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California’s Missions

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1 California’s Missions
Grade 4 Victoria B. Gonzalez Imperial Teaching American History June 2011

2 Standard 4.2.4 Describe the mapping of, geographic basis of, and economic factors in the placement and function of the Spanish missions; and understand how the mission system expanded the influence of Spain and Catholicism throughout New Spain and Latin America.

3 Lesson Objectives Students will describe the role of Spain’s missions and how the missionaries change California by discussing the facts represented on a brochure which has been created by the students.

4 Introduction The mission system brought the power of Spain and the Catholic Church to California.

5 Vocabulary Convert: means to change a religion or belief.
Adobe: is a brick made of dried clay and straw. Synonyms included brick, terra cotta, and clay. Revolt: Is an uprising against a ruler.

6 A Chain of Missions Spain’s rulers had several goals in the late 1700’s. They wanted Spain’s power and wealth to grow. They also wanted to keep other European countries out of New Spain. Building missions along the coast of Alta California helped them meet these goals.

7 Spanish Missionaries Spanish missionaries wanted to convert California Indians to Roman Catholic belief. Economic factors helped decide where to build missions. They had to be in areas where they could grow food and support many people. Missionaries looked for areas with fresh water good soil, and resources for building.

8 Land for Missions California Indians did most of the work of building the missions. The first missions were built of wood. Later, Adobe was used. The missions took land that California Indians had used for hunting and gathering Without that land, some Indians had to go to the missions for food.

9 Land for Missions Cont. Soldiers brought some as well.
Some people came to missions by choice and others were brought by force. As time went on, fewer people came to missions by choice. However, the mission system kept growing. By 1823, there were 21 missions in Alta California.

10 Guided Questions Why did the Spanish leaders and missionaries build missions in California? What did the priests look for when they chose mission sites? What impact did the location chosen for missions have on the California Indians?

11 Life at a Mission Missions changed the way many California Indians lived. The missionaries believed that farming was a better way of life than hunting and gathering. They also wanted California Indians to grow food for the missionaries and the soldiers.

12 Using Skills California Indians did more than build the missions.
When missionaries first arrived, they needed the skills of California Indians to help them survive. California Indians knew how to gather food and how to use herbs for medicines. Priests tried to control people’s lives.

13 Learning New Skills Missionaries taught California Indians some skills they had not had before, such as farming, herding, and making new goods. California Indians learned to make goods in Europe, such as cloth, bricks, and iron tools. California Indians also raised animals from Europe. People raised them for meat, horns, hides, and tallow.

14 Guided Questions What were some of the skills the missionaries taught to California Indians? Were the skills taught by the missionaries useful to the California Indians?

15 A Changing Economy California Indians who moved to the missions had to learn a new way of life. Their economy changed from hunting and gathering to agricultural and herding. They had to convert to Catholicism. Some California Indians kept their traditional cultures and customs, depending on whether the priest would let them or not.

16 Guided Questions What were some of the changes California Indians in missions had to make in their lifestyles? Discuss whether priests allowed California Indians to keep their traditional way, and why they did or did not. What kind of work did California Indians do on missions?

17 Resisting the Missions
Missionaries used different ways of making California Indians convert to Catholicism and act like Spanish people. Sometimes they used gifts and kindness. Other times, though, they used harsh treatment, including whipping and heavy chains. For those who suffered bad treatment, the missions were places of misery.

18 California Indians Revolt
Many California Indians resisted the missionaries. Some worked slowly and broke their tools and equipment. Some California Indians planned revolts. They hoped to get rid of missionaries and soldiers.

19 The Missions’ Lasting Effects
Missions controlled the lives of thousands of California Indians. Some people lost their traditional ways of life. The Spanish carried diseases that were new in Alta California. The work of California Indians kept the missions going. They allowed Spain to keep control of Alta California and Latin America for many years.

20 Guided Questions How did California Indians resist missionaries?
Why did California Indians resist missionaries? What did California Indians do to resist the missions?

21 Lesson Summary Effects of the missions on Alta California
Spread of agriculture Growth of Spanish power Changes in California Indian culture

22 Universal Access Unit Resource pgs. 31 & 32 Lesson Review pg 103
Reteach Graphic Organizer 7

23 Assessment Students will create a brochure on one of the California Missions using the following rubric.

24 CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Historical Content - Accuracy
All facts in the brochure are accurate and up-to-date. Content relates to the state. 99-90% of the facts in the brochure are accurate. 89-80% of the facts in the brochure are accurate. A few inaccuracies evident. Fewer than 80% of the facts in the brochure are accurate. Content is not focused on the state. Organization of Ideas and Content Each section in the brochure has a title cover, inside flaps, and ending flap. All required sections are included. Brochure is completely filled. Almost all sections of the brochure are present. Brochure utilizes space well. Most sections of the brochure are present. Space has some gaps. Less than half of the sections of the brochure are present. Space is not used wisely or well organized. Gaping holes are evident. Grammar and Spelling There are no grammatical or spelling mistakes. There are 1-2 grammatical and/or spelling mistakes. There are some grammatical and/or spelling mistakes. There are several grammatical and/or spelling mistakes. Graphics/Pictures Graphics go well with the text and there is a good mix of text and graphics. 1+ graphics per section. Graphics go well with the text, but there are so many that they distract from the text. (too many) Graphics go well with the text, but there are too few and the brochure seems "text-heavy". (too few) Graphics do not go with the accompanying text or appear to be randomly chosen. (little to no graphics) Sources Careful and accurate records are kept to document the source of % of the facts and graphics in the brochure. (5+ sources are used and cited) Careful and accurate records are kept to document the source of 94-85% of the facts and graphics in the brochure. (At least 5 sources are cited) Careful and accurate records are kept to document the source of 84-75% of the facts and graphics in the brochure. (3 sources used and cited correctly.) Sources are not documented accurately or are not kept on many facts and graphics. (Less than 3 sources used or cited correctly.) Attractiveness & Presentation The brochure has exceptionally attractive formatting and well-organized information. The brochure has attractive formatting and well-organized information. The brochure has well-organized information. The brochure's formatting and organization of material are confusing to the reader. Editing and Proofreading Documented evidence of 4 editors (2 adults and 2 students other than the author) Documented editing and proofing by 1 adult and 1 student. Documentation of 1 person other than the author who edits and proofs the brochure. No documentation of outside or independent editing/proofreading.

25 Brochure Sections Required FRONT FLAP BACK FLAP -Title Cover
-Name of State -State Shape Pic -Introductory Slogan -Student Name -Class & Period -Date INSIDE LEFT FLAP -Information -Demographics -State Facts -Economy INSIDE RIGHT FLAP -Famous Locations -Weather -Education BACK FLAP -Sources Cited -Where to find more information * Optional -Little Known Facts -Unique Products -Laws & Rules -Cultural Nuances -Famous People -Current Events -Vacation Packages -Must-sees or Must-haves -Quotations & -Other

26 Missions Brochure

27 Bibliography

28 Lesson Plan Design Template

29 Santa Barbara Brochure

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