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HT 501Lecture 2: Didache1 HT 501: Lecture 2 The Didache 4 September 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "HT 501Lecture 2: Didache1 HT 501: Lecture 2 The Didache 4 September 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 HT 501Lecture 2: Didache1 HT 501: Lecture 2 The Didache 4 September 2014

2 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 2 Introduction Historical Context of Early Christianity Second Temple Judaism(s) Roman-Jewish Wars Development of Rabbinic Judaism Early Christianity in a Jewish Context Background of Didache Structure Themes

3 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 3

4 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 4 Timeline of Judaism Moses c. 1250 BCE (BC) Exodus through Deuteronomy David c. 1000 BC Samuel, Kings, Chronicles Destruction of 1 st Temple; 586 Babylonian Captivity by Nebuchadnezzar; Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Return and rebuilding of Temple (Second Temple) 539 BC by Persian King Cyrus; Ezra, Nehemiah Israel between two great Greek powers; 330 BC to 160 BC; Maccabees appeal to Rome for help; Daniel writes about whore of Babylon, but really is referring to Seleucids Palestine a client of Rome 160 BC to 4 BC (death of Herod the Great) Jesus Christ 1 to 33 AD Palestine revolts, First Jewish War 66-73 AD  Destruction of Second Temple in 70 AD;  Masada 73AD Alexandrian Jewish revolt; destruction of Alexandrian Jews by Emperor Hadrian 117 AD Second Jewish War, Bar Kockba Rebellion, 133-135 AD Palestine occupied by Roman Empire until 650 AD and Moslem conquests

5 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 5 Hellenistic Empires Alexander the Great  Son of Philip of Macedonia; Student of Aristotle  Conquers the ‘world’ by age of 33  Founds Alexandria, center of learning for next 600 years  Dies in 323 BC; leaving his generals in charge of various parts of his conquests Hellenistic (Greek) Empires 323 – 31 BC  Macedonians: Greece, Sicily, southern Italy  Seleucids: Asia Minor, Syria and Mesopotamia  Ptolemies: Egypt and Cyrene  As a result of this extended period of Greek rule, the ‘lingua franca’ of the Mediterranean was Greek from the 4 th C BC until the 5 th C AD in the West and the 15 th C in the East Israel between two major competing Empires: Seleucid and Ptolemy

6 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 6 Map of Conquests of Alexander Great

7 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 7 The Mediterranean World in First Century The ‘world’ was dominated by Roman Empire  But not homogeneous  Core society was fusing of Roman and Greek culture; Hellenistic  Political Capital: Rome  Intellectual Capital: Alexandria Roman Province of Palestine was on the ‘fringe’ of the Empire Rome’s traditional enemy: Persia  Rome succeeded Hellenistic Empires  Persia succeeded Babylonian Empire

8 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 8 Roman Provinces

9 Herod the Great (73 to 4 BC) His father, Antipater, was placed in power by Romans Herod grew up (‘hostage’) in Rome Friend with both Octavian and Antony Becomes client king of Romans Exerts great power in Palestine, including massive building projects  Second Temple precinct  Cities of Caesarea and Tiberius  Palaces in Jerusalem, Masada When he dies, Romans divide his kingdom among his sons with a Roman administrator 9

10 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 10 Judaism(s) During Jesus’ Lifetime Near end of Second Temple Judaism Before and during Jesus’ life there were many types of Judaism in Palestine (Josephus describes this):  Pharisees: upholders of the Law (Torah)  Sadducees: from aristocracy and high priests, did not believe in resurrection of dead; closely associated with Temple  Essenes: disgusted with impurities in Temple; left for desert ; Dead Sea Scrolls usually associated with them  Zealots: ‘terrorists’ against Roman occupation Diaspora Jews not living in Palestine but scattered around Mediterranean;  Then, as now, more Jews living outside of Palestine (Israel) than in it  Greek Jews (Hellenists in Acts of Apostles); Septuagint (LXX) Greek translation of Bible c. 200 BC in Alexandria  Jews in Mesopotamia who did not return after the exile in 6 th C BC, but flourished under Persian rule; Scripture did not include any late Second Temple Greek works (e.g., Maccabees, Sirach, Wisdom)

11 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 11 Map of First Century Jewish Communities in Roman Provinces:

12 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 12 Philo and Josephus Philo (20 BC – 50 AD), contemporary of Jesus and Apostles,  Leader of Jewish community in Alexandria  Wrote many, many philosophical treatises, apologies  Tried to create a bridge between Judaism and Greek philosophy  Key was using allegory to interpret Scripture (LXX)  Huge influence on early Christians theologians in Alexandria Josephus (37-101 AD)  Fought against Rome in First Jewish War, but defected during the War  Tried unsuccessfully to convince Jews to surrender to Romans  Became a client of Titus; wrote a history of Jewish people (Antiquities) and a history of the War

