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Ancient History 10 December 9 th, 2014. Back Story For the 8 th – 7 th century the Hellenes people lived a life of luxury and prosperity From this luxury.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient History 10 December 9 th, 2014. Back Story For the 8 th – 7 th century the Hellenes people lived a life of luxury and prosperity From this luxury."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient History 10 December 9 th, 2014

2 Back Story For the 8 th – 7 th century the Hellenes people lived a life of luxury and prosperity From this luxury and prosperity the population exploded, soon enough it became unsustainable for Greece to feed this many people Colonizing became the only option

3 Greece/ Persian Map

4 Change is coming By the 6 th century the balance of power in the Ancient world was changing Croesus of Lydia had gained control of the Coastal colonies of the Greek-city States The Persian Empire had been expanding for centuries northward but had been stopped by the Lydians

5 Loss of Colonies When Croesus could no longer hold off the Persians his small Empire was enveloped by the Colossus that was Persia, thus making Greek-City States part of Persia For the same reason Greek-City states used the colonies so did Persian Empire, revenue for the Country and strategic bases

6 The Greek people who were living in these Greek communities did not like the tyrannical rule they were under By 499 BC they had enough Miletus led a revolt of the Greek people and asked for help form mainland Greek-City States

7 Who would come? Miletus stated this revolt was to see “whether we are to be free of slaves”, did he mean just for the colonies or did he have a deeper meaning? The greatest military power the Spartans declined to help, why?

8 Help arrives Athens and Eretria answer the call of the colonies and send Warriors and ships to fight in the revolt Show of force but not actual large numbers.... Athens and Eretria sent about 25 ships to help in the revolt

9 Consequences of Revolt The Revolt was initially successful as the combined forces were able to burn down Sardis which was the Persian Governor’s hometown... Bad idea Athens & Eretria left the fight and the revolt was quickly routed but there involvement would ring loudly through history

10 Darius’ Promise By helping in the revolt the Athenians & Eretria’s were now on the hit list Darius 1 the King of Persia during it’s most prosperous years created a dynasty 4000km in size or about half of Canada His eyes were now set on the mainland and he was given a reminder each and everyday

11 “ Master remember the Athenians” was whispered in his ear 3 times in a row, at every meal Compared in the Persian Empire, Greek-City States were tiny

12 David vs Goliath A United GreecePersian Empire

13 The problem was Greece was never united, fought eachother yearly, never agreed on anything Advantage was that they had soldiers who were tough, superior battle techniques and weapons, Great Leaders (Sparta/Athens) Greek freedom was in serious danger, which would effect the development of Europe and Western Civ. As we know it

14 WARRR!! There were Two separate Greek Persian Wars Stretching between 490 BC- 479 BC https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=514IEcgz 1Q8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=514IEcgz 1Q8 Battle of Marathon Finish documentary https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZiOwZ6X WyDQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZiOwZ6X WyDQ

15 Marathon By 490 BC Darius was ready to exact revenge and he had an Ace up his sleeve  The Exiled tyrant wanted to regain power and led the Persians

16 Invasion of Greece Darius sent a modest force...some 80,000 men, which to put in context was 6 times as many people Sparta had in population and 8 times it’s Army Laid Siege on Eretria for 6 days, little resistance met and with the Gates opened, the city was burned to the ground which leads to a famous historical battle

17 Marathon Marathon was the sheltered beach plain area in Attica where the battle would take place 2km by 6km, a large enough space to land for the massive army

18 All Day Runner Athens was worried Sent an “All Day Runner” to Sparta to plead of assistance...which was 250km away 4 days later he returned with bad news, the Spartans would not come until after the full moon, 1 week away (Ironically he did this trip twice and died upon returning to Athens the second time)

19 The only All Day Runner who could make it

20 Marathon And so 10,000 Greek Athenians stood against an Army of thousand Hopelessly outnumbered the 10 Generals voted on what to do of course they did this democratically General Miltiodes came up with a radical idea...the best defence is a strong offence...Attack

21 Miltiodes had gained information stating that the Persian cavalry grazed and watered at night, leaving them useless during the early morning The Persian Cavalry was like the Spartan Phalanx...a terrifying enemy and without it they stood a chance

22 Dangers of Attack Though this planned seemed crazy because of the causalities they could have on the battlefield that was the least of their worries If they attack failed it would mean a clear cut path for the Persian Army to Athens

