Haiti a republic

15 Latin American Revolts
Why: Creoles not happy with Spain Could not get ahead in jobs Could trade only with Spain Use only Spanish ships Valuable mines in Mexico and Peru were under Spanish control Napoleon’s conquest of Spain put his brother Joseph in charge of Spain and its colonies. Colonies had no loyalty towards a frenchman Natives also lead revolt Encomienda System Most famous Tupac Amaru (Peru) Incan descent Demanded end of brutal force of Natives 1780 crushed by Spanish 1810 Fighting breaks out

16 South American Revolts
Simon Bolivar in the north Jose de San Martin in the south Wealthy Venezuelan creole Influenced by enlightened thinkers (Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu) 1811 Venezuela declared independence from Spain 1819 built an army led 2,500 soldiers through Andes + took Spanish by surprise in Bogota + won 1821 Freed Venezuela Marched south to Ecuador in Guayaquil + met w/ San Martin Dec. 9, 1824 Battle of Ayacucho last battle with Spanish and freed South America Returned to Argentina from Spain (fighting Napoleon) when revolts broke out. Commanded a creole army 1816 Argentina declares independence 1817 led army across Andes to free Chile 1821 Lima, Peru fought Spanish in mts. + met with Bolivar: San Martin left army with Bolivar and returned to Argentina Difference between Bolivar and San Martin Bolivar: dashing, romantic, wanted republics run by creoles San Martin wanted country run as monarchies

17 Brazil freed peacefully
1807 Napoleon invades Portugal Royal family flees to Brazil After Napoleon’s defeat, King returns King’s son, Dom Pedro stays in Brazil 1822 Brazilians demand independence Dom Pedro agreed September 7, 1822 issues call, “Independence or death!” (Brazil’s national independence day) December 1822 Dom Pedro named emperor of Brazil

18 Mexico Struggles for Freedom
Native Americans and Mestizos fought for independence 1810 creoles revolt September 16, 1810 Father Miguel Hidalgo calls “el grito de dolores” (cry of Dolores-city) urged people to rebel Went on 200 mile march to Mexico city with force of 60,000 declared end to slavery and called for reforms for Natives Creoles joined forces + defeated Hidalgo + executed him Father Jose Morelos takes over and is a better general 1813 Morelos’s army controlled all of Mexico expect largest cities. Called for independent Mexico Set up democratic government Tax wealthy Give land to peasants Creoles not happy: captured Morelos + executed him 1821 Augustin Iturbide named emperor soon ousted 1824 Iturbide shot Republic of Mexico established Next 100 years Mexico struggles with gov’t that leads to intervention of foreign powers

19 After Rebellion 18 separate republics set up
Never again carved into colonies Governments dominated by Caudillos (army officials ruled as dictators) Monroe Doctrine: 1823 US President James Monroe announced that American continents not to be considered for future colonization. Supported by Britain British and American Economic interests both countries invested in Latin American economies

20 Abolition 1441 Portuguese slave trade begins
Importation-Illegal Abolition (Freedom) 1833 Britain 1848 France 1865 USA (Emancipation Proclamation) 1886 Cuba 1888 Brazil 1960s Saudi Arabia + Angola 1803 Denmark 1807 Britain 1808 USA 1814 France 1817 Netherlands 1845 Spain 1867 Cuba

21 Women’s Rights Early Feminists 1098-1179 Hildegard of Bingen
Heloise Julian of Norwich 1405 Christine de Pizan “City of Angels” Mary Astell “Reflections Upon Marriage” 1700 1776 Jane Adams “Remember the Ladies” Olympe de Gouges “Declaration of Woman and Female Citizen” Mary Wollstonecraft “Vindication of Women’s Rights” 1792 Influenced by Quaker Religion-believed all were equal 1840 Anti Slavery Convention in Britain forced women to sit in balcony with curtain covering them and not allowed to speak. 1848 Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention “Declaration of Sentiments” (Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Jane Hunt, Martha Wright, MaryAnn M’Clintock) Frederick Douglass, Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth Martha Coffin Wright was sisters with Lucretia Coffin Mott Martha lived in Auburn and was friends with Elizabeth Cady Stanton (both were married to lawyers) and Harriet Tubman Martha’s daughter married son of William Lloyd Garrison MaryAnn M’Clintock was friends with Lucretia Mott and formed an Antislavery organization in 1833 M’Clintock moved to Waterloo in 1836-friends with Hunts and half sister was Margaret Pryor both abolistionist and quaker families.

22 Suffrage 1869 Wyoming Territory 1890 became state. Other states allowed suffrage but rescinded New Jersey and Utah 1893 New Zealand 1895 Australia 1906 Finland 1913 Norway 1915 Denmark 1919 Britain, Canada, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Austria 1920 USA 19th Amendment 1922 Ireland 1930s S. Africa, Turkey, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Cuba 1945 France, Italy, Japan 1948 Israel 1949 China 1950s India, Mexico 1990s Switzerland, Kazakhastan 2000s Middle East countries: Kuwait, Qatar, Oman Obviously many more countries but not enough space to write them all

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