13 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 13 Development of Rabbinic Judaism During the First War with Rome 66-73 AD, the Sadducees, Essenes and Zealots were destroyed In 117 AD the Emperor Hadrian destroyed the Hellenistic Jewish community in Alexandria; Second Palestinian War, Bar Kochba rebellion, 132-135; after this war, Romans did not allow Jews into Jerusalem;  This was enforced until Julian the Apostate, Emperor 361-363 The Pharisees were the group out of which rabbinic Judaism grew in the 2 nd and 3 rd C AD.  They reestablished contact with the Mesopotamian Jews and their theology;  Rejected use of Greek philosophy and parts of the OT written in Greek, not Hebrew Hellenistic (Greek) Jewish theology was taken over, preserved and used by early Christian theologians, especially in Alexandria; but rejected by rabbinic Judaism During the Second Century the Greek (or Hellenistic) Jews seemingly either converted to Christianity or rabbinic Judaism

14 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 14 Early Christianity Acts of the Apostles tells the story of spread of Christianity around Roman Empire Christianity is  Primarily urban  Greek speaking  From many socials classes, but associated with Hellenistic Jewish communities Distinction between some forms of early Christianity and Judaism were not clear  Both Christianity and rabbinic Judaism are establishing themselves and evangelizing at the same time as the genuine heirs to Second Temple Judaism(s)

15 Luke: History of Church in New Testament Paul’s disciple, Luke, writes an ‘ordered account’ in two Books, the Gospel and Acts of the Apostles  Written in an ancient historical style; Some important historical references in Luke  Note references to Herod the Great and Augustus; Luke 1 and 2  Prophesy of destruction of Temple; Luke 19:41-44, 21:20-24  Jesus condemned for political insurrection; Luke 23:1-4 Some important historical references in Acts  Pentecost, the ‘birthday of Church;’ Acts 2  Reference to St. Stephen and the Hellenists; Acts 6-7  Council of Jerusalem in which Paul’s position that Gentiles do not need to convert to Judaism is affirmed; Acts 15  Paul arguing with Athenian philosophers; Acts 17:16-33  Story of how the Church was spread by Paul’s missionary activity to the ends of the earth (i.e., Rome) 15

16 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 16 Christianity at End of First Century Christianity spread through missionary activities to urban centers, especially with large Diaspora Jewish populations Remember, when Paul writes Romans, he is writing to a predominantly Hellenistic Jewish Christian community that he did not found; he writes to introduce himself and his theology to Christians already in Roman Christianity appeared to most outsiders (and some who considered themselves Christian) like another form of Judaism Nero used Christians as scapegoats for fire in 64 AD  Jewish Christian community was small and in conflict with larger non-Christian Jewish community  Execution of Peter and Paul probably took place during this time Rome quickly became the ‘capital’ city of Christianity  Place where Peter and Paul died  Capital of Empire  “No one” left in Jerusalem after second Roman-Jewish war

17 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 17 Historical Context of Didache Probably associated with an early Christian community in Syria  Some scholars place it near Alexandria May be associated with same community as Gospel of Matthew Community with deep Jewish roots  Conflict between early Christians and early Rabbinic Judaism  Which is the ‘proper Judaism’ Probably written around 100 AD (80 to 120) Written as a ‘handbook’ for community Unknown author, written in Greek

18 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 18 Background to Didache Manuscript discovered in monastery in Istanbul in 1873 by Archbishop Bryennios But that such a document had existed was well known  Athanasius and others in 4 th Century refer to it  Honored in Patristic period as important teaching  Referred to as the Teaching of the Twelve

19 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 19 Structure of the Didache Moral Instruction (perhaps for catechumens)  Sections 1.1 – 6.3  Two ways;  Two versions of ‘golden rule’ Liturgy  Sections 7.1-10.7  Baptism, Prayer and Fasting, Eucharist Church Order  Sections 11.1-15.4  Apostles, prophets, bishops, deacons Eschatology  Section 16  Apocalypse, Parousia, Judgment

20 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 20 Examples of ‘Palestinian Jewish Flavor’ in the Didache Two ways in morality rather than virtue  Two ways very Biblical see Psalm 1:1  Virtue is a Greek philosophical concept; ‘virtue’ is not a Biblical word (read 1 Cor 13 very carefully)  On the other hand, Virtue is very important in Philo, Greek Diaspora Jews Eucharistic prayer  Reminiscent of Jewish thanksgiving prayers at meals  No prayer of Institution

21 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 21 Didache Examples of Christian and Jewish Communities in Conflict Baptism in name of Father, Son, Holy Spirit Do not eat meat sacrificed to idols, otherwise no food prohibitions (Council of Jerusalem) Do not fast as the hypocrites  Wednesday and Friday; not Monday and Thursday Do not pray as hypocrites; pray the Our Father

22 HT 501 Lecture 2: Didache 22 Assignments The Didache, in Richardson, p. 171-179. Josephus, Antiquities of Jews 13.5.9; and 18.5.2, and War 6.4.1-8  Available at josephus/ josephus/ CCC: 1-17 (Introduction to Catechism) Write short paper on either Didache or Clement’s First Letter Review rubric on grading essays

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