23 Just follow the path

24 Dawn of the Attack At Dawn the Greek Hoplites Soldiers attacked, breaking into a sprint when they got within range of the enemies to try and avoid There plan was lengthen out as long as the Marathon Beach so there was no way for the Persians to outflank them with their superior numbers

25 Battle Plan The Greeks would run at the Persians directly, the middle would be weaker and would slowly sag inward The outer ranks which were equipped with better weapons and stronger Warriors would then defeat the outer ranks and swoop in ward to cut off and trap all the Persians that had advanced with the Center Sag

26 Greek Victory Superior discipline, armour and surprise lead to victory This win is forever remembered The Persians retreated to their ships, while the Athenians sent a messenger to run the 40km back to Athens to tell of victory

27 It’s from this distance the runner ran and the name of the place in which the battle took place, that we get our common name for a long distance run “Marathon” 6400 Persians Dead 192 Greeks Changed the history of the world Spartans showed up fashionably late..2 days

28 Aftermath of Marathon Persian fleet sailed around coast hoping to catch Athens undefended They marched back to defend Athens Persians left without a fight

29 Significance of War 1) Keyed up Athenians to make unimaginable patriotic pitch 2) Sparta had been shown it was possible for Greeks to beat Persians 3) Most important- other greek city states were inspired to resist the future Persian invasions

30 10 years Grace Persians went back to there Empire and regrouped for 10 years, leaving Greece the possibility to prepare for a future invasion Great Athenian General Themistocles rises to power because of the Battle at Marathon

31 Themistocles Popular man, with jovial face who was a leading politician who many thought was softhearted...Not the Case Man of uncompromising ideals Able to analyse situations quickly and deal with it Convinced politicians to use extra money (silver) for fleet of 200 ships to protect Greece

32 2 nd Persian War Persian Expedition into Greece again began in 480 BC https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4clrLjRFp Mo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4clrLjRFp Mo This expedition was led by the new King Xerxes who took over after Darius Death, he was his Son

33 Xerxes sent 600 ships and at least 200,000 infantry troops, the number has been said to be anywhere near 1.7 million Largest invasion of Europe in history until the Allied Invasions of Sicily & Italy during the Second World War

34 Persian Problem The Persians and Xerxes had one major problem, how was he going to get his massive army to Greece? He did not have enough ships to send all the men by sea Walking his men around to Greece would take months and months

35 Solution

36 Technological Advancements Xerxes decided to cut off half his time by creating a bridge across the Hellespoint. He made a bridge of ships held together with cables made out of linen and papyrus that were said to have been as thick as a mans torso

37 The Grand Meeting place Thermopylae https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PhgMn9r vn_Y https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PhgMn9r vn_Y The Greeks chose to make their last stand in a narrow passage way along the Aegean Sea, hoping to use the geography of Greece herself in defence

38 The Plan Sparta gathered the League of Peloponnesian States of which they were the leader, at Cornith to decide what to do Decision was made to defend the narrow passage in Central Greece which the Persian Army would have to cross Sparta the greatest Warriors were chosen to lead the defence and King Leonidas was the man in charge

39 The Hot Gates

40 Battle Plan Leonidas would lead the men to Thermoplyae a small pass where large numbers would mean nothing However he was not permitted his full Army only a paltry 300 Spartans About 7000 total Warriors against some 200,000...may the odds be ever in the Greeks Favour

41 Several Days without Battle Scout reported that Spartans were exercising and combing hair...didn’t have a care in the world Finally launched an attack https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HdNn5TZ u6R8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HdNn5TZ u6R8

42 Strategy Spartans used small area and Phalanx system to hold off wave after wave on the front line Would ‘retreat’ the catch the Persians in a trap and kill them 2 days of intense battle and the Greeks might win...

43 Victory in Defeat The Greeks were betrayed by a fellow greek who led the Persians through the mountains and surrounded the Warriors Persians now were everywhere Spartans stay while others leave , fought tooth and nail to the death

44 Heroic Stand “Go tell a Sparta, thou that passest by, That here obedient to her word we lie.” Leonidas and his Warriors died and the Persian Army marched on Central Greece, but though they lost, the courage shown boosted moral of all Greeks and made them not surrender

45 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R- 6M5FukAoE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R- 6M5FukAoE

46 Cost of Defeat https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nTcDIfin Wug https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nTcDIfin Wug The Cost of the Spartan defeat was large, Athens now had no resistance and the Persian Army ascended upon it and burned the City to the ground

47 Salamis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cDrSLtSG e3U https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cDrSLtSG e3U